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1.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(15): 2876-2878, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data concerning the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the female genital system is scarce; however, this information is important for understanding whether the virus can transmit sexually or from mother to child. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregnant women with COVID-19 have virus in their lower genital tract. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we present an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary university hospital from 19 April to 19 May 2020. We included 13 pregnant women hospitalized with suspected COVID-19. Results of laboratory tests, imaging tests, and nucleic acid tests on vaginal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were also analyzed for pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: Twelve pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study. Mean age was 32 ± 7.9 years. All patients had mild symptoms and were followed in the maternity ward, with none of them needing critical care unit follow-up. All lower genital tract samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 was not present in the vaginal fluid of pregnant women. This finding may indicate that the female genital tract is not a route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(3): 468-472, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, COVID-19 infection has become a public health concern. On March 12th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced it as a global pandemic. Early diagnosis of atypical cases of COVID-19 infection is critical in reducing the transmission and controlling the present pandemic. In the present report, we described a patient with the chief complaints of dyspnea and dry cough referred to the oncology center at Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer who was diagnosed and treated for COVID-19 infection in follow up. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old patient complained of fever, dry cough, and dyspnea from two weeks ago. The patient had been referred to this center with the differential diagnosis of lung cancer due to the massive pleural effusion in the initial chest CT scan. Dyspnea was the patient's main complaint at the time of admission in this center and the oxygen saturation was 84%. In the new chest CT scan, similar findings were observed. Due to the severe respiratory distress, a chest tube was placed in the chest cavity to remove the pleural effusion fluid on day one. The patient's felt relieved immediately after the procedure; however, the oxygen saturation did not rise above 85% despite the oxygen therapy. The cytology of pleural fluid was negative for malignant cells. On day 2, the lymphopenia and high level of CRP suggested the COVID-19 infection. Therefore, a control chest CT scan was conducted and the test for COVID-19 was performed. The CT report indicated the clear pattern of COVID-19's lung involvement in the absence of pleural effusion. Thus, the treatment for COVID-19 was immediately initiated. On day 4, the test reported positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Currently, it is important to bear in mind the COVID-19 infection in evaluating patients with respiratory symptoms. This report indicated how misleading the presentation of a chest CT scan could be in clinical judgment. Therefore, we recommend ruling out the COVID-19 infection in all the patients with any pattern of lung involvement to avoid missing the potential cases of this vicious infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pleural Effusion , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Iran , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/virology
3.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(4): 998-1004, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological assays have emerged as a response to the global pandemic, warranting studies evaluating their clinical performance. This study investigated 7 commercially available SARS-CoV-2 serological assays in samples from noninfected individuals and hospitalized patients. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 qualitative serological assays by Abbott (IgG), Beckman (IgG), DiaSorin (IgG), EUROIMMUN (IgG and IgA), Roche and Bio-Rad (Total) were evaluated using specimens collected pre-December 2019 (n = 393), from nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) negative patients (n = 40), and from 53 patients with COVID-19 by NAAT collected 3-21 days post-onset of symptoms (POS) (N = 83). Negative agreement (NA), positive agreement (PA), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) at prevalences of 5% and 10% were calculated. RESULTS: The overall %NA; 95% CI in the negative samples were: Roche 99.8%; 99.3-100.2, Beckman 99.8%; 98.7-100.0, Abbott and Bio-Rad 99.3%; 98.0-99.9, DiaSorin 98.4; 97.2-99.6, EUROIMMUN IgG 97.5%; 95.5-98.7, and EUROIMMUN IgA 79.7%; 75.9-83.5), accounting for positive/equivocal results as false positives. The %PA; 95% CI in samples collected 14+ days POS (n = 24) were: Bio-Rad 83.3%; 68.4-98.2, Abbott and Roche 79.2%; 62.9-95.4, EUROIMMUN IgA 70.8%; 52.6-89.0, Beckman 58.3%; 38.6-78.1, DiaSorin 54.2; 34.2-74.1, and EUROIMMUN IgG 50.0%; 30.0-70.0, accounting for negative/equivocal results as false negatives. NPVs ranged from 97.4%-98.9% and 94.7%-97.7% for prevalences 5% and 10%, respectively. PPVs ranged from 15.5%-94.8% and 27.9%-97.4% for prevalences 5% and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Roche and Beckman assays resulted in fewer false positives, followed by the Bio-Rad and Abbott assays. While the Bio-Rad assay demonstrated higher antibody detection in COVID-19-positive patients, PA claims cannot be established with a high level of confidence in our sample population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Services/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299441

