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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 525-528, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684540

ABSTRACT

Replication-competent virus has not been detected in individuals with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) more than 10 days after symptom onset. It is unknown whether these findings apply to nursing home residents. Of 273 specimens collected from nursing home residents >10 days from the initial positive test, none were culture positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nursing Homes , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S7-S12, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573985

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Miliary , Adult , Child , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2055-2064, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests many people have persistent symptoms after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC). METHODS: We used a population-based probability survey of adults with COVID-19 in Michigan. Living noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 in the Michigan Disease Surveillance System with COVID-19 onset through mid-April 2020 were eligible for selection (N = 28 000). Among 2000 selected, 629 completed the survey between June-December 2020. We estimated PASC prevalence, defined as persistent symptoms ≥30 (30-day COVID-19) or ≥60 (60-day COVID-19) days post-COVID-19 onset, overall and by sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used modified Poisson regression to produce adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for potential risk factors. RESULTS: The analytic sample (n = 593) was predominantly female (56.1%), aged ≥45 years (68.2%), and non-Hispanic White (46.3%) or Black (34.8%). Thirty- and 60-day COVID-19 were highly prevalent (52.5% and 35.0%), even among nonhospitalized respondents (43.7% and 26.9%) and respondents reporting mild symptoms (29.2% and 24.5%). Respondents reporting very severe (vs mild) symptoms had 2.25 times higher prevalence of 30-day COVID-19 (aPR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.46-3.46) and 1.71 times higher prevalence of 60-day COVID-19 (aPR, 1.71; 95% CI: 1.02-2.88). Hospitalized (vs nonhospitalized) respondents had ~40% higher prevalence of both 30-day (aPR, 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12-1.69) and 60-day (aPR, 1.40; 95% CI: 1.02-1.93) COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: PASC is highly prevalent among cases reporting severe initial symptoms and, to a lesser extent, cases reporting mild and moderate symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Prevalence
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4058-e4063, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about long-term recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, especially in nonhospitalized individuals. In this longitudinal study we present symptoms registered during the acute phase as well as long COVID (ie, long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms) in patients from the Faroe Islands. METHODS: All consecutive patients with confirmed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing from April to June 2020 were invited to participate in this study for the assessment of long COVID. Demographic and clinical characteristics and self-reported acute and persistent symptoms were assessed using a standardized detailed questionnaire administered at enrollment and at repeated phone interviews in the period 22 April to 16 August. RESULTS: Of the 180 participants (96.3% of the 187 eligible COVID-19 patients), 53.1% reported persistence of at least 1 symptom after a mean of 125 days after symptoms onset, 33.0% reported 1 or 2 symptoms, and 20.1% reported 3 or more symptoms. At the last follow-up, 46.9% were asymptomatic compared with 4.4% during the acute phase. The most prevalent persistent symptoms were fatigue, loss of smell and taste, and arthralgias. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it might take months for symptoms to resolve, even among nonhospitalized persons with mild illness course in the acute phase. Continued monitoring for long COVID is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Physica D ; 413: 132693, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514251

