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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(2): 123-126, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease has spread globally and was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. On March 10, the State of Michigan confirmed its first 2 cases of COVID-19, and the number of confirmed cases has reached 47,182 as of May 11, 2020, with 4555 deaths. SETTING: Currently, little is known if patients living with HIV (PLWH) are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 or if their antiretrovirals are protective. This study presents epidemiologic and clinical features of COVID-19 infected PLWH in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This is a case series that included 14 PLWH with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were evaluated at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, between March 20, 2020, and April 30, 2020. RESULTS: Fourteen PLWH were diagnosed with COVID-19. Twelve patients were men and 2 were women; 13 patients were virally suppressed. Eight patients were hospitalized, and 6 patients were told to self-quarantine at home after their diagnoses. Three patients who were admitted expired during their hospital stay. No patient required bilevel positive airway pressure or nebulizer use in the emergency department, and none developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, or a cytokine storm while on therapy for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 among PLWH cannot be fully ascertained by this report, it adds to the data that suggest that HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are not at a greater risk of severe disease or death as compared to HIV-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , African Americans , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology
3.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 7(2): 143-147, 2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This article summarizes the experience in the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) epidemic in non-isolated areas in a general hospital. METHODS: Based on refined management theory, we professionally developed the standards for prevention and control of COVID-19 in non-isolated areas, systematically implemented various prevention and control measures, performed gridding audits, effectively communicated among teams and between medical staff and patients assisted by information techniques, and reported results for quality improvement. RESULTS: There was no hospital-acquired COVID-19 infections among staff in the hospital. The rates of mask-wearing, epidemiological history screening, and the medical supplies disinfection were all 100% in the hospital. The accuracy rate of mask-wearing of patients and their families was 73.79% and the compliance rate of their hand hygiene was 40.78%. CONCLUSION: Refined management strategies for the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection in non-isolated areas of the general hospital are effective. The accuracy rate of mask-wearing and hand hygiene compliance of patients and their families need to be further improved.

4.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0218, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe three coronavirus disease 2019 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and tight anticoagulation monitoring presenting a novel pattern of multifocal brain hemorrhage in various degrees in all cerebral and cerebellar lobes. DESIGN: Clinical observation of three patients. Post mortem examinations. SETTING: Two ICUs at the University Hospital Erlangen. PATIENTS: Three patients (medium age 56.6 yr, two male with hypertension and diabetes, one female with no medical history) developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome on the basis of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. All required mechanical ventilation and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical observation, CT, data extraction from electronic medical records, and post mortem examinations. MAIN RESULTS: We report on an unusual multifocal bleeding pattern in the white matter in three cases with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019 undergoing venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. Bleeding pattern with consecutive herniation was found in CT scans as well as in neuropathologic post mortem examinations. Frequency for this unusual brain hemorrhage in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy at our hospital is currently 50%, whereas bleeding events in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients generally occur at 10-15%. CONCLUSIONS: Multifocality and high frequency of the unusual white matter hemorrhage pattern suggest a coherence to coronavirus disease 2019. Neuropathological analyses showed circumscribed thrombotic cerebrovascular occlusions, which eventually led to microvascular and later on macrovascular disseminated bleeding events. However, signs of cerebrovascular inflammation could not be detected. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid remained negative. Increased susceptibility for fatal bleeding events should be taken into consideration in terms of systemic anticoagulation strategies in coronavirus disease 2019.

5.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a clinical outcome ranging from mild to severe, including death. To date, it is unclear why some patients develop severe symptoms. Many authors have suggested the involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk of infections; thus, we retrospectively investigated the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients from Switzerland. In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.004) were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median value 11.1 ng/mL) patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL); this was also confirmed by stratifying patients according to age >70 years. On the basis of this preliminary observation, vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations and to confirm our preliminary observation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood
7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1039-1043, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A patient's infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients' oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients' inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients' stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients' urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients' stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients' stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 628194, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which started as a severe pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Italy has been the first European country affected by the pandemic, registering a total of 300,363 cases and 35,741 deaths until September 24, 2020. The geographical distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy during early 2020 has not been homogeneous, including regions severely affected as well as administrative areas being only slightly interested by the infection. Among the latter, Sardinia represents one of the lowest incidence areas likely due to its insular nature. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing of a small number of complete viral genomes from clinical samples and their virologic and phylogenetic characterization was performed. RESULTS: We provide a first overview of the SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity in Sardinia in the early phase of the March-May 2020 pandemic based on viral genomes isolated in the most inner regional hospital of the island. Our analysis revealed a remarkable genetic diversity in local SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes, showing the presence of at least four different clusters that can be distinguished by specific amino acid substitutions. Based on epidemiological information, these sequences can be linked to at least eight different clusters of infection, four of which likely originates from imported cases. In addition, the presence of amino acid substitutions that were not previously reported in Italian patients has been observed, asking for further investigations in a wider population to assess their prevalence and dynamics of emergence during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The present study provides a snapshot of the initial phases of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in inner area of the Sardinia Island, showing an unexpected genomic diversity.

