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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 116: 111260, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452344

ABSTRACT

Polymeric nanoparticulate systems allow the encapsulation of bio-active substances, giving them protection against external agents and increasing the drug's bioavailability. The use of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers usually guarantees the harmless character of the formulation, and a controlled drug release is also assured. A relatively easy procedure to obtain polymeric formulations of bioactive agents is ionotropic gelation, which allows the synthesis of chitosan (CS) - sodium tri-polyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) loading encapsulated proteins. In this work, Bovine serum albumin (BSA) model protein and a recombinant porcine alpha interferon variant were used to obtain nanoparticulate formulations. The internalization of the encapsulated material by cells was studied using a BSA-fluorescein system; the fluorescent conjugate was observable inside the cells after 20 h of incubation. The therapeutic CS-alpha interferon formulation showed a maximum of protein released in vitro at around 90 h. This system was found to be safe in a cytotoxicity assay, while biological activity experiments in vitro showed antiviral protection of cells in the presence of encapsulated porcine alpha interferon. In vivo experiments in pigs revealed a significant and sustained antiviral response through overexpression of the antiviral markers OAS2 and PKR. This proves the preservation of porcine alpha interferon biological activity, and also that a lasting response was obtained. This procedure is an effective and safe method to formulate drugs in nanoparticulate systems, representing a significant contribution to the search for more effective drug delivery strategies.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Nanoparticles , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , Cattle , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Interferon-alpha , Particle Size , Polymers , Swine
2.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Perfusion ; 36(8): 798-802, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455838

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with cardiogenic shock or ARDS, for example, in COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2, may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). An ECLS/ECMO model simulating challenging vascular anatomy is desirable for cannula insertion training purposes. We assessed the ability of various 3D-printable materials to mimic the penetration properties of human tissue by using porcine aortae. METHODS: A test bench for needle penetration and piercing in sampled porcine aorta and preselected 3D-printable polymers was assembled. The 3D-printable materials had Shore A hardness of 10, 20, and 50. 17G Vygon 1.0 × 1.4 mm × 70 mm needles were used for penetration tests. RESULTS: For the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, penetration forces of 0.9036 N, 0.9725 N, 1.0386 N, and 1.254 N were needed, respectively. For piercing through the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, forces of 0.8399 N, 1.244 N, 1.475 N, and 1.482 N were needed, respectively. ANOVA showed different variances among the groups, and pairwise two-tailed t-tests showed significantly different needle penetration and piercing forces, except for penetration of Shore A 10 and 20 polymers (p = 0.234 and p = 0.0857). Significantly higher forces were required for all other materials. CONCLUSION: Shore A 10 and 20 polymers have similar needle penetration properties compared to the porcine tissue. Significantly more force is needed to pierce through the material fully. The most similar tested material to porcine aorta for needle penetration and piercing in ECMO-implantation is the silicon Shore A 10 polymer. This silicon could be a 3D-printable material in surgical training for ECMO-implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Animals , Aorta , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Swine
4.
ACS Omega ; 6(10): 7181-7185, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387156

ABSTRACT

Serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE), protease 3 (PR3), cathepsin G (CatG), and neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) are released by activated neutrophils swarming around the place of pathogen invasion to provoke an immune response. However, uncontrolled proteolytic activity of proteases results in various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, thrombosis, and autoimmunity. In addition, proteases can be hijacked by several viruses to prime virus-derived surface proteins and evade immune detection by entering into the host cell. Indeed, porcine elastase increases the suitability of host cells to be infected by SARS-CoV-1. We compared the cleavage sites of human NE, PR3, and CatG as well as porcine-derived trypsin within the amino acid sequence of the proteolytic sensitive activation loop at the interface of S1/S2 of the spike protein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-1 as well as SARS-CoV-2. As a result, NE and PR3, but not CatG, hydrolyze the scissile peptide bond adjacent to the polybasic amino acid sequence of the S1/S2 interface of SARS-CoV-2, which is distinctive from SARS-CoV-1. These findings suggest that neutrophil-derived NE and PR3 participate in priming of the S1/S2 interface during an immune response.

5.
PeerJ ; 9: e11065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Irisin (a glycosylated protein) is cleaved from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is expressed mainly in animal muscle tissues and has multiple metabolic regulatory activities. However, their roles in controlling myofiber types in skeletal muscle remain unclear. METHODOLOGY: Two different commercial hybridized pigs, LJH (a crossed pig containing Chinese native pig genotypes) and DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected to analyze FNDC5 mRNA expression and the mRNA composition of four adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms (IIIaIIxIIb) in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to investigate the effects of FNDC5 on the four MyHCs mRNA expressive levels, using small interfering RNA for depletion and a eukaryotic expression vector carrying FNDC5 for overexpression. ZLN005 (a small molecule activator of FNDC5's upstream control gene PGC1α) or recombinant human irisin protein were also used. RESULTS: In LD muscle, LJH pigs had the higher FNDC5 mRNA level, and MyHC I or IIa proportion than DLY pigs (P <  0.05). For C2C12 cells in vitro, small interfering RNA (si-592) silencing of FNDC5 expression markedly reduced MyHC IIa mRNA levels (P <  0.05), while FNDC5 overexpression significantly increased MyHC IIa mRNA levels (P <  0.05). Exogenous irisin increased the mRNA levels of PGC1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha), FNDC5, MyHCI, MyHCIIa, NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), and TFAM (mitochondrial transcription factor A,) (P <  0.05), and the enzyme activities of SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase), and MDH (malate dehydrogenase) in C2C12 myotubes (P <  0.05). These results showed that FNDC5 mRNA expression had a significant association with the characteristics of myofiber types in porcine muscle, and participated in regulating MyHCs mRNA expression of C2C12 myogenic differentiation cells in vitro. FNDC5 could be an important factor to control muscle fiber types, which provides a new direction to investigate pork quality via muscle fiber characteristics.

6.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1111-1121, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243446

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses and influenza viruses are circulating in humans and animals all over the world. Co-infection with these two viruses may aggravate clinical signs. However, the molecular mechanisms of co-infections by these two viruses are incompletely understood. In this study, we applied air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated porcine tracheal epithelial cells (PTECs) to analyze the co-infection by a swine influenza virus (SIV, H3N2 subtype) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) at different time intervals. Our results revealed that in short-term intervals, prior infection by influenza virus caused complete inhibition of coronavirus infection, while in long-term intervals, some coronavirus replication was detectable. The influenza virus infection resulted in (i) an upregulation of porcine aminopeptidase N, the cellular receptor for PRCoV and (ii) in the induction of an innate immune response which was responsible for the inhibition of PRCoV replication. By contrast, prior infection by coronavirus only caused a slight inhibition of influenza virus replication. Taken together, the timing and the order of virus infection are important determinants in co-infections. This study is the first to show the impact of SIV and PRCoV co- and super-infection on the cellular level. Our results have implications also for human viruses, including potential co-infections by SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/physiology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/physiology , Viral Interference , Animals , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Swine , Trachea/cytology , Virus Replication
7.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236470

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a man in his early 70s with idiopathic acquired haemophilia A and persistent high-titre type II inhibitors on immunosuppressive treatment to eradicate the inhibitor. As complications, he had a nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which caused severe pneumonia and an explosive inflammatory reaction that required tocilizumab and remdesivir treatment, and a high-risk retroperitoneal haematoma. Recombinant porcine factor VIII, susoctocog alfa, was requested from the Pharmacy Service in view of the extreme risk of thromboembolism resulting from the concomitant inflammatory storm caused by SARS-CoV-2. Improvement in the SARS-CoV-2 infection made it possible to complete the immunosuppressive treatment with rituximab. The patient was discharged with mycophenolate mofetil as immunosuppressive treatment after 89 days in hospital and 22 days of treatment with susoctocog alfa. His SARS-CoV-2 infection resolved and the haematoma evolved favourably.

8.
J Virol ; 94(16)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214962

ABSTRACT

The 5' cap methylation of viral RNA plays important roles in RNA stability, efficient translation, and immune evasion. Thus, RNA cap methylation is an attractive target for antiviral discovery and development of new live attenuated vaccines. For coronaviruses, RNA cap structure is first methylated at the guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) position by nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14), which facilitates and precedes the subsequent ribose 2'-O methylation by the nsp16-nsp10 complex. Using porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus, as a model, we showed that G-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) of PEDV nsp14 methylated RNA substrates in a sequence-unspecific manner. PEDV nsp14 can efficiently methylate RNA substrates with various lengths in both neutral and alkaline pH environments and can methylate cap analogs (GpppA and GpppG) and single-nucleotide GTP but not ATP, CTP, or UTP. Mutations to the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif in the nsp14 abolished the G-N-7 MTase activity and were lethal to PEDV. However, recombinant rPEDV-D350A with a single mutation (D350A) in nsp14, which retained 29.0% of G-N-7 MTase activity, was viable. Recombinant rPEDV-D350A formed a significantly smaller plaque and had significant defects in viral protein synthesis and viral replication in Vero CCL-81 cells and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-DQ). Notably, rPEDV-D350A induced significantly higher expression of both type I and III interferons in IPEC-DQ cells than the parental rPEDV. Collectively, our results demonstrate that G-N-7 MTase activity of PEDV modulates viral replication, gene expression, and innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) include a wide range of important human and animal pathogens. Examples of human CoVs include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the most recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. Examples of pig CoVs include porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV). There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs for most of these viruses. All known CoVs encode a bifunctional nsp14 protein which possesses ExoN and guanine-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) activities, responsible for replication fidelity and RNA cap G-N-7 methylation, respectively. Here, we biochemically characterized G-N-7 MTase of PEDV nsp14 and found that G-N-7 MTase-deficient PEDV was defective in replication and induced greater responses of type I and III interferons. These findings highlight that CoV G-N-7 MTase may be a novel target for rational design of live attenuated vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferons/biosynthesis , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA Caps/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Gene Expression , Guanine/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Methylation , Mutation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Swine , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0245423, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In order to identify an inexpensive yet highly stable SARS-CoV-2 collection device as an alternative to foam swabs stored in transport media, both contrived ("surrogate") CoV-positive and patient-collected spun polyester swabs stored in dry tubes were evaluated for time- and temperature-stability using qPCR. METHODS: Surrogate specimens were prepared by combining multiple, residual SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical specimens and diluting to near-LOD levels in either porcine or human mucus ("matrix"), inoculating foam or polyester nasal swabs, and sealing in dry tubes. Swabs were then subjected to one of three temperature excursions: (1) 4°C for up to 72 hours; (2) 40°C for 12 hours, followed by 32°C for up to 60 hours; or (3) multiple freeze-thaw cycles (-20°C). The stability of extracted SARS-CoV-2 RNA for each condition was evaluated by qPCR. Separate usability studies for the dry polyester swab-based HealthPulse@home COVID-19 Specimen Collection Kit were later conducted in both adult and pediatric populations. RESULTS: Polyester swabs stored dry demonstrated equivalent performance to foam swabs for detection of low and moderate SARS-CoV-2 viral loads. Mimicking warm- and cold- climate shipment, surrogate specimens were stable following either 72 hours of a high-temperature excursion or two freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, usability studies comprised of self-collected patient specimens yielded sufficient material for molecular testing, as demonstrated by RNase P detection. CONCLUSIONS: Polyester nasal swabs stored in dry collection tubes offer a robust and inexpensive self-collection method for SARS-CoV-2 viral load testing, as viral RNA remains stable under conditions required for home collection and shipment to the laboratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Animals , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nasopharynx/virology , Polyesters , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Swine
10.
Front Robot AI ; 8: 645424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172990

ABSTRACT

During an ultrasound (US) scan, the sonographer is in close contact with the patient, which puts them at risk of COVID-19 transmission. In this paper, we propose a robot-assisted system that automatically scans tissue, increasing sonographer/patient distance and decreasing contact duration between them. This method is developed as a quick response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It considers the preferences of the sonographers in terms of how US scanning is done and can be trained quickly for different applications. Our proposed system automatically scans the tissue using a dexterous robot arm that holds US probe. The system assesses the quality of the acquired US images in real-time. This US image feedback will be used to automatically adjust the US probe contact force based on the quality of the image frame. The quality assessment algorithm is based on three US image features: correlation, compression and noise characteristics. These US image features are input to the SVM classifier, and the robot arm will adjust the US scanning force based on the SVM output. The proposed system enables the sonographer to maintain a distance from the patient because the sonographer does not have to be holding the probe and pressing against the patient's body for any prolonged time. The SVM was trained using bovine and porcine biological tissue, the system was then tested experimentally on plastisol phantom tissue. The result of the experiments shows us that our proposed quality assessment algorithm successfully maintains US image quality and is fast enough for use in a robotic control loop.

11.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153652

ABSTRACT

Members of family Coronaviridae cause a variety of diseases in birds and mammals. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a lesser-researched coronavirus, can infect naive pigs of any age, but clinical disease is observed in pigs ≤4 weeks of age. No commercial PHEV vaccines are available, and neonatal protection from PHEV-associated disease is presumably dependent on lactogenic immunity. Although subclinical PHEV infections are thought to be common, PHEV ecology in commercial swine herds is unknown. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, a serum IgG antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the S1 protein was developed and evaluated on known-status samples and then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds. Assessment of the diagnostic performance of the PHEV S1 ELISA using serum samples (n = 924) collected from 7-week-old pigs (n = 84; 12 pigs per group) inoculated with PHEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, or porcine deltacoronavirus showed that a sample-to-positive cutoff value of ≥0.6 was both sensitive and specific, i.e., all PHEV-inoculated pigs were seropositive from days postinoculation 10 to 42, and no cross-reactivity was observed in samples from other groups. The PHEV S1 ELISA was then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds (19 states) using 2,756 serum samples from breeding females (>28 weeks old) on commercial farms (n = 104) with no history of PHEV-associated disease. The overall seroprevalence was 53.35% (confidence interval [CI], ±1.86%) and herd seroprevalence was 96.15% (CI, ±3.70%).IMPORTANCE There is a paucity of information concerning the ecology of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) in commercial swine herds. This study provided evidence that PHEV infection is endemic and highly prevalent in U.S. swine herds. These results raised questions for future studies regarding the impact of endemic PHEV on swine health and the mechanisms by which this virus circulates in endemically infected populations. Regardless, the availability of the validated PHEV S1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides the means for swine producers to detect and monitor PHEV infections, confirm prior exposure to the virus, and to evaluate the immune status of breeding herds.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus 1/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus 1/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 553: 25-29, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147359

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A sex-bias has been observed, with increased susceptibility and mortality in male compared to female patients. The gene for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is located on the X chromosome. We previously generated TP53 mutant pigs that exhibit a sex-specific patho-phenotype due to altered regulation of numerous X chromosome genes. In this study, we explored the effect of p53 deficiency on ACE2 expression in pigs. First, we identified the p53 binding site in the ACE2 promoter and could show its regulatory effect on ACE2 expression by luciferase assay in porcine primary kidney fibroblast cells. Later, quantitative PCR and western blot showed tissue- and gender-specific expression changes of ACE2 and its truncated isoform in p53-deficient pigs. We believe these findings will broaden the knowledge on ACE2 regulation and COVID-19 susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Organ Specificity , Sex Characteristics , Sus scrofa/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fibroblasts , Gene Deletion , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/deficiency , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , X Chromosome/genetics
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 217: 112168, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117166

ABSTRACT

Worldwide shortages of personal protective equipment during COVID-19 pandemic has forced the implementation of methods for decontaminating face piece respirators such as N95 respirators. The use of UV irradiation to reduce bioburden of used respirators attracts attention, making proper testing protocols of uttermost importance. Currently artificial saliva is used but its comparison to human saliva from the UV disinfection perspective is lacking. Here we characterize UV spectra of human and artificial saliva, both fresh and after settling, to test for possible interference for UV-based disinfection. ASTM 2720 artificial saliva recipe (with either porcine or bovine mucin) showed many discrepancies from average (N = 18) human saliva, with different mucins demonstrating very different UV absorbance spectra, resulting in very different UV transmittance at different wavelength. Reducing porcine mucin concentration from 3 to 1.7 g/L brought UVA254 in the artificial saliva to that of average human saliva (although not for other wavelengths), allowing 254 nm disinfection experiments. Phosphate saline and modified artificial saliva were spiked with 8.6 log CFU/ml B. subtilis spores (ATCC 6633) and irradiated at dose of up to 100 mJ/cm2, resulting in 5.9 log inactivation for a saline suspension, and 2.8 and 1.1 log inactivation for ASTM-no mucin and ASTM-1.7 g/L porcine mucin 2 µL dried droplets, respectively. UVC irradiation of spores dried in human saliva resulted in 2.3 and 1.5 log inactivation, depending on the size of the droplets (2 vs 10 µL, respectively) dried on a glass surface. Our results suggest that in the presence of the current standard dried artificial saliva it is unlikely that UVC can achieve 6 log inactivation of B. subtilis spores using a realistic UV dose (e.g. less than 2 J/cm2) and the ATSM saliva recipe should be revised for UV decontamination studies.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/radiation effects , Animals , Bacillus subtilis/radiation effects , Canada , Cattle , Decontamination/methods , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Mucins/chemistry , N95 Respirators , Saliva/microbiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Spores, Bacterial/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays
14.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(2): e0338, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatment options for surfactant therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome and coronavirus disease 2019 have not been established. To conduct preclinical studies in vitro and in vivo to evaluate efficiency, particle size, dosing, safety, and efficacy of inhaled surfactant using a breath-synchronized, nebulized delivery system in an established acute respiratory distress syndrome model. DESIGN: Preclinical study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Anesthetized pigs. INTERVENTION: In vitro analysis included particle size distribution and inhaled dose during simulated ventilation using a novel breath-synchronized nebulizer. Physiologic effects of inhaled aerosolized surfactant (treatment) were compared with aerosolized normal saline (control) in an adult porcine model (weight of 34.3 ± 0.6 kg) of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (Pao2/Fio2 <100) with lung lavages and ventilator-induced lung injury during invasive ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mass median aerosol diameter was 2.8 µm. In vitro dose delivered distal to the endotracheal tube during mechanical ventilation was 85% ± 5%. Nebulizers were functional up to 20 doses of 108 mg of surfactant. Surfactant-treated animals (n = 4) exhibited rapid improvement in oxygenation with nearly full recovery of Pao2/Fio2 (~300) and end-expiratory lung volumes with nominal dose less than 30 mg/kg of surfactant, whereas control subjects (n = 3) maintained Pao2/Fio2 less than 100 over 4.5 hours with reduced end-expiratory lung volume. There was notably greater surfactant phospholipid content and lower indicators of lung inflammation and pathologic lung injury in surfactant-treated pigs than controls. There were no peridosing complications associated with nebulized surfactant, but surfactant-treated animals had progressively higher airway resistance post treatment than controls with no differences in ventilation effects between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Breath-synchronized, nebulized bovine surfactant appears to be a safe and feasible treatment option for use in coronavirus disease 2019 and other severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

15.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(5): e218-e225, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December, 2019, a novel zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus emerged in China. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became pandemic within weeks and the number of human infections and severe cases is increasing. We aimed to investigate the susceptibilty of potential animal hosts and the risk of anthropozoonotic spill-over infections. METHODS: We intranasally inoculated nine fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), ferrets (Mustela putorius), pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), and 17 chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) with 105 TCID50 of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate per animal. Direct contact animals (n=3) were included 24 h after inoculation to test viral transmission. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and for virus shedding by nucleic acid extraction from nasal washes and rectal swabs (ferrets), oral swabs and pooled faeces samples (fruit bats), nasal and rectal swabs (pigs), or oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs (chickens) on days 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 21 after infection by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). On days 4, 8, and 12, two inoculated animals (or three in the case of chickens) of each species were euthanised, and all remaining animals, including the contacts, were euthanised at day 21. All animals were subjected to autopsy and various tissues were collected for virus detection by RT-qPCR, histopathology immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation. Presence of SARS-CoV-2 reactive antibodies was tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay and virus neutralisation test in samples collected before inoculation and at autopsy. FINDINGS: Pigs and chickens were not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. All swabs, organ samples, and contact animals were negative for viral RNA, and none of the pigs or chickens seroconverted. Seven (78%) of nine fruit bats had a transient infection, with virus detectable by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation in the nasal cavity, associated with rhinitis. Viral RNA was also identified in the trachea, lung, and lung-associated lymphatic tissue in two animals euthanised at day 4. One of three contact bats became infected. More efficient virus replication but no clinical signs were observed in ferrets, with transmission to all three direct contact animals. Mild rhinitis was associated with viral antigen detection in the respiratory and olfactory epithelium. Prominent viral RNA loads of 0-104 viral genome copies per mL were detected in the upper respiratory tract of fruit bats and ferrets, and both species developed SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies reaching neutralising titres of up to 1/1024 after 21 days. INTERPRETATION: Pigs and chickens could not be infected intranasally by SARS-CoV-2, whereas fruit bats showed characteristics of a reservoir host. Virus replication in ferrets resembled a subclinical human infection with efficient spread. Ferrets might serve as a useful model for further studies-eg, testing vaccines or antivirals. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Rhinitis , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Chickens/genetics , Chiroptera/genetics , Ferrets/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Virol ; 95(4)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075935

ABSTRACT

Swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infection causes substantial economic loss and disease burden in humans and animals. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza A virus is now endemic in both populations. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of different vaccines in reducing nasal shedding in pigs following pH1N1 virus challenge. We also assessed transmission from immunized and challenged pigs to naive, directly in-contact pigs. Pigs were immunized with either adjuvanted, whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines or virus-vectored (ChAdOx1 and MVA) vaccines expressing either the homologous or heterologous influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, as well as an influenza virus pseudotype (S-FLU) vaccine expressing heterologous HA. Only two vaccines containing homologous HA, which also induced high hemagglutination inhibitory antibody titers, significantly reduced virus shedding in challenged animals. Nevertheless, virus transmission from challenged to naive, in-contact animals occurred in all groups, although it was delayed in groups of vaccinated animals with reduced virus shedding.IMPORTANCE This study was designed to determine whether vaccination of pigs with conventional WIV or virus-vectored vaccines reduces pH1N1 swine influenza A virus shedding following challenge and can prevent transmission to naive in-contact animals. Even when viral shedding was significantly reduced following challenge, infection was transmissible to susceptible cohoused recipients. This knowledge is important to inform disease surveillance and control strategies and to determine the vaccine coverage required in a population, thereby defining disease moderation or herd protection. WIV or virus-vectored vaccines homologous to the challenge strain significantly reduced virus shedding from directly infected pigs, but vaccination did not completely prevent transmission to cohoused naive pigs.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Swine Diseases/transmission , Virus Shedding , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Female , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
17.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(3): 626-635, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and limited antivirals for the treatment of COVID-19. Heparin (delivered systemically) is currently used to treat anticoagulant anomalies in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, in the United Kingdom, Brazil and Australia, nebulised unfractionated heparin (UFH) is being trialled in COVID-19 patients as a potential treatment. A systematic comparison of the potential antiviral effect of various heparin preparations on live wild type SARS-CoV-2, in vitro, is needed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Seven different heparin preparations including UFH and low MW heparins (LMWH) of porcine or bovine origin were screened for antiviral activity against live SARS-CoV-2 (Australia/VIC01/2020) using a plaque inhibition assay with Vero E6 cells. Interaction of heparin with spike protein RBD was studied using differential scanning fluorimetry and the inhibition of RBD binding to human ACE2 protein using elisa assays was examined. KEY RESULTS: All the UFH preparations had potent antiviral effects, with IC50 values ranging between 25 and 41 µg·ml-1 , whereas LMWHs were less inhibitory by ~150-fold (IC50 range 3.4-7.8 mg·ml-1 ). Mechanistically, we observed that heparin binds and destabilizes the RBD protein and furthermore, we show heparin directly inhibits the binding of RBD to the human ACE2 protein receptor. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This comparison of clinically relevant heparins shows that UFH has significantly stronger SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity compared to LMWHs. UFH acts to directly inhibit binding of spike protein to the human ACE2 protein receptor. Overall, the data strongly support further clinical investigation of UFH as a potential treatment for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Heparin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Heparin/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Plaque Assay
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596964, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067653

ABSTRACT

We designed the killed swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) H1N2 antigen (KAg) with polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [(Poly(I:C)] adsorbed corn-derived Nano-11 particle based nanovaccine called Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C), and evaluated its immune correlates in maternally derived antibody (MDA)-positive pigs against a heterologous H1N1 SwIAV infection. Immunologically, in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) detected enhanced H1N2-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccinates, and in commercial vaccinates detected CTLs with mainly IL-17A+ and early effector phenotypes specific to both H1N2 and H1N1 SwAIV. In commercial vaccinates, activated H1N2- and H1N1-specific IFNγ+&TNFα+, IL-17A+ and central memory T-helper/Memory cells, and in Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccinates H1N2-specific central memory, IFNγ+ and IFNγ+&TNFα+, and H1N1-specific IL-17A+ T-helper/Memory cells were observed. Systemically, Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccine augmented H1N2-specific IFNγ+ CTLs and H1N1-specific IFNγ+ T-helper/Memory cells, and commercial vaccine boosted H1N2- specific early effector CTLs and H1N1-specific IFNγ+&TNFα+ CTLs, as well as H1N2- and H1N1-specific T-helper/Memory cells with central memory, IFNγ+&TNFα+, and IL-17A+ phenotypes. Remarkably, commercial vaccine induced an increase in H1N1-specific T-helper cells in TBLN and naive T-helper cells in both TBLN and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), while H1N1- and H1N2-specific only T-helper cells were augmented in Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccinates in both TBLN and PBMCs. Furthermore, the Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccine stimulated robust cross-reactive IgG and secretory IgA (SIgA) responses in lungs, while the commercial vaccine elicited high levels of serum and lung IgG and serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers. In conclusion, despite vast genetic difference (77% in HA gene identity) between the vaccine H1N2 and H1N1 challenge viruses in Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccinates, compared to over 95% identity between H1N1 of commercial vaccine and challenge viruses, the virus load and macroscopic lesions in the lungs of both types of vaccinates were comparable, but the Nano-11-KAg+Poly(I:C) vaccine cleared the virus from the nasal passage better. These data suggested the important role played by Nano-11 and Poly(I:C) in the induction of polyfunctional, cross-protective cell-mediated immunity against SwIAV in MDA-positive pigs.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Nanoparticles , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Poly I-C , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cross Reactions , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Poly I-C/chemistry , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Viral Load
19.
J Virol ; 94(22)2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982189