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia due to respiratory infection with most prominently bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, or parasites is the leading cause of death worldwide among all infectious disease in both adults and infants. The introduction of modern antibiotic treatment regimens and vaccine strategies has helped to lower the burden of bacterial pneumonia, yet due to the unavailability or refusal of vaccines and antimicrobials in parts of the global population, the rise of multidrug resistant pathogens, and high fatality rates even in patients treated with appropriate antibiotics pneumonia remains a global threat. As such, a better understanding of pathogen virulence on the one, and the development of innovative vaccine strategies on the other hand are once again in dire need in the perennial fight of men against microbes. Recent data show that the secretome of bacteria consists not only of soluble mediators of virulence but also to a significant proportion of extracellular vesicles-lipid bilayer-delimited particles that form integral mediators of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles are released from cells of all kinds of organisms, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in which case they are commonly termed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and membrane vesicles (MVs), respectively. (O)MVs can trigger inflammatory responses to specific pathogens including S. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and L. pneumophila and as such, mediate bacterial virulence in pneumonia by challenging the host respiratory epithelium and cellular and humoral immunity. In parallel, however, (O)MVs have recently emerged as auspicious vaccine candidates due to their natural antigenicity and favorable biochemical properties. First studies highlight the efficacy of such vaccines in animal models exposed to (O)MVs from B. pertussis, S. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. An advanced and balanced recognition of both the detrimental effects of (O)MVs and their immunogenic potential could pave the way to novel treatment strategies in pneumonia and effective preventive approaches.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Outer Membrane/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/prevention & control , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virulence
5.
Infection ; 49(5): 1039-1043, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274987

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CoSHeP study provides novel data on SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rates in healthcare professionals (HP) at risk at the University Hospital Bonn, a maximum healthcare provider in a region of 900.000 inhabitants. METHODS: Single-center, longitudinal observational study investigating rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion in HP at 2 time-points. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured with Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. RESULTS: Overall, 150 HP were included. Median age was 35 (range: 19-68). Main operational areas were intensive care unit (53%, n = 80), emergency room (31%, n = 46), and infectious disease department (16%, n = 24). SARS-CoV-2-IgG was detected in 5 participants (3%) at inclusion in May/June 2020, and in another 11 participants at follow-up (December 2020/ January 2021). Of the 16 seropositive participants, 14 had already known their SARS-CoV-2 infection because they had performed a PCR-test previously triggered by symptoms. Trailing chains of infection by self-assessment, 31% (n = 5) of infections were acquired through private contacts, 25% (n = 4) most likely through semi-private contacts during work. 13% (n = 2) were assumed to result through contact with contagious patients, further trailing was unsuccessful in 31% (n = 5). All five participants positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG at inclusion remained positive with a median of 7 months after infection. DISCUSSION: Frontline HP caring for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Noteworthy, based upon identified chains of infection most of the infections were acquired in private environment and semi-private contacts during work. The low rate of infection through infectious patients reveals that professional hygiene standards are effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections in HP. Persisting SARS-CoV-2-IgG might indicate longer lasting immunity supporting prioritization of negative HP for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroconversion
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 665329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268251

ABSTRACT

Infection by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes different presentations of COVID-19 and some patients may progress to a critical, fatal form of the disease that requires their admission to ICU and invasive mechanical ventilation. In order to predict in advance which patients could be more susceptible to develop a critical form of COVID-19, it is essential to define the most adequate biomarkers. In this study, we analyzed several parameters related to the cellular immune response in blood samples from 109 patients with different presentations of COVID-19 who were recruited in Hospitals and Primary Healthcare Centers in Madrid, Spain, during the first pandemic peak between April and June 2020. Hospitalized patients with the most severe forms of COVID-19 showed a potent inflammatory response that was not translated into an efficient immune response. Despite the high levels of effector cytotoxic cell populations such as NK, NKT and CD8+ T cells, they displayed immune exhaustion markers and poor cytotoxic functionality against target cells infected with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 or cells lacking MHC class I molecules. Moreover, patients with critical COVID-19 showed low levels of the highly cytotoxic TCRγδ+ CD8+ T cell subpopulation. Conversely, CD4 count was greatly reduced in association to high levels of Tregs, low plasma IL-2 and impaired Th1 differentiation. The relative importance of these immunological parameters to predict COVID-19 severity was analyzed by Random Forest algorithm and we concluded that the most important features were related to an efficient cytotoxic response. Therefore, efforts to fight against SARS-CoV-2 infection should be focused not only to decrease the disproportionate inflammatory response, but also to elicit an efficient cytotoxic response against the infected cells and to reduce viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Intensive Care Units , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100321, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253745