9.
J Oral Microbiol ; 13(1): 1848135, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574293

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to spread is one of the determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic status. Until June 2020, global COVID-19 cases surpassed 10 million. Asymptomatic patients, with no respiratory impairment, are believed to be responsible for more than 80% of the transmission. Other viruses have been consistently detected in periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in periodontal tissue. Methods: We conducted video-endoscope minimally invasive post-mortem biopsy in seven fatal cases of COVID-19, using a regular endoscope video system associated with a smartphone to locate periodontal tissue. We analyzed the samples using RT-PCR, to identify the SARS-CoV-2 RNA and histopathological analysis. Results: The seven studied autopsies with positive laboratory tests for COVID-19 included 57.14% of female patients at the average age of 47.4 (range 8 to 74). In five cases, periodontal tissue was positive for SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR). Histopathologic analyses showed morphologic alterations in the keratinocytes of the junctional epithelium, a vacuolization of the cytoplasm and nucleus and nuclear pleomorphism. Conclusion: We presented a biomolecular analysis obtained from minimally invasive autopsies. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in periodontal tissue in COVID-19 positive patients.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24767, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Online medical records are being used to organize processes in clinical and outpatient settings and to forge doctor-patient communication techniques that build mutual understanding and trust. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the reasons why patients tend to avoid using online medical records and to compare the perceptions that patients have of online medical records based on demographics and cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey Cycle 3, a nationally representative survey, and assessed outcomes using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. The patients (N=4328) included in the analysis had experienced an outpatient visit within the previous 12 months and had answered the online behavior question regarding their use of online medical records. RESULTS: Patients who were nonusers of online medical records consisted of 58.36% of the sample (2526/4328). The highest nonuser rates were for patients who were Hispanic (460/683, 67.35%), patients who were non-Hispanic Black (434/653, 66.46%), and patients who were older than 65 years (968/1520, 63.6%). Patients older than 65 years were less likely to use online medical records (odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% CI 1.24-1.84, P<.001). Patients who were White were more likely to use online medical records than patients who were Black (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.05, P<.001) or Hispanic (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.98, P<.001). Patients who were diagnosed with cancer were more likely to use online medical records compared to patients with no cancer (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55, 95% CI 1.11-1.55, P=.001). Among nonusers, older patients (≥65 years old) preferred speaking directly to their health care providers (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.35-2.31, P<.001), were more concerned about privacy issues caused by online medical records (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.66, P<.001), and felt uncomfortable using the online medical record systems (OR 10.55, 95% CI 6.06-19.89, P<.001) compared to those aged 18-34 years. Patients who were Black or Hispanic were more concerned about privacy issues (OR 1.42, 1.09-1.84, P=.007). CONCLUSIONS: Studies should consider social factors such as gender, race/ethnicity, and age when monitoring trends in eHealth use to ensure that eHealth use does not induce greater health status and health care disparities between people with different backgrounds and demographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records/standards , Health Information Exchange/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Data Analysis , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Internet Use , Male , Middle Aged , Physician-Patient Relations , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-16, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574630