ABSTRACT

The presence of a large number of infected individuals with few or no symptoms is an important epidemiological difficulty and the main mathematical feature of COVID-19. The A-SIR model, i.e. a SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) model with a compartment for infected individuals with no symptoms or few symptoms was proposed by Gaeta (2020). In this paper we investigate a slightly generalized version of the same model and propose a scheme for fitting the parameters of the model to real data using the time series only of the deceased individuals. The scheme is applied to the concrete cases of Lombardy, Italy and São Paulo state, Brazil, showing different aspects of the epidemic. In both cases we see strong evidence that the adoption of social distancing measures contributed to a slower increase in the number of deceased individuals when compared to the baseline of no reduction in the infection rate. Both for Lombardy and São Paulo we show that we may have good fits to the data up to the present, but with very large differences in the future behavior. The reasons behind such disparate outcomes are the uncertainty on the value of a key parameter, the probability that an infected individual is fully symptomatic, and on the intensity of the social distancing measures adopted. This conclusion enforces the necessity of trying to determine the real number of infected individuals in a population, symptomatic or asymptomatic.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048109, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We integrated an established participant-centred active vaccine safety surveillance system with a cloud-based pharmacy immunisation-recording program in order to measure adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported via the new surveillance system in pharmacies, compared with AEFI reported via an existing surveillance system in non-pharmacy sites (general practice and other clinics). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Individuals >10 years receiving influenza immunisations from 22 pharmacies and 90 non-pharmacy (general practice and other clinic) sites between March and October 2020 in Western Australia. Active vaccine safety surveillance was conducted using short message service and smartphone technology, via an opt-out system. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the primary outcome: differences in proportions of AEFI between participants immunised in pharmacies compared with non-pharmacy sites, adjusting for confounders of age, sex and influenza vaccine brand. A subgroup analysis of participants over 65 years was also performed. RESULTS: Of 101 440 participants (6992 from pharmacies; 94 448 from non-pharmacy sites), 77 498 (76.4%) responded; 96.1% (n=74 448) within 24 hours. Overall, 4.8% (n=247) pharmacy participants reported any AEFI, compared with 6% (n=4356) non-pharmacy participants (adjusted OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.99; p=0.039). Similar proportions of AEFIs were reported in pharmacy (5.8%; n=31) and non-pharmacy participants (6; n=1617) aged over 65 years (adjusted OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.35; p=0.725). The most common AEFIs in pharmacy were: pain (2%; n=104), tiredness (1.9%; n=95) and headache (1.7%; n=88); and in non-pharmacy sites: pain (2.3%; n=1660), tiredness (1.9%; n=1362) and swelling (1.5%; n=1121). CONCLUSIONS: High and rapid response rates demonstrate good participant engagement with active surveillance in both pharmacy and non-pharmacy participants. Significantly fewer AEFIs reported after pharmacist immunisations compared with non-pharmacy immunisations, with no difference in older adults, may suggest different cohorts attend pharmacy versus non-pharmacy immunisers. The integrated pharmacy system is rapidly scalable across Australia with global potential.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pharmacies , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Vaccination , Western Australia/epidemiology
8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388081

ABSTRACT

To examine innate immune responses in early SARS-CoV-2 infection that may change clinical outcomes, we compared nasopharyngeal swab data from 20 virus-positive and 20 virus-negative individuals. Multiple innate immune-related and ACE-2 transcripts increased with infection and were strongly associated with increasing viral load. We found widespread discrepancies between transcription and translation. Interferon proteins were unchanged or decreased in infected samples suggesting virally-induced shut-off of host anti-viral protein responses. However, IP-10 and several interferon-stimulated gene proteins increased with viral load. Older age was associated with modifications of some effects. Our findings may characterize the disrupted immune landscape of early disease.

9.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(8): e28360, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has created serious mental health consequences for essential workers or people who have become unemployed as a result of the pandemic. Digital mental health tools have the potential to address this problem in a timely and efficient manner. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to document the extent of digital mental health tool (DMHT) use by essential workers and those unemployed due to COVID-19, including asking participants to rate the usability and user burden of the DMHT they used most to cope. We also explored which aspects and features of DMHTs were seen as necessary for managing stress during a pandemic by having participants design their own ideal DMHT. METHODS: A total of 2000 people were recruited from an online research community (Prolific) to complete a one-time survey about mental health symptoms, DMHT use, and preferred digital mental health features. RESULTS: The final sample included 1987 US residents that identified as either an essential worker or someone who was unemployed due to COVID-19. Almost three-quarters of the sample (1479/1987, 74.8%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Only 14.2% (277/1957) of the sample used a DMHT to cope with stress associated with COVID-19. Of those who used DMHTs to cope with COVID-19, meditation apps were the most common (119/261, 45.6%). Usability was broadly in the acceptable range, although participants unemployed due to COVID-19 were less likely to report user burden with DMHTs than essential workers (t198.1=-3.89, P<.001). Individuals with emotional distress reported higher financial burden for their DMHT than nondistressed individuals (t69.0=-3.21, P=.01). When the sample was provided the option to build their own DMHT, the most desired features were a combination of mindfulness/meditation (1271/1987, 64.0%), information or education (1254/1987, 63.1%), distraction tools (1170/1987, 58.9%), symptom tracking for mood and sleep (1160/1987, 58.4%), link to mental health resources (1140/1987, 57.4%), and positive psychology (1131/1986, 56.9%). Subgroups by employment, distress, and previous DMHT use status had varied preferences. Of those who did not use a DMHT to cope with COVID-19, most indicated that they did not consider looking for such a tool to help with coping (1179/1710, 68.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the potential need for DMHTs, this study found that the use of such tools remains similar to prepandemic levels. This study also found that regardless of the level of distress or even past experience using an app to cope with COVID-19, it is possible to develop a COVID-19 coping app that would appeal to a majority of essential workers and unemployed persons.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1829): 20200274, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309692