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly understood. While several studies suggest that immune dysregulation plays a central role, the key mediators of this process are yet to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that plasma from a high proportion (93%) of critically ill COVID-19 patients, but not healthy controls, contains broadly auto-reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM) and less frequently auto-reactive IgG or IgA. Importantly, these auto-IgMs preferentially recognize primary human lung cells in vitro, including pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cells. By using a combination of flow cytometry, analytical proteome microarray technology, and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH)-release cytotoxicity assays, we identify high-affinity, complement-fixing, auto-reactive IgM directed against 260 candidate autoantigens, including numerous molecules preferentially expressed on the cellular membranes of pulmonary, vascular, gastrointestinal, and renal tissues. These findings suggest that broad IgM-mediated autoimmune reactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, thereby identifying a potential target for therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Complement C4/metabolism , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Intensive Care Units , Lung/metabolism , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256620

ABSTRACT

The trace element copper (Cu) is part of our nutrition and essentially needed for several cuproenzymes that control redox status and support the immune system. In blood, the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (CP) accounts for the majority of circulating Cu and serves as transport protein. Both Cu and CP behave as positive, whereas serum selenium (Se) and its transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) behave as negative acute phase reactants. In view that coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that biomarkers of Cu and Se status are regulated inversely, in relation to disease severity and mortality risk. Serum samples from COVID-19 patients were analysed for Cu by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and CP was quantified by a validated sandwich ELISA. The two Cu biomarkers correlated positively in serum from patients with COVID-19 (R = 0.42, p < 0.001). Surviving patients showed higher mean serum Cu and CP concentrations in comparison to non-survivors ([mean+/-SEM], Cu; 1475.9+/-22.7 vs. 1317.9+/-43.9 µg/L; p < 0.001, CP; 547.2.5 +/- 19.5 vs. 438.8+/-32.9 mg/L, p = 0.086). In contrast to expectations, total serum Cu and Se concentrations displayed a positive linear correlation in the patient samples analysed (R = 0.23, p = 0.003). Serum CP and SELENOP levels were not interrelated. Applying receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the combination of Cu and SELENOP with age outperformed other combinations of parameters for predicting risk of death, yielding an AUC of 95.0%. We conclude that the alterations in serum biomarkers of Cu and Se status in COVID-19 are not compatible with a simple acute phase response, and that serum Cu and SELENOP levels contribute to a good prediction of survival. Adjuvant supplementation in patients with diagnostically proven deficits in Cu or Se may positively influence disease course, as both increase in survivors and are of crucial importance for the immune response and antioxidative defence systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Copper/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Selenium/blood , Selenoprotein P/blood , Survival Rate
9.
Biol Proced Online ; 23(1): 10, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249544

ABSTRACT

We investigated nasopharyngeal microbial community structure in COVID-19-positive and -negative patients. High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed significant microbial community structure differences between COVID-19-positive and -negative patients. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that: (1) nasopharyngeal microbiome communities can be assessed using collection samples already collected for SARS-CoV-2 testing (viral transport media) and (2) SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with altered dysbiotic microbial profiles which could be a biomarker for disease progression and prognosis in SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Protein Expr Purif ; 186: 105908, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243167