ABSTRACT

In a large-scale study, 128176 non-pregnant patients (228 studies) and 10000 pregnant patients (121 studies) confirmed COVID-19 cases included in this Meta-Analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) of age and gestational age of admission (GA) in pregnant women was 33 (28-37) years old and 36 (34-37) weeks, respectively. Pregnant women show the same manifestations of COVID-19 as non-pregnant adult patients. Fever (pregnant: 75.5%; non-pregnant: 74%) and cough (pregnant: 48.5%; non-pregnant: 53.5%) are the most common symptoms in both groups followed by myalgia (26.5%) and chill (25%) in pregnant and dysgeusia (27%) and fatigue (26.5%) in non-pregnant patients. Pregnant women are less probable to show cough (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.67-0.75), fatigue (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.54-0.61), sore throat (OR: 0.66; CI: 0.61-0.7), headache (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.55-0.58) and diarrhea (OR: 0.46; CI: 0.4-0.51) than non-pregnant adult patients. The most common imaging found in pregnant women is ground-glass opacity (57%) and in non-pregnant patients is consolidation (76%). Pregnant women have higher proportion of leukocytosis (27% vs. 14%), thrombocytopenia (18% vs. 12.5%) and have lower proportion of raised C-reactive protein (52% vs. 81%) compared with non-pregnant patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are almost the same in both groups. The most common comorbidity in pregnant patients is diabetes (18%) and in non-pregnant patients is hypertension (21%). Case fatality rate (CFR) of non-pregnant hospitalized patients is 6.4% (4.4-8.5), and mortality due to all-cause for pregnant patients is 11.3% (9.6-13.3). Regarding the complications of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage (54.5% [7-94]), caesarean delivery (48% [42-54]), preterm labor (25% [4-74]) and preterm birth (21% [12-34]) are in turn the most prevalent complications. Comparing the pregnancy outcomes show that caesarean delivery (OR: 3; CI: 2-5), low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 9; CI: 2.4-30) and preterm birth (OR: 2.5; CI: 1.5-3.5) are more probable in pregnant woman with COVID-19 than pregnant women without COVID-19. The most prevalent neonatal complications are neonatal intensive care unit admission (43% [2-96]), fetal distress (30% [12-58]) and LBW (25% [16-37]). The rate of vertical transmission is 5.3% (1.3-16), and the rate of positive SARS-CoV-2 test for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 is 8% (4-16). Overall, pregnant patients present with the similar clinical characteristics of COVID-19 when compared with the general population, but they may be more asymptomatic. Higher odds of caesarean delivery, LBW and preterm birth among pregnant patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible association between COVID-19 infection and pregnancy complications. Low risk of vertical transmission is present, and SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in all conception products, particularly placenta and breast milk. Interpretations of these results should be done cautiously due to the heterogeneity between studies; however, we believe our findings can guide the prenatal and postnatal considerations for COVID-19 pregnant patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence from larger case series is still lacking. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, and IPTW after multiple imputation (MI) analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 89 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10, and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.24 (95% CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in IPTW model, and 0.27 (95% CI 0.10-0.57, p=0.031) in IPTW-MI model. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , China/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4058-e4063, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about long-term recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, especially in nonhospitalized individuals. In this longitudinal study we present symptoms registered during the acute phase as well as long COVID (ie, long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms) in patients from the Faroe Islands. METHODS: All consecutive patients with confirmed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing from April to June 2020 were invited to participate in this study for the assessment of long COVID. Demographic and clinical characteristics and self-reported acute and persistent symptoms were assessed using a standardized detailed questionnaire administered at enrollment and at repeated phone interviews in the period 22 April to 16 August. RESULTS: Of the 180 participants (96.3% of the 187 eligible COVID-19 patients), 53.1% reported persistence of at least 1 symptom after a mean of 125 days after symptoms onset, 33.0% reported 1 or 2 symptoms, and 20.1% reported 3 or more symptoms. At the last follow-up, 46.9% were asymptomatic compared with 4.4% during the acute phase. The most prevalent persistent symptoms were fatigue, loss of smell and taste, and arthralgias. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it might take months for symptoms to resolve, even among nonhospitalized persons with mild illness course in the acute phase. Continued monitoring for long COVID is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(10): 1257-1259, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541092

ABSTRACT

We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(1): 285-296, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Advanced breast cancer (BC) at diagnosis is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including among women living with HIV (WLWH). In public hospitals across South Africa (SA), 10-15% of women present with stage IV BC, compared to < 5% in the United States (US); 20% of new BC diagnoses in SA are in WLWH. We evaluated the impact of HIV on overall survival (OS) among women with stage IV BC. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with stage IV BC between February 2, 2015 and September 18, 2019 at six public hospitals in SA. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between HIV status and OS. RESULTS: Among 550 eligible women, 147 (26.7%) were WLWH. Compared to HIV-negative BC patients, WLWH were younger (median age 45 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), predominantly black (95.9% vs. 77.9%, p < 0.001), and more likely to have hormone receptor-negative (hormone-negative) BC (32.7% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.016). Most women received systemic cancer-directed therapy (80.1%). HIV status was not associated with treatment or OS (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.13 [95%CI 0.89-1.44]). On exploratory subgroup analysis, WLWH and hormone-negative BC had shorter OS compared to HIV-uninfected women (1-year OS: 27.1% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.003; HR 1.94 [95%CI 1.27-2.94]; p = 0.002), which was not observed for hormone receptor-positive BC. CONCLUSION: HIV status was not associated with worse OS in women with stage IV BC in SA and cannot account for the poor survival in this cohort. Subgroup analysis revealed that WLWH with hormone-negative BC had worse OS, which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , HIV Infections , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , United States
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(20): 2232-2246, 2021 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484813

