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1.
Bioconjug Chem ; 31(11): 2553-2563, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872629

ABSTRACT

As a large enveloped RNA virus, coronavirus is of considerable medical and veterinary significance, and anticoronavirus treatment is challenging due to its biodiversity and rapid variability. In this study, Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) were successfully synthesized by coating AuNRs with silver and were shown for the first time to have activity against the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Viral titer analysis demonstrated that Au@AgNRs could inhibit PEDV infection by 4 orders of magnitude at 12 h post-infection, which was verified by viral protein expression analysis. The potential mechanism of action showed that Au@AgNRs could inhibit the entry of PEDV and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that a large amount of virus proliferation can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, and the released Ag+ and exposed AuNRs by Au@AgNRs after the stimulation of reactive oxygen species has superior antiviral activity to ensure long-term inhibition of the PEDV replication cycle. The integrated results support that Au@AgNRs can serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the replication of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Gold/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Silver/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gold/toxicity , Nanotubes/chemistry , Vero Cells
2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 533(1): 195-200, 2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753910

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 is spreading unchecked due to the lack of effective antiviral measures. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been studied to possess antiviral properties and are presumed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. Due to the need for an effective agent against SARS-CoV-2, we evaluated the antiviral effect of AgNPs. We evaluated a plethora of AgNPs of different sizes and concentration and observed that particles of diameter around 10 nm were effective in inhibiting extracellular SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 ppm while cytotoxic effect was observed at concentrations of 20 ppm and above. Luciferase-based pseudovirus entry assay revealed that AgNPs potently inhibited viral entry step via disrupting viral integrity. These results indicate that AgNPs are highly potent microbicides against SARS-CoV-2 but should be used with caution due to their cytotoxic effects and their potential to derange environmental ecosystems when improperly disposed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Silver/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Pandemics , Particle Size , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/toxicity , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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