ABSTRACT

The current standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is the nucleic acid test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, however, virus antibody detection has the advantages of convenient sample collection, high throughout, and low cost. When combining detection with nucleic acid detection, antibody detection can effectively compensate for nucleic acid detection. Virus infection always induce high antibody titer against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N protein), which can be used to detect COVID-19 at both infected and convalescent patients. In this study we reported the expression and purification of N protein in E.coli from inclusion bodies by a combination of two cation exchange chromatography, and the yield of N protein was around 50 mg/L fermentation broth with more than 90% purity. A corresponding colloidal gold detection kit prepared with our purified N protein was used to verify the efficiency and accuracy our N protein in antibody detection method. Of the 58 COVID-19 PCR positive patients' inactivated serum samples, 40 samples were IgM positive (69.0%), and 42 samples were IgG positive (72.4%), and all 95 COVID-19 negative patients' inactivated serum samples were both IgM and IgG negative. Our results indicates that the refolded soluble N protein could be used for the preliminary detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV- 2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Inclusion Bodies , Phosphoproteins/biosynthesis , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 981-986, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although molecular tests are considered the reference standard for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics, serological and immunological tests may be useful in specific settings. OBJECTIVES: This review summarizes the underlying principles and performance of COVID-19 serological and immunological testing. SOURCES: Selected peer-reviewed publications on COVID-19 related serology and immunology published between December 2019 and March 2021. CONTENT: Serological tests are highly specific but heterogeneous in their sensitivity for the diagnosis of COVID-19. For certain indications, including delayed disease presentations, serological tests can have added value. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 may indicate a recent or past COVID-19 infection. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) antibody tests have the advantages of being easy and fast to perform, but many have a low sensitivity in acute settings. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) have higher sensitivities. Besides humoral immunity, cellular immunity is also essential for successful host defences against viruses. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays can be used to measure T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. The presence of cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in never exposed patients suggests the possibility of cellular immunity induced by other circulating coronaviruses. T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 have also been detected in recovered COVID-19 patients with no detectable antibodies. IMPLICATIONS: Serological and immunological tests are primarily applied for population-based seroprevalence studies to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control measures and increase our understanding of the immunology behind COVID-19. Combining molecular diagnostics with serological tests may optimize the detection of COVID-19. As not all infected patients will develop antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, assessment of cellular immunity may provide complementary information on whether a patient has been previously infected with COVID-19. More studies are needed to understand the correlations of these serological and immunological parameters with protective immunity, taking into account the different circulating virus variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoassay , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5452-5457, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220448

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is generally detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA can be found in other samples including blood. Recently, associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity and mortality have been reported in adults, while no reports are available in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality, severity, clinical, and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood in 96 pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. Among all patients, 6 (6%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Out of the six patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, four (67%) had a severe form of the disease, and two out of the 6 patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away (33%). Our results show that the symptoms more commonly found in the cases of COVID-19 in the study (fever, cough, tachypnea, and vomiting), were found at a higher percentage in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Creatine phosphokinase and magnesium tests showed significant differences between the positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia groups. Among all laboratory tests, magnesium and creatine phosphokinase could better predict SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with area under the curve  levels of 0.808 and 0.748, respectively. In conclusion, 67% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia showed a severe COVID-19 and one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away. Our findings suggest that magnesium and creatine phosphokinase might be considered as markers to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Magnesium/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viremia/pathology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tachypnea/diagnosis , Tachypnea/mortality , Tachypnea/pathology , Tachypnea/virology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/mortality , Viremia/virology
13.
Inflamm Res ; 70(6): 687-694, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Fecal calprotectin (CLP) is widely known for its detection in stools of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), to investigate the intestinal inflammatory status. Current research is promoting the circulating protein role as a systemic inflammatory marker. However, most studies report serum calprotectin analysis although plasma assay prevents its massive release by granulocytes. In this perspective, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic deserves deployment of convenient and easy-to-dose markers that could reliably address the state of infection. METHODS: We analyzed serum circulating calprotectin (cCLP) levels in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and plasma cCLP levels from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, then assessed negative or positive on molecular tests. RESULTS: Our results confirm a significant circulating calprotectin increase in infected subjects respect to controls, in serum and plasma. Moreover, plasma calprotectin has higher levels in suspected patients with positive SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR, compared to suspected patients with negative SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR. Furthermore, ROC curves results showed the circulating plasma calprotectin discriminatory ability to differentiate infected SARS-CoV-2 patients at a cutoff value greater than 131.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Our data propose circulating calprotectin as a new, quantitative and predictive marker, which in addition to being an interesting generic inflammatory marker may provide important indications in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217118

ABSTRACT

No routine laboratory biomarkers perform well enough in diagnosing COVID-19 in isolation for them to be used as a standalone diagnostic test or to help clinicians prioritize patients for treatment. Instead, other diagnostic tests are needed. The aim of this work was to statistically summarise routine laboratory biomarker measurements in COVID-19-positive and -negative patients to inform future work. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed. The search included names of commonly used, routine laboratory tests in the UK NHS, and focused on research papers reporting laboratory results of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. A random effects meta-analysis of the standardized mean difference between COVID-19-positive and -negative groups was conducted for each biomarker. When comparing reported laboratory biomarker results, we identified decreased white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, and platelet counts; while lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were elevated in COVID-19-positive compared to COVID-19-negative patients. Differences were identified across a number of routine laboratory biomarkers between COVID-19-positive and -negative patients. Further research is required to identify whether routine laboratory biomarkers can be used in the development of a clinical scoring system to aid with triage of patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Cell Biol Int ; 45(9): 1832-1850, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212726