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Variation in risk of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with cancer and COVID-19 has been reported from relatively small cohorts. The NCATS' National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) is a centralized data resource representing the largest multicenter cohort of COVID-19 cases and controls nationwide. We aimed to construct and characterize the cancer cohort within N3C and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality from COVID-19. METHODS: We used 4,382,085 patients from 50 US medical centers to construct a cohort of patients with cancer. We restricted analyses to adults ≥ 18 years old with a COVID-19-positive or COVID-19-negative diagnosis between January 1, 2020, and March 25, 2021. We followed N3C selection of an index encounter per patient for analyses. All analyses were performed in the N3C Data Enclave Palantir platform. RESULTS: A total of 398,579 adult patients with cancer were identified from the N3C cohort; 63,413 (15.9%) were COVID-19-positive. Most common represented cancers were skin (13.8%), breast (13.7%), prostate (10.6%), hematologic (10.5%), and GI cancers (10%). COVID-19 positivity was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24). Among COVID-19-positive patients, age ≥ 65 years, male gender, Southern or Western US residence, an adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 4, hematologic malignancy, multitumor sites, and recent cytotoxic therapy were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Patients who received recent immunotherapies or targeted therapies did not have higher risk of overall mortality. CONCLUSION: Using N3C, we assembled the largest nationally representative cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 to date. We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with cancer. Full characterization of the cohort will provide further insights into the effects of COVID-19 on cancer outcomes and the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Neoplasms/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
19.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(4): 457-464, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a ß-galactoside binding protein associated with many disease pathologies, including chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis. It has been implicated in the disease severity of NASH, although its precise role is unknown. Inhibition of Gal-3 has shown to improve and prevent fibrosis progression and has now reached phase III clinical trial in NASH patients. AREAS COVERED: This discusses the role of Gal-3 in NASH. It brings together the current findings of Gal-3 in NASH and hepatic fibrosis by analyzing recent data from animal model studies and clinical trials. EXPERT OPINION: Gal-3 inhibitors, in particular, Belapectin (GR-MD-02), have shown promising results for NASH with advanced fibrosis. In a phase 2 trial, Belapectin did not meet the primary endpoint. However, a sub-analysis of Belapectin among a separate group of patients without esophageal varices showed 2 mg/kg of GR-MD-02 reduced HVPG and the development of new varices. A subsequent study is under way, aiming to replicate the positive findings in phase 2 and demonstrate greater efficacy. If Belapectin is shown to be effective, it will be coupled with other drugs that target steatohepatitis to maximize efficacy and disease reversal.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Galectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Pectins/administration & dosage , Pectins/pharmacology , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 24, 2020 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) function evaluation by echocardiography is key in the management of ICU patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), however, it remains challenging. Quantification of RV deformation by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a recently available and reproducible technique that provides an integrated analysis of the RV. However, data are scarce regarding its use in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to assess its feasibility and clinical usefulness in moderate-severe ARDS patients. RESULTS: Forty-eight ARDS patients under invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively enrolled in a prospective observational study. A full transthoracic echocardiography was performed within 36 h of MV initiation. STE-derived and conventional parameters were recorded. Strain imaging of the RV lateral, inferior and septal walls was highly feasible (47/48 (98%) patients). Interobserver reproducibility of RV strain values displayed good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) > 0.75 for all STE-derived parameters) in ARDS patients. ROC curve analysis showed that lateral, inferior, global (average of the 3 RV walls) longitudinal systolic strain (LSS) and global strain rate demonstrated significant diagnostic values when compared to several conventional indices (TAPSE, S', RV FAC). A RV global LSS value > - 13.7% differentiated patients with a TAPSE < vs > 12 mm with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 83%. Regarding clinical outcomes, mortality and cumulative incidence of weaning from MV at day 28 were not different in patients with normal versus abnormal STE-derived parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Global STE assessment of the RV was highly achievable and reproducible in moderate-severe ARDS patients under MV and additionally correlated with several conventional parameters of RV function. In our cohort, STE-derived parameters did not provide any incremental value in terms of survival or weaning from MV prediction. Further investigations are needed to evaluate their theranostic usefulness. Trial registration NCT02638844: NCT.

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