Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
2.
Theranostics ; 11(13): 6193-6213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224320

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is advancing rapidly. In particular, the number of severe courses of the disease is still dramatically high. An efficient drug therapy that helps to improve significantly the fatal combination of damages in the airway epithelia, in the extensive pulmonary microvascularization and finally multiorgan failure, is missing. The physiological, inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP) is a molecule which could prevent the initial phase of the virus life cycle, the attachment of the virus to the target cells, and improve the epithelial integrity as well as the mucus barrier. Results: Surprisingly, polyP matches perfectly with the cationic groove on the RBD. Subsequent binding studies disclosed that polyP, with a physiological chain length of 40 phosphate residues, abolishes the binding propensity of the RBD to the ACE2 receptor. In addition to this first mode of action of polyP, this polymer causes in epithelial cells an increased gene expression of the major mucins in the airways, of MUC5AC and MUC1, as well as a subsequent glycoprotein production. MUC5AC forms a gel-like mucus layer trapping inhaled particles which are then transported out of the airways, while MUC1 constitutes the periciliary liquid layer and supports ciliary beating. As a third mode of action, polyP undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis of the anhydride bonds in the airway system by alkaline phosphatase, releasing metabolic energy. Conclusions: This review summarizes the state of the art of the biotherapeutic potential of the polymer polyP and the findings from basic research and outlines future biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mucins/metabolism , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Polyphosphates/therapeutic use , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Attachment/drug effects
3.
Curr Med Chem ; 28(36): 7387-7399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085140

ABSTRACT

Mucous epithelia are protected by complex mucus barrier layers, which are part of the innate immune defense. Trefoil factor family peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 have lectin activities and are predominantly co-secreted together with mucins from these epithelia. TFF1 and TFF2 are mainly expressed in the gastric mucosa, whereas TFF3 is widely secreted from most mucous epithelia and their glands. TFF1 and TFF3 consist of a single TFF domain and an additional free 7th cysteine residue, whereas TFF2 contains two TFF domains. Systematic analyses of the molecular forms of TFFs gave new insights into their diverse molecular functions. TFF1 mainly exists as a monomer with an unusual free thiol group and only minor amounts form a disulfide-linked homodimer as well as heterodimers with gastrokine-2 and IgG-Fc-binding protein (FCGBP). TFF3 mainly forms a heterodimer with FCGBP in vivo, but also binds Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors/gp340 (DMBT1gp340) in vitro. In contrast, TFF2 binds as a lectin to a conserved O-linked carbohydrate moiety of the mucin MUC6. Both FCGBP and DMBT1gp340 are secreted by most mucous epithelia and their glands and are involved in mucosal innate immunity. Thus, a new picture emerged pointing to functions of TFF3-FCGBP (and TFF1-FCGBP) for mucosal innate immune defense, e.g. supporting the clearing of the microorganisms. Such a function could be well be supported by DMBT1gp340. In contrast, the TFF2/MUC6 lectin complex probably physically stabilizes the inner adherent gastric mucus layer. Furthermore, there are indications that TFF3- FCGBP might also play a role in the blood vessels.


Subject(s)
Trefoil Factors , Calcium-Binding Proteins , DNA-Binding Proteins , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Peptides/metabolism , Trefoil Factor-1/metabolism , Trefoil Factor-2 , Trefoil Factors/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins
4.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977761

ABSTRACT

The mucus layer of the nasopharynx and bronchial epithelium has a barrier function against inhaled pathogens such as the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We recently found that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a physiological, metabolic energy (ATP)-providing polymer released from blood platelets, blocks the binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) to the cellular ACE2 receptor in vitro. PolyP is a marine natural product and is abundantly present in marine bacteria. Now, we have approached the in vivo situation by studying the effect of polyP on the human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells in a mucus-like mucin environment. These cells express mucins as well as the ectoenzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenylate kinase (ADK), which are involved in the extracellular production of ATP from polyP. Mucin, integrated into a collagen-based hydrogel, stimulated cell growth and attachment. The addition of polyP to the hydrogel significantly increased cell attachment and also the expression of the membrane-tethered mucin MUC1 and the secreted mucin MUC5AC. The increased synthesis of MUC1 was also confirmed by immunostaining. This morphogenetic effect of polyP was associated with a rise in extracellular ATP level. We conclude that the nontoxic and non-immunogenic polymer polyP could possibly also exert a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2-cell attachment; first, by stimulating the innate antiviral response by strengthening the mucin barrier with its antimicrobial proteins, and second, by inhibiting virus attachment to the cells, as deduced from the reduction in the strength of binding between the viral RBD and the cellular ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Aquatic Organisms/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , A549 Cells , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Mucin-1/metabolism , Polyphosphates/metabolism , Polyphosphates/therapeutic use , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Metabolism , Virus Attachment/drug effects
5.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922531