ABSTRACT

December 2019 will never be forgotten in the history of medicine when an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China sooner or later prompted the World Health Organization to issue a public health warning emergency. This is not the first nor will it be the last time that a member of ß-coronaviruses (CoVs) is waging a full-scale war against human health. Notwithstanding the fact that pneumonia is the primary symptom of the novel coronavirus (2019nCoV; designated as SARS-CoV-2), the emergence of severe disease mainly due to the injury of nonpulmonary organs at the shadow of coagulopathy leaves no choice, in some cases, rather than a dreadful death. Multiple casual factors such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet and complement activation, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system derangement, and hypoxemia play a major role in the pathogenesis of coagulopathy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Due to the undeniable role of coagulation dysfunction in the initiation of several complications, assessment of coagulation parameters and the platelet count would be beneficial in early diagnosis and also timely prediction of disease severity. Although low-molecular-weight heparin is considered as the first-line of treatment in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, several possible therapeutic options have also been proposed for better management of the disease. In conclusion, this review would help us to gain insight into the pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and laboratory findings associated with COVID-19 coagulopathy and would summarize management strategies to alleviate coagulopathy-related complications.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/cytology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 580147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211807

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is widely spread and remains a global pandemic. Limited evidence on the systematic evaluation of the impact of treatment regimens on antibody responses exists. Our study aimed to analyze the role of antibody response on prognosis and determine factors influencing the IgG antibodies' seroconversion. A total of 1,111 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms admitted to Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan were retrospectively analyzed. A serologic SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibody test was performed on all the patients 21 days after the onset of symptoms. Patient clinical characteristics were compared. In the study, 42 patients progressed to critical illness, with 6 mortalities reported while 1,069 patients reported mild to moderate disease. Advanced age (P = 0.028), gasping (P < 0.001), dyspnea (P = 0.024), and IgG negativity (P = 0.006) were associated with progression to critical illness. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with IgG antibody was 6.45% (95% CI 1.12-22.84%) and 36.36% (95% CI 12.36-68.38%) in patients with no IgG antibody (P = 0.003). Symptomatic patients were more likely to develop IgG antibody responses than asymptomatic patients. Using univariable analysis, fever (P < 0.001), gasping (P = 0.048), cancer (P < 0.001), cephalosporin (P = 0.015), and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (P = 0.021) were associated with IgG response. In the multivariable analysis, fever, cancer, cephalosporins, and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine correlated independently with IgG response. We determined that the absence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgG in the convalescent stage had a specific predictive role in critical illness progression. Importantly, risk factors affecting seropositivity were identified, and the effect of antimalarial drugs on antibody response was determined.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antimalarials/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cephalosporins/adverse effects , China , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Convalescence , Female , Fever/complications , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(9): 1236-1240, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports of severe COVID-19 being associated with thrombosis, antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA), and antiphospholipid syndrome have yielded disparate conclusions. Studies comparing patients with COVID-19 with contemporaneous controls of similar severity are lacking. METHODS: 22 COVID-19+ and 20 COVID-19- patients with respiratory failure admitted to intensive care were studied longitudinally. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the day of admission. APLA testing included anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-ß2glycoprotien 1 (ß2GP1), antidomain 1 ß2GP1 and antiphosphatidyl serine/prothrombin complex. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were detected by immunofluorescence and antibodies to cytokines by a commercially available multiplexed array. Analysis of variance was used for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables with α=0.05 and the false discovery rate at q=0.05. RESULTS: APLAs were predominantly IgG aCL (48%), followed by IgM (21%) in all patients, with a tendency towards higher frequency among the COVID-19+. aCL was not associated with surrogate markers of thrombosis but IgG aCL was strongly associated with worse disease severity and higher ANA titres regardless of COVID-19 status. An association between aCL and anticytokine autoantibodies tended to be higher among the COVID-19+. CONCLUSIONS: Positive APLA serology was associated with more severe disease regardless of COVID-19 status. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04747782.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Anticardiolipin/immunology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin/blood , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 655896, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200086