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of immunity are crucial to understanding the long-term patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several cases of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 have been documented 48-142 days after the initial infection and immunity to seasonal circulating coronaviruses is estimated to be shorter than 1 year. Using an age-structured, deterministic model, we explore potential immunity dynamics using contact data from the UK population. In the scenario where immunity to SARS-CoV-2 lasts an average of three months for non-hospitalized individuals, a year for hospitalized individuals, and the effective reproduction number after lockdown ends is 1.2 (our worst-case scenario), we find that the secondary peak occurs in winter 2020 with a daily maximum of 387 000 infectious individuals and 125 000 daily new cases; threefold greater than in a scenario with permanent immunity. Our models suggest that longitudinal serological surveys to determine if immunity in the population is waning will be most informative when sampling takes place from the end of the lockdown in June until autumn 2020. After this period, the proportion of the population with antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is expected to increase due to the secondary wave. Overall, our analysis presents considerations for policy makers on the longer-term dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK and suggests that strategies designed to achieve herd immunity may lead to repeated waves of infection as immunity to reinfection is not permanent. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Humans , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 576-586, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A substantial proportion of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 do not experience noticeable symptoms typical of COVID-19. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of the first wave of the pandemic in Québec by measuring SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in a convenience sample of healthy blood donors and to study the association between seropositivity and the occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional serological survey with a nested case-control study. Residual blood samples from donations collected between May 25 and July 9, 2020 (well before vaccination rollout) in the province of Québec were tested for anti-Spike RBD antibodies by ELISA. Seropositive donors and a control group of seronegative donors were questioned about prior COVID-19 symptoms. All qualified blood donors were eligible for participation. RESULTS: A total of 7691 blood donors were included in the study. After adjustments, the seroprevalence rate was 2.2% (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Seropositive donors reported one or more symptoms in a proportion of 52.2% (95% CI 44.2-60.1); this proportion was 19.1% (95% CI 13.4-26.1) among seronegative donors, suggesting that approximately 50-66% of all infections were asymptomatic. Univariate analysis of associations between symptoms and seropositivity revealed that except for rhinorrhea, all symptoms were significantly associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Assuming that blood donors are fairly representative of the general adult population, this study shows that less than 3% of 18-69-year-olds have been infected during the first wave of the pandemic in the province of Québec. Our data also confirm that many infections escaped detection, including a substantial proportion that were asymptomatic.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Une proportion substantielle de personnes infectées par le SRAS-CoV-2 ne présentent pas de symptômes visibles typiques de la COVID-19. Nos objectifs étaient d'évaluer l'impact de la première vague de la pandémie au Québec en mesurant la séroprévalence des anticorps anti-SRAS-CoV-2 chez les donneurs de sang en bonne santé, et d'étudier l'association entre la séropositivité et la survenue des symptômes de la COVID-19. MéTHODES: Le design de l'étude était une enquête de sérologie transversale avec une étude cas-témoins nichée dans la cohorte. Des échantillons de sang provenant de dons recueillis entre le 25 mai et le 9 juillet 2020 (bien avant le déploiement de la vaccination) dans la province de Québec ont été testés pour les anticorps anti-spicule RBD (Receptor Binding Domain) par ELISA. Les donneurs séropositifs et un groupe témoin de donneurs séronégatifs ont été interrogés sur les symptômes spécifiques à la COVID-19. Tous les donneurs qualifiés pour le don de sang étaient éligibles à participer à l'étude. RéSULTATS: Au total, 7 691 donneurs de sang ont été inclus dans l'étude. Après ajustements, le taux de séroprévalence était de 2,2 % (IC à 95% 1,9­2,6). Les donneurs séropositifs ont signalé un ou plusieurs symptômes dans une proportion de 52,2 % (IC à 95% 44,2­60,1); cette proportion était de 19,1 % (IC à 95% 13,4­26,1) parmi les donneurs séronégatifs, ce qui suggère qu'entre 50 % et 66 % de toutes les infections étaient asymptomatiques. Une analyse univariée des associations entre les symptômes et la séropositivité a révélé qu'à l'exception de la rhinorrhée, tous les symptômes étaient significativement associés à la séropositivité. CONCLUSION: En supposant que les donneurs de sang sont assez représentatifs de la population adulte générale, cette étude montre que moins de 3 % des 18­69 ans ont été infectés lors de la première vague de la pandémie dans la province du Québec. Nos données confirment également que de nombreuses infections n'ont pas fait l'objet d'un test moléculaire de dépistage, y compris une proportion importante qui était asymptomatique.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
13.
Orv Hetil ; 162(24): 938-942, 2021 06 13.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295547

ABSTRACT

At the start of the pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the Gaucher disease community anticipated that infection with this emerging viral pathogen would be associated with high morbidity and mortality in individuals with this chronic metabolic disorder. Surprisingly, however, preliminary studies suggest that Gaucher disease does not confer a higher risk of severe, life-threatening effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and no severe cases have been reported in large cohorts of patients from the United States, Europe and Israel. It is thought that the accumulation of glucocerebroside in the cells of Gaucher patients may promote immune tolerance rather than inflammation on exposure to SARS-CoV-2. We review here the current concepts of Gaucher disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection, focusing particularly on general prevention and vaccination. We also discuss the susceptibility to COVID-19 of patients with inborn errors of type 1 interferon (IFNα and IFNω) immunity. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(24): 938-942.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gaucher Disease , Europe , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929701, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, a cluster outbreak caused by an imported case from Hubei Province was reported in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. Ten patients from 2 families and 1 hospital were involved in the transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted an epidemiological investigation to identify the cluster transmission of COVID-19. The demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and cluster characteristics were described and analyzed. RESULTS From January 27 to February 13, 2020, a total of 10 individuals were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 by the nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal swabs from 2 families and 1 hospital. Among the confirmed cases, 7 had atypical clinical symptoms and 3 were asymptomatic. The median times from onset to diagnosis and to discharge were 3.5 days (range, 1-5 days) and 19.5 days (range, 16-38 days), respectively. There were 4 patients whose exposure dates were 1, 3, 3, and 2 days earlier than the onset dates of their previous-generation cases, respectively. Four prevention and control measures were effectively used to interrupt the disease transmission. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 can be easily transmitted within families and in hospitals, and asymptomatic patients could act as a source of disease transmission. The results of this outbreak at the early epidemic stage support the recommendation that individuals with confirmed COVID-19 and all their close contacts should be subjected to medical quarantined observation and nucleic acid screening as early as possible, even if they do not have any symptoms. Meanwhile, people in high-risk areas should improve their protective measures.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/prevention & control , Carrier State/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Quarantine/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
15.
Br J Cancer ; 125(5): 658-671, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 30 million COVID-19 cases have been diagnosed worldwide from late 2019. Among frail persons, cancer patients are at high risk of death from COVID-19. METHODS: The French prospective cohort ONCOVID-19 enrolled patients with solid or haematological tumour, receiving anticancer treatment and presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 was confirmed through detectable SARS-CoV2 by RT-PCR (repeated twice if negative first) and/or specific CT-scan. The study aims to assess the 28-day mortality rate after the first COVID test. RESULTS: From March 1st to May 21st 2020, 23 French cancer centres and hospitals enrolled 1230 cancer patients with suspicion of COVID-19, including 1162 (94.5%) matching the inclusion criteria. We identified 425 (36.6%) COVID-19 positive patients including 155 (13.3%) diagnosed with CT-scan only, while 737 (63.4%) patients were COVID-19 negative. Death at day-28 occurred in 116/425 (27.8%) COVID-19 positive patients, and in 118/737 (16.3%) COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0·0001). With a median follow-up of 2.1 (1.6-2.4) months, 310 (26.7%) deaths were reported including 143 (33.6%) in the COVID-19 positive population, and 167 (22.7%) in the COVID-19 negative patients. Male gender, age, metastatic disease, immunosuppressive treatments, lymphopenia, COVID-19 diagnosis and diabetes were independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: Patients with solid and haematological cancers presenting COVID-19 symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed or not are both at high-risk of early mortality. COVID-19 is reported as the cause of death in 50% of COVID-19 positive patients with cancer. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04363632.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are immunodeficient, it is vague if they are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than HIV negative individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 857 PLWH and 1048 HIV negative individuals were enrolled from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. We compared the total rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the rate of COVID-19, asymptomatic carriers, and unapparent infectors in the two groups. The risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH were explored. RESULTS: Fourteen out of 857 (1.63%) PLWH were infected with SARS-CoV-2, while 68 of 1048 (6.49%) HIV negative individuals were infected. In PLWH, there were 6 confirmed COVID-19 (0.70%), 4 asymptomatic carriers (0.47%) and 4 unapparent infectors (0.47%). In the HIV negative group, the cases of COVID-19, asymptomatic carrier, and unapparent infector were 5 (0.48%), 0 (0.00%), and 63 (6.01%), respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, and chronic comorbidities, the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH was lower than that in HIV negative group (1.96% vs 5.74%, P=0.001). The morbidity of COVID-19 was similar between the two groups (P=0.107), but the rate of unapparent infection in PLWH was lower than that in the HIV negative group (0.54% vs 5.46%, P=0.001). Older age (aOR=4.50, 95%CI: 1.34-15.13, P=0.015) and OIs (aOR=9.59, 95%CI: 1.54-59.92, P=0.016) were risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH has different infection forms of SARS-CoV-2 compared with the general population. Older age and OIs were considered to driving causes of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carceral facilities are epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic, placing incarcerated people at an elevated risk of COVID-19 infection. Due to the initial limited availability of COVID-19 vaccines in the United States, all states have developed allocation plans that outline a phased distribution. This study uses document analysis to compare the relative prioritization of incarcerated people, correctional staff, and other groups at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and morbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a document analysis of the vaccine dissemination plans of all 50 US states and the District of Columbia using a triple-coding method. Documents included state COVID-19 vaccination plans and supplemental materials on vaccine prioritization from state health department websites as of December 31, 2020. We found that 22% of states prioritized incarcerated people in Phase 1, 29% of states in Phase 2, and 2% in Phase 3, while 47% of states did not explicitly specify in which phase people who are incarcerated will be eligible for vaccination. Incarcerated people were consistently not prioritized in Phase 1, while other vulnerable groups who shared similar environmental risk received this early prioritization. States' plans prioritized in Phase 1: prison and jail workers (49%), law enforcement (63%), seniors (65+ years, 59%), and long-term care facility residents (100%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that states' COVID-19 vaccine allocation plans do not prioritize incarcerated people and provide little to no guidance on vaccination protocols if they fall under other high-risk categories that receive earlier priority. Deprioritizing incarcerated people for vaccination misses a crucial opportunity for COVID-19 mitigation. It also raises ethical and equity concerns. As states move forward with their vaccine distribution, further work must be done to prioritize ethical allocation and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines to incarcerated people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/standards , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family , Health Care Rationing/standards , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Police/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12415, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268003

