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1.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 6: S49-S53, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In response to the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery's recommendations to limit patient care activities in the times of SARS-CoV-2, many elective surgeries have been canceled without patient clinics transitioning to virtual visits. With regulations for telemedicine loosened, new possibilities for the practice of otolaryngology have opened. To address the uncertain duration of this pandemic, a review was conducted of current literature on use of telemedicine services in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and in previous national emergencies to reveal the role telemedicine can play for otolaryngology practices. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed articles with an independent search query were utilized. METHODS: Literature review performed by one author searched for all published English-language literature on telehealth in the SARS-CoV-2 era. Articles were considered for discussion if they provided relevant developments for telemedicine in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Telemedicine can be up-scaled in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic where exposure containment is of the utmost priority. With patient interaction possible through virtual communication, telemedicine allows continued patient care while minimizing the risk of viral spread. In the realm of otolaryngology, telemedicine has been used in the past during disasters with other studies demonstrating high diagnostic concordance with inpatient visits. Many institutions have recognized the potential for such care as they begin utilize both virtual visits and in-person care during this pandemic. CONCLUSION: To limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, we support the AAO-HNS recommendation for the adoption of novel ways to employ telemedicine in this era. Many emergency departments and health care systems have the infrastructure necessary for synchronous video telemedicine visits that can be leveraged to provide quality care with patients. With the continued need to socially distance, telemedicine can protect both physicians and patients from unnecessary exposure to the virus.

3.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(Suppl 1): i40-i47, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135025

ABSTRACT

Upper respiratory and pulmonary diseases are the primary manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, kidney involvement has also been recognized and extensively described. A large percentage of affected patients present with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, specific phenotypic aspects of AKI or other renal manifestations of COVID-19 remain sparsely characterized. Many reports indicate that proteinuria can be detected in AKI associated with COVID-19 (CoV-AKI) despite CoV-AKI being largely described as a form of acute tubular injury. On the other hand, individuals of African ancestry with the high-risk APOL1 genotype are uniquely at risk of developing collapsing glomerulopathy when they are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the entity now known as COVID-19-associated nephropathy (COVAN). Patients with COVAN typically present with nephrotic-range proteinuria. The exact incidence of proteinuria in COVID-19 is unclear due to heterogeneity in the frequency with which proteinuria has been assessed in cases of COVID-19, as well as methodological differences in the way proteinuria is measured and/or reported. In this review we discuss the current evidence of proteinuria as a manifestation of COVID-19 and elaborate on potential pathophysiological mechanisms associated with it.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(8): JC47, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144978

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Riccò M, Ferraro P, Gualerzi G, et al. Point-of-care diagnostic tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies: a systematic review and meta-analysis of real-world data. J Clin Med. 2020;9:1515. 32443459.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40507-40514, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113733

ABSTRACT

After the early advent of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, myriads of FDA-approved drugs have been massively repurposed for COVID-19 treatment based on molecular docking against selected protein targets that play fundamental roles in the replication cycle of the novel coronavirus. Honeybee products are well known of their nutritional values and medicinal effects. Bee products contain bioactive compounds in the form of a collection of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and terpenes of natural origin that display wide spectrum antiviral effects. We revealed by molecular docking the profound binding affinity of 14 selected phenolics and terpenes present in honey and propolis (bees glue) against the main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzymes of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus (the causative agent of COVID-19) using AutoDock Vina software. Of these compounds, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, kaempferol, and quercetin have the strongest interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 target enzymes, and it may be considered an effective COVID-19 inhibitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bees , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(4): 392-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection. METHODS: All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%-6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67-7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19-positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 82-92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly transmits in general population, mainly between health-care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the seropositivity of HCWs as a high-risk group compared to general population. METHODS: 72 samples were obtained from HCWs working in Masih Daneshvari hospital as one of the main COVID-19 admission centers in Tehran, during April 4 to 6, 2020. Also we collected 2021 blood samples from general population. The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG antibodies in the collected serum specimens were measured by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Based on the clinical manifestations, 25.0%, 47.2%, and 27.8% of HCWs were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms, symptomatic with atypical symptoms, and asymptomatic, respectively. Symptomatic individuals with typical and atypical symptoms were 63.2% and 36.8% positive in RT-PCR test, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 15.3% and 27.8% of HCWs samples, respectively. Antibody testing in the general population indicated that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG were found in (162/2021) 8%, and (290/2021) 14.4%, respectively. The frequency of positive cases of IgM and IgG were significantly increased in HCWs compared to general population (p= 0.028 for IgM and p= 0.002 for IgG). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in HCWs was higher than general population indicating a higher viral transmission via close exposure with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 940-942, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066918

ABSTRACT

This case report underlines the appearance of a "walking pneumonia" in a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patient, with evidence of progressive lung involvement on chest imaging studies. The patient traveled from Wuhan, Hubei, China, to Thailand in January 2020. One of her family members was diagnosed with COVID-19. She presented to the hospital because of her concern, but she was without fever or any respiratory symptoms. Three days earlier, her nasopharyngeal and throat swabs revealed a negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Her initial chest radiography was abnormal, and her first sputum SARS-CoV-2 test yielded inconclusive results. A subsequent sputum test was positive for SARS-CoV-2. Diagnosis in this patient was facilitated by chest imaging and repeat viral testing. Thus, chest imaging studies might enhance capabilities for early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Science ; 369(6511): 1586-1592, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038226

ABSTRACT

Intervention strategies are urgently needed to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The trimeric viral spike (S) protein catalyzes fusion between viral and target cell membranes to initiate infection. Here, we report two cryo-electron microscopy structures derived from a preparation of the full-length S protein, representing its prefusion (2.9-angstrom resolution) and postfusion (3.0-angstrom resolution) conformations, respectively. The spontaneous transition to the postfusion state is independent of target cells. The prefusion trimer has three receptor-binding domains clamped down by a segment adjacent to the fusion peptide. The postfusion structure is strategically decorated by N-linked glycans, suggesting possible protective roles against host immune responses and harsh external conditions. These findings advance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 entry and may guide the development of vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Secondary , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
10.
Minerva Obstet Gynecol ; 74(1): 83-106, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033544

ABSTRACT

Infections may act with variable impact on the physiopathology of the reproductive organs, determining infertility or reducing the outcomes of assisted reproduction technology. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the existing evidence regarding the pathogens with a supposed or recognized role in reproductive medicine. Viral hepatitis, as well as HIV, can reduce sperm quality. Syphilis carries a risk of erectile dysfunction and increased endometrial thickness. Chlamydia is the main cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. In relation to Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp., only few species seem to show a correlation with infertility and poor in-vitro fertilization outcomes. There is evidence of a role for bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy loss. HPV infection in males seems to determine infertility. Herpesviruses are more a risk for fetuses than for fertility itself. Zika virus is responsible for altered early embryo development and waiting to conceive is recommended in suspected or confirmed cases. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 is yet to be elucidated. Rubella and toxoplasmosis can provoke important congenital defects and therefore screening is mandatory before conception; a vaccine for Rubella is recommended. Further and well-designed studies are still needed to better elucidate the role of some infectious agents, to improve fertility and its treatments.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Fertility , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Zika Virus Infection/complications
14.
Struct Chem ; 31(6): 2391-2412, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906457

ABSTRACT

Presently, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has been spreading throughout the world. Some drugs such as lopinavir, simeprevir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and amprenavir have been recommended for COVID-19 treatment by some researchers, but these drugs were not effective enough against this virus. This study based on in silico approaches was aimed to increase the anti-COVID-19 activities of these drugs by using caulerpin and its derivatives as an adjunct drug against SARS-CoV-2 receptor proteins: the SARS-CoV-2 main protease and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Caulerpin exhibited antiviral activities against chikungunya virus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Caulerpin and some of its derivatives showed inhibitory activity against Alzheimer's disease. The web server ANCHOR revealed higher protein stability for the two receptors with disordered score (< 0.6). Molecular docking analysis showed that the binding energies of most of the caulerpin derivatives were higher than all the suggested drugs for the two receptors. Also, we deduced that inserting NH2, halogen, and vinyl groups can increase the binding affinity of caulerpin toward 6VYB and 6LU7, while inserting an alkyl group decreases the binding affinity of caulerpin toward 6VYB and 6LU7. So, we can modify the inhibitory effect of caulerpin against 6VYB and 6LU7 by inserting NH2, halogen, and vinyl groups. Based on the protein disordered results, the SARS-CoV-2 main protease and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein domain are highly stable proteins, so it is quite difficult to unstabilize their integrity by using individual drugs. Also, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation indicates that binding of the combination therapy of simeprevir and the candidate studied compounds to the receptors was stable and had no major effect on the flexibility of the protein throughout the simulations and provided a suitable basis for our study. So, this study suggested that caulerpin and its derivatives could be used as a combination therapy along with lopinavir, simeprevir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and amprenavir for disrupting the stability of SARS-CoV2 receptor proteins to increase the antiviral activity of these drugs.

15.
Curr Mol Med ; 22(10): 929-940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The establishment of strategy to inhibit the virus replication is an attractive means in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: We studied phyto-compounds from Strychnos nux-vomica (a poisonous plant) against SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase by computational methods. METHODS: Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and energetics calculations were employed to elucidate the role of the phyto-compounds. RESULTS: Ergotamine with a binding free energy of -14.39 kcal/mol showed a promising capability in terms of binding affinity and the interaction to conserved motifs, especially the SDD signature sequence. The calculated dissociation constants for ATP, ergotamine, isosungucine and sungucine were 12 µM, 0.072 nM, 0.011 nM and 0.152 nM, respectively. The exhibited kd by these phyto-compounds reflected tens of thousands fold potency as compared to ATP. The binding free energies of sungucine and isosungucine were much lower (-13.93 and -15.55 kcal/mol, respectively) compared to that of ATP (-6.98 kcal/mol). CONCLUSION: Sharing the same binding location as that of ATP and having high binding affinities, Ergotamine, Isosungucine, Sungucine and Strychnine N-oxide could be effective in controlling the SARS-CoV-2 virus replication by blocking the ATP and inhibiting the enzyme function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Strychnos nux-vomica , Adenosine Triphosphate , Ergotamines , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plants, Toxic , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Strychnos nux-vomica/chemistry
16.
Chem Zvesti ; 75(9): 4669-4685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877948

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Specific inhibition of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the newly-emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a very promising strategy for developing highly potent medicines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, almost all of the reported viral RdRp inhibitors (either repurposed drugs or new antiviral agents) lack selectivity against the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. Herein, I discovered a new favipiravir derivative, (E)-N-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-6-fluoro-3-hydroxypyrazine-2-carboxamide (cyanorona-20), as the first potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor with very high selectivity (209- and 45-fold more potent than favipiravir and remdesivir, respectively). Based on the significant reduction in the in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication/copies, strong computational cyanorona-20 ligand-RdRp protein interactions, and anti-RdRp activity of the parent favipiravir drug, SARS-CoV-2 inhibition is thought to be mediated through the coronaviral-2 RdRp inhibition. This promising selective anti-COVID-19 compound is also, to the best of our knowledge, the first bioactive derivative of favipiravir, the known antiinfluenza and antiviral drug. This new nucleoside analog was designed, synthesized, characterized, computationally studied (through pharmacokinetic calculations along with computational molecular modeling and prediction), and biologically evaluated for its anti-COVID-19 activities (through a validated in vitro anti-COVID-19 assay). The results of the biological assay showed that cyanorona-20 surprisingly exhibited very significant anti-COVID-19 activity (anti-SARS-CoV-2 EC50 = 0.45 µM), and, in addition, it could be also a very promising lead compound for the design of new anti-COVID-19 agents. Cyanorona-20 is a new favipiravir derivative with promise for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-021-01640-9.

17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 66-72, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and its social responses threaten the health of people living with HIV. We conducted a rapid-response interview to assess COVID-19 protective behaviors of people living with HIV and the impact of their responses on HIV-related health care. METHOD: Men and women living with HIV (N = 162) aged 20-37 years participating in a longitudinal study of HIV treatment and care completed routine study measures and an assessment of COVID-19-related experiences. RESULTS: At baseline, most participants demonstrated HIV viremia, markers indicative of renal disorders, and biologically confirmed substance use. At follow-up, in the first month of responding to COVID-19, engaging in more social distancing behaviors was related to difficulty accessing food and medications and increased cancelation of health care appointments, both by self and providers. We observed antiretroviral therapy adherence had improved during the initial month of COVID-19 response. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that may pose added risk for COVID-19 severity were prevalent among people living with HIV, and those with greater risk factors did not practice more COVID-19 protective behaviors. Social distancing and other practices intended to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 interfered with HIV care, and impeded access to food and medications, although an immediate adverse impact on medication adherence was not evident. These results suggest social responses to COVID-19 adversely impacted the health care of people living with HIV, supporting continued monitoring to determine the long-term effects of co-occurring HIV and COVID-19 pandemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Food Supply , Georgia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1 , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia , Young Adult
18.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100413, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outbreak of Corona Virus Disease in late 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic global Public health emergency. Since there is no approved anti-viral drug or vaccine declared for the disease and investigating existing drugs against the COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: AYUSH-64 is an Ayurvedic formulation, developed and patented by Central Council of Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, India, has been in clinical use as anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic drug for few decades. Thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate AYUSH-64 compounds available in this drug against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) Main Protease (Mpro; PDB ID: 6LU7) via in silico techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different molecular docking software's of Discovery studio and Auto Dock Vina were used for drugs from selected AYUSH-64 compounds against SARS-CoV-2. We also conducted 100 ns period of molecular dynamics simulations with Desmond and further MM/GBSA for the best complex of AYUSH-64 with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Among 36 compounds of four ingredients of AYUSH-64 screened, 35 observed to exhibits good binding energies than the published positive co-crystal compound of N3 pepetide. The best affinity and interactions of Akuammicine N-Oxide (from Alstonia scholaris) towards the Mpro with binding energy (AutoDock Vina) of -8.4 kcal/mol and Discovery studio of Libdock score of 147.92 kcal/mol. Further, molecular dynamics simulations with MM-GBSA were also performed for Mpro- Akuammicine N-Oxide docked complex to identify the stability, specific interaction between the enzyme and the ligand. Akuammicine N-Oxide is strongly formed h-bonds with crucial Mpro residues, Cys145, and His164. CONCLUSION: The results provide lead that, the presence of Mpro- Akuammicine N-Oxide with highest Mpro binding energy along with other 34 chemical compounds having similar activity as part of AYUSH-64 make it a suitable candidate for repurposing to management of COVID-19 by further validating through experimental, clinical studies.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833525

ABSTRACT

Projections of the stage of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and local, regional and national public health policies to limit coronavirus spread as well as "reopen" cities and states, are best informed by serum neutralizing antibody titers measured by reproducible, high throughput, and statically credible antibody (Ab) assays. To date, a myriad of Ab tests, both available and FDA authorized for emergency, has led to confusion rather than insight per se. The present study reports the results of a rapid, point-in-time 1,000-person cohort study using serial blood donors in the New York City metropolitan area (NYC) using multiple serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and high throughput serological assays (HTSAs). These were then tested and associated with assays for neutralizing Ab (NAb). Of the 1,000 NYC blood donor samples in late June and early July 2020, 12.1% and 10.9% were seropositive using the Ortho Total Ig and the Abbott IgG HTSA assays, respectively. These serological assays correlated with neutralization activity specific to SARS-CoV-2. The data reported herein suggest that seroconversion in this population occurred in approximately 1 in 8 blood donors from the beginning of the pandemic in NYC (considered March 1, 2020). These findings deviate with an earlier seroprevalence study in NYC showing 13.7% positivity. Collectively however, these data demonstrate that a low number of individuals have serologic evidence of infection during this "first wave" and suggest that the notion of "herd immunity" at rates of ~60% or higher are not near. Furthermore, the data presented herein show that the nature of the Ab-based immunity is not invariably associated with the development of NAb. While the blood donor population may not mimic precisely the NYC population as a whole, rapid assessment of seroprevalence in this cohort and serial reassessment could aid public health decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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