ABSTRACT

Mucus plays a pivotal role in protecting the respiratory tract against microbial infections. It acts as a primary contact site to entrap microbes and facilitates their removal from the respiratory tract via the coordinated beating of motile cilia. The major components of airway mucus are heavily O-glycosylated mucin glycoproteins, divided into gel-forming mucins and transmembrane mucins. The gel-forming mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B are the primary structural components of airway mucus, and they enable efficient clearance of pathogens by mucociliary clearance. MUC5B is constitutively expressed in the healthy airway, whereas MUC5AC is upregulated in response to inflammatory challenge. MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 are the three major transmembrane mucins of the respiratory tracts which prevent microbial invasion, can act as releasable decoy receptors, and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. Pathogens have evolved virulence factors such as adhesins that facilitate interaction with specific mucins and mucin glycans, for example, terminal sialic acids. Mucin expression and glycosylation are dependent on the inflammatory state of the respiratory tract and are directly regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and microbial ligands. Gender and age also impact mucin glycosylation and expression through the female sex hormone estradiol and age-related downregulation of mucin production. Here, we discuss what is currently known about the role of respiratory mucins and their glycans during bacterial and viral infections of the airways and their relevance for the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the impact of microbe-mucin interaction in the respiratory tract could inspire the development of novel therapies to boost mucosal defense and combat respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mucins/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Humans , Mucin 5AC/metabolism , Mucin-1/metabolism , Mucin-5B/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/metabolism
6.
Cell Res ; 30(12): 1078-1087, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912896

ABSTRACT

Silent hypoxia has emerged as a unique feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we show that mucins are accumulated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients and are upregulated in the lungs of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected mice and macaques. We find that induction of either interferon (IFN)-ß or IFN-γ upon SARS-CoV-2 infection results in activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling through an IDO-Kyn-dependent pathway, leading to transcriptional upregulation of the expression of mucins, both the secreted and membrane-bound, in alveolar epithelial cells. Consequently, accumulated alveolar mucus affects the blood-gas barrier, thus inducing hypoxia and diminishing lung capacity, which can be reversed by blocking AhR activity. These findings potentially explain the silent hypoxia formation in COVID-19 patients, and suggest a possible intervention strategy by targeting the AhR pathway.


Subject(s)
Interferons/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Hypoxia , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Macaca , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Mucins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation/drug effects
7.
Microb Risk Anal ; 16: 100140, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779468

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infect the human respiratory tract. A prototype thermodynamic equilibrium model is presented here for the probability of the virions getting through the mucus barrier and infecting epithelial cells based on the binding affinity (Kmucin) of the virions to mucin molecules in the mucus and parameters for binding and infection of the epithelial cell. Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 bind strongly to their cellular receptors, DDP4 and ACE2, respectively, and infect very efficiently both bronchus and lung ex vivo cell cultures which are not protected by a mucus barrier. According to the model, mucin binding could reduce the infectivity for MERS-CoV compared to SARS-CoV-2 by at least 100-fold depending on the magnitude of Kmucin. Specifically Kmucin values up to 106 M-1 have little protective effect and thus the mucus barrier would not remove SARS-CoV-2 which does not bind to sialic acids (SA) and hence would have a very low Kmucin. Depending on the viability of individual virions, the ID50 for SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be ~500 virions (viral RNA genomic copies) representing 1 to 2 pfu. In contrast MERS-CoV binds both SA and human mucin and a Kmucin of 5 × 109 M-1 as reported for lectins would mop up 99.83% of the virus according to the model with the ID50 for MERS-CoV estimated to be ~295,000 virions (viral RNA genomic copies) representing 819 pfu. This could in part explain why MERS-CoV is poorly transmitted from human to human compared to SARS-CoV-2. Some coronaviruses use an esterase to escape the mucin, although MERS-CoV does not. Instead, it is shown here that "clustering" of virions into single aerosol particles as recently reported for rotavirus in extracellular vesicles could provide a co-operative mechanism whereby MERS-CoV could theoretically overcome the mucin barrier locally and a small proportion of 10 µm diameter aerosol particles could contain ~70 virions based on reported maximum levels in saliva. Although recent evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 initiates infection in the nasal epithelium, the thermodynamic equilibrium models presented here could complement published approaches for modelling the physical entry of pathogens to the lung based on the fate and transport of the pathogen particles (as for anthrax spores) to develop a dose-response model for aerosol exposure to respiratory viruses. This would enable the infectivity through aerosols to be defined based on molecular parameters as well as physical parameters. The role of the spike proteins of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 binding to SA and heparan sulphate, respectively, may be to aid non-specific attachment to the host cell. It is proposed that a high Kmucin is the cost for subsequent binding of MERS-CoV to SAs on the cell surface to partially overcome the unfavourable entropy of immobilisation as the virus adopts the correct orientation for spike protein interactions with its protein cellular receptor DPP4.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL