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Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 64(6): 677-686, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259048


There is an urgent need for new drugs for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including those with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). ARDS in influenza-infected mice is associated with reduced concentrations of liponucleotides (essential precursors for de novo phospholipid synthesis) in alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cells. Because surfactant phospholipid synthesis is a primary function of ATII cells, we hypothesized that disrupting this process could contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of influenza-induced ARDS. The goal of this study was to determine whether parenteral liponucleotide supplementation can attenuate ARDS. C57BL/6 mice inoculated intranasally with 10,000 plaque-forming units/mouse of H1N1 influenza A/WSN/33 virus were treated with CDP (cytidine 5'-diphospho)-choline (100 µg/mouse i.p.) ± CDP -diacylglycerol 16:0/16:0 (10 µg/mouse i.p.) once daily from 1 to 5 days after inoculation (to model postexposure influenza prophylaxis) or as a single dose on Day 5 (to model treatment of patients with ongoing influenza-induced ARDS). Daily postexposure prophylaxis with CDP-choline attenuated influenza-induced hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, alterations in lung mechanics, impairment of alveolar fluid clearance, and pulmonary inflammation without altering viral replication. These effects were not recapitulated by the daily administration of CTP (cytidine triphosphate) and/or choline. Daily coadministration of CDP-diacylglycerol significantly enhanced the beneficial effects of CDP-choline and also modified the ATII cell lipidome, reversing the infection-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine and increasing concentrations of most other lipid classes in ATII cells. Single-dose treatment with both liponucleotides at 5 days after inoculation also attenuated hypoxemia, altered lung mechanics, and inflammation. Overall, our data show that liponucleotides act rapidly to reduce disease severity in mice with severe influenza-induced ARDS.

Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/pharmacology , Cytidine Diphosphate Diglycerides/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/complications , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 565: 8-13, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252489


Amidst infectious disease outbreaks, a practical tool that can quantitatively monitor individuals' antibodies to pathogens is vital for disease control. The currently used serological lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) can only detect the presence of antibodies for a single antigen. Here, we fabricated a multiplexed circular flow immunoassay (CFIA) test strip with YOLO v4-based object recognition that can quickly quantify and differentiate antibodies that bind membrane glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or hemagglutinin of influenza A (H1N1) virus in the sera of immunized mice in one assay using one sample. Spot intensities were found to be indicative of antibody titers to membrane glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and were, thus, quantified relative to spots from immunoglobulin G (IgG) reaction in a CFIA to account for image heterogeneity. Quantitative intensities can be displayed in real time alongside an image of CFIA that was captured by a built-in camera. We demonstrate for the first time that CFIA is a specific, multi-target, and quantitative tool that holds potential for digital and simultaneous monitoring of antibodies recognizing various pathogens including SARS-CoV-2.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2670, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225507


Understanding how antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 evolve during infection may provide important insight into therapeutic approaches and vaccination for COVID-19. Here we profile the antibody responses of 162 COVID-19 symptomatic patients in the COVID-BioB cohort followed longitudinally for up to eight months from symptom onset to find SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, as well as antibodies either recognizing SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and nucleoprotein, or specific for S2 antigen of seasonal beta-coronaviruses and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 flu virus. The presence of neutralizing antibodies within the first weeks from symptoms onset correlates with time to a negative swab result (p = 0.002), while the lack of neutralizing capacity correlates with an increased risk of a fatal outcome (p = 0.008). Neutralizing antibody titers progressively drop after 5-8 weeks but are still detectable up to 8 months in the majority of recovered patients regardless of age or co-morbidities, with IgG to spike antigens providing the best correlate of neutralization. Antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses are temporarily boosted, and parallel those to SARS-CoV-2 without dampening the specific response or worsening disease progression. Our results thus suggest compromised immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike to be a major trait of COVID-19 patients with critical conditions, and thereby inform on the planning of COVID-19 patient care and therapy prioritization.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Rate