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) have caused a number of major epidemics in humans and animals, including the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has brought a renewed focus on the evolution and interspecies transmission of coronaviruses. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), which was recently identified in piglets in southern China, is an alphacoronavirus that originates from the same genus of horseshoe bats as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and that was reported to be capable of infecting cells from a broad range of species, suggesting a considerable potential for interspecies transmission. Given the importance of the coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein in host range determination and viral entry, we report a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the SADS-CoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation at a 3.55-Å resolution. Our structure reveals that the SADS-CoV S trimer assumes an intrasubunit quaternary packing mode in which the S1 subunit N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and the S1 subunit C-terminal domain (S1-CTD) of the same protomer pack together by facing each other in the lying-down state. SADS-CoV S has several distinctive structural features that may facilitate immune escape, such as a relatively compact architecture of the S trimer and epitope masking by glycan shielding. Comparison of SADS-CoV S with the spike proteins of the other coronavirus genera suggested that the structural features of SADS-CoV S are evolutionarily related to those of the spike proteins of the other genera rather than to the spike protein of a typical alphacoronavirus. These data provide new insights into the evolutionary relationship between spike glycoproteins of SADS-CoV and those of other coronaviruses and extend our understanding of their structural and functional diversity.IMPORTANCE In this article, we report the atomic-resolution prefusion structure of the spike protein from swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV). SADS-CoV is a pathogenic alphacoronavirus that was responsible for a large-scale outbreak of fatal disease in pigs and that was reported to be capable of interspecies transmission. We describe the overall structure of the SADS-CoV spike protein and conducted a detailed analysis of its main structural elements. Our results and analyses are consistent with those of previous phylogenetic studies and suggest that the SADS-CoV spike protein is evolutionarily related to the spike proteins of betacoronaviruses, with a strong similarity in S1-NTDs and a marked divergence in S1-CTDs. Moreover, we discuss the possible immune evasion strategies used by the SADS-CoV spike protein. Our study provides insights into the structure and immune evasion strategies of the SADS-CoV spike protein and broadens the understanding of the evolutionary relationships between coronavirus spike proteins of different genera.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Evolution, Molecular , Immune Evasion , Models, Molecular , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Structural Homology, Protein
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108933, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966338

ABSTRACT

There is strong evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, originated from an animal reservoir. However, the exact mechanisms of emergence, the host species involved, and the risk to domestic and agricultural animals are largely unknown. Some domestic animal species, including cats, ferrets, and minks, have been demonstrated to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while others, such as pigs and chickens, are not. Importantly, the susceptibility of ruminants to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, even though they often live in close proximity to humans. We investigated the replication and tissue tropism of two different SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the respiratory tract of three farm animal species - cattle, sheep, and pigs - using respiratory ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs). We demonstrate that the respiratory tissues of cattle and sheep, but not of pigs, sustain viral replication in vitro of both isolates and that SARS-CoV-2 is associated to ACE2-expressing cells of the respiratory tract of both ruminant species. Intriguingly, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing an amino acid substitution at site 614 of the spike protein (mutation D614G) replicated at higher magnitude in ex vivo tissues of both ruminant species, supporting previous results obtained using human cells. These results suggest that additional in vivo experiments involving several ruminant species are warranted to determine their potential role in the epidemiology of this virus.


Subject(s)
Organ Culture Techniques , Respiratory System/virology , Ruminants/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Cattle/virology , Host Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sheep/virology , Swine/virology
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