ABSTRACT

The built environment can contribute to the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by facilitating human mobility and social contacts between infected and uninfected individuals. However, mobility data capturing detailed interpersonal transmission at a large scale are not available. In this study, we aimed to objectively assess the influence of key built environment factors, which create spaces for activities-"inferred activity" rather than "actually observed activity"-on the spread of COVID-19 across townships in China at its initial stage through a random forest approach. Taking data for 2994 township-level administrative units, the spread is measured by two indicators: the ratio of cumulative infection cases (RCIC), and the coefficient of variation of infection cases (CVIC) that reflects the policy effect in the initial stage of the spread. Accordingly, we selected 19 explanatory variables covering built environment factors (urban facilities, land use, and transportation infrastructure), the level of nighttime activities, and the inter-city population flow (from Hubei Province). We investigated the spatial agglomerations based on an analysis of bivariate local indicators of spatial association between RCIC and CVIC. We found spatial agglomeration (or positive spatial autocorrelations) of RCIC and CVIC in about 20% of all townships under study. The density of convenience shops, supermarkets and shopping malls (DoCSS), and the inter-city population flow (from Hubei Province) are the two most important variables to explain RCIC, while the population flow is the most important factor in measuring policy effects (CVIC). When the DoCSS gets to 21/km2, the density of comprehensive hospitals to 0.7/km2, the density of road intersections to 72/km2, and the density of gyms and sports centers to 2/km2, their impacts on RCIC reach their maximum and remain constant with further increases in the density values. Stricter policy measures should be taken at townships with a density of colleges and universities higher than 0.5/km2 or a density of comprehensive hospitals higher than 0.25/km2 in order to effectively control the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Built Environment , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
19.
New Gener Comput ; 39(3-4): 717-741, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265493

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2). Most of the people do not have the acquired immunity to fight this virus. There is no specific treatment or medicine to cure the disease. The effects of this disease appear to vary from individual to individual, right from mild cough, fever to respiratory disease. It also leads to mortality in many people. As the virus has a very rapid transmission rate, the entire world is in distress. The control and prevention of this disease has evolved as an urgent and critical issue to be addressed through technological solutions. The Healthcare industry therefore needs support from the domain of artificial intelligence (AI). AI has the inherent capability of imitating the human brain and assisting in decision-making support by automatically learning from input data. It can process huge amounts of data quickly without getting tiresome and making errors. AI technologies and tools significantly relieve the burden of healthcare professionals. In this paper, we review the critical role of AI in responding to different research challenges around the COVID-19 crisis. A sample implementation of a powerful probabilistic machine learning (ML) algorithm for assessment of risk levels of individuals is incorporated in this paper. Other pertinent application areas such as surveillance of people and hotspots, mortality prediction, diagnosis, prognostic assistance, drug repurposing and discovery of protein structure, and vaccine are presented. The paper also describes various challenges that are associated with the implementation of AI-based tools and solutions for practical use.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632619, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264393

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Social or physical distancing has been an effective measure for reducing the spread of COVID-19 infections. Investigating the determinants of adherence to social distancing can inform public health strategies to improve the behaviour. However, there is a lack of data in various populations. This study investigates the degree to which South Africans complied with social distancing during the country's COVID-19 lockdown and identifies the determinants associated with being in close contact with large numbers of people. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a South African national online survey on a data free platform, supplemented with telephone interviews. The survey was conducted from 8 to 29 April 2020. The primary outcome was the number of people that participants came into close contact with (within a 2-metre distance) the last time they were outside their home during the COVID-19 lockdown. Multivariate multinomial regression investigated the socio-demographic, psychosocial and household environmental determinants associated with being in contact with 1-10, 11-50 and more than 50 people. Results: Of the 17,563 adult participants, 20.3% reported having not left home, 50.6% were in close physical distance with 1-10 people, 21.1% with 11-50 people, and 8.0% with >50 people. Larger household size and incorrect knowledge about the importance of social distancing were associated with being in contact with >50 people. Male gender, younger age and being in the White and Coloured population groups were significantly associated with being in contact with 1-10 people but not with larger numbers of people. Employment, at least secondary school education, lack of self-efficacy in being able to protect oneself from infection, and moderate or high risk perception of becoming infected, were all associated with increased odds of close contact with 1-10, 11-50, and >50 people relative to remaining at home. Conclusion: The findings identify subgroups of individuals that are less likely to comply with social distancing regulations. Public health communication, interventions and policy can be tailored to address these determinants of social distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
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