ABSTRACT

A large repertoire of IgA is produced by B lymphocytes with T-independent and T-dependent mechanisms useful in defense against pathogenic microorganisms and to reduce immune activation. IgA is active against several pathogens, including rotavirus, poliovirus, influenza virus, and SARS-CoV-2. It protects the epithelial barriers from pathogens and modulates excessive immune responses in inflammatory diseases. An early SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response is dominated by IgA antibodies responses greatly contributing to virus neutralization. The lack of anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgA and secretory IgA (sIgA) might represent a possible cause of COVID-19 severity, vaccine failure, and possible cause of prolonged viral shedding in patients with Primary Antibody Deficiencies, including patients with Selective IgA Deficiency. Differently from other primary antibody deficiency entities, Selective IgA Deficiency occurs in the vast majority of patients as an asymptomatic condition, and it is often an unrecognized, Studies are needed to clarify the open questions raised by possible consequences of a lack of an IgA response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , IgA Deficiency , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Shedding
19.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 747-752, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A majority of studies evaluating the risk of vertical transmission and adverse outcomes in pregnancies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are mostly based on third-trimester infections. There is limited data available on pregnancy sequelae of maternal infection in the first or second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: We present a patient with monochorionic-diamniotic twins that develops coronavirus disease 2019 infection at 15 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy is further complicated by stage II twin-twin transfusion syndrome. She undergoes laser ablation, which is complicated by development of a subchorionic hematoma. The patient then develops Escherichia coli bacteremia, resulting in septic shock and preterm labor followed by previable delivery at 21 weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid and placenta were negative for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: This case of SARS-CoV-2 argues against transplacental transmission after a second-trimester infection but brings attention to the possible downstream complications that may arise following early infection. KEY POINTS: · Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not evident after a second-trimester infection.. · Antepartum coronavirus disease 2019 may cause vascular placental changes and placental insufficiency.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a maternal hypercoagulable state with adverse perinatal outcomes..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Escherichia coli Infections , Fetofetal Transfusion , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Shock, Septic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Escherichia coli Infections/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fetofetal Transfusion/diagnosis , Fetofetal Transfusion/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta/diagnostic imaging , Placenta/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Twin , Premature Birth/etiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Shock, Septic/etiology , Twins, Monozygotic , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods
20.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(4): 998-1004, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological assays have emerged as a response to the global pandemic, warranting studies evaluating their clinical performance. This study investigated 7 commercially available SARS-CoV-2 serological assays in samples from noninfected individuals and hospitalized patients. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 qualitative serological assays by Abbott (IgG), Beckman (IgG), DiaSorin (IgG), EUROIMMUN (IgG and IgA), Roche and Bio-Rad (Total) were evaluated using specimens collected pre-December 2019 (n = 393), from nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) negative patients (n = 40), and from 53 patients with COVID-19 by NAAT collected 3-21 days post-onset of symptoms (POS) (N = 83). Negative agreement (NA), positive agreement (PA), and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) at prevalences of 5% and 10% were calculated. RESULTS: The overall %NA; 95% CI in the negative samples were: Roche 99.8%; 99.3-100.2, Beckman 99.8%; 98.7-100.0, Abbott and Bio-Rad 99.3%; 98.0-99.9, DiaSorin 98.4; 97.2-99.6, EUROIMMUN IgG 97.5%; 95.5-98.7, and EUROIMMUN IgA 79.7%; 75.9-83.5), accounting for positive/equivocal results as false positives. The %PA; 95% CI in samples collected 14+ days POS (n = 24) were: Bio-Rad 83.3%; 68.4-98.2, Abbott and Roche 79.2%; 62.9-95.4, EUROIMMUN IgA 70.8%; 52.6-89.0, Beckman 58.3%; 38.6-78.1, DiaSorin 54.2; 34.2-74.1, and EUROIMMUN IgG 50.0%; 30.0-70.0, accounting for negative/equivocal results as false negatives. NPVs ranged from 97.4%-98.9% and 94.7%-97.7% for prevalences 5% and 10%, respectively. PPVs ranged from 15.5%-94.8% and 27.9%-97.4% for prevalences 5% and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Roche and Beckman assays resulted in fewer false positives, followed by the Bio-Rad and Abbott assays. While the Bio-Rad assay demonstrated higher antibody detection in COVID-19-positive patients, PA claims cannot be established with a high level of confidence in our sample population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Services/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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