Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 167, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585891

ABSTRACT

The ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a worldwide pandemic and a major global public health threat. The severity and mortality of COVID-19 are associated with virus-induced dysfunctional inflammatory responses and cytokine storms. However, the interplay between host inflammatory responses and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein, the major structural protein of the virion, promotes the virus-triggered activation of NF-κB signaling. After binding to viral RNA, N protein robustly undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which recruits TAK1 and IKK complex, the key kinases of NF-κB signaling, to enhance NF-κB activation. Moreover, 1,6-hexanediol, the inhibitor of LLPS, can attenuate the phase separation of N protein and restrict its regulatory functions in NF-κB activation. These results suggest that LLPS of N protein provides a platform to induce NF-κB hyper-activation, which could be a potential therapeutic target against COVID-19 severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , A549 Cells , Acrylates/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Vero Cells
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389560

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-based vaccines may be limited by proteolysis of the translated product due to anomalous protein folding. This may be the case for vaccines employing linear SARS-CoV-2 B-cell epitopes identified in previous studies since most of them participate in secondary structure formation. In contrast, we have employed a consensus of predictors for epitopic zones plus a structural filter for identifying 20 unstructured B-cell epitope-containing loops (uBCELs) in S, M, and N proteins. Phylogenetic comparison suggests epitope switching with respect to SARS-CoV in some of the identified uBCELs. Such events may be associated with the reported lack of serum cross-protection between the 2003 and 2019 pandemic strains. Incipient variability within a sample of 1639 SARS-CoV-2 isolates was also detected for 10 uBCELs which could cause vaccine failure. Intermediate stages of the putative epitope switch events were observed in bat coronaviruses in which additive mutational processes possibly facilitating evasion of the bat immune system appear to have taken place prior to transfer to humans. While there was some overlap between uBCELs and previously validated SARS-CoV B-cell epitopes, multiple uBCELs had not been identified in prior studies. Overall, these uBCELs may facilitate the development of biomedical products for SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688436, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259348

ABSTRACT

Background: Adaptive immune responses to structural proteins of the virion play a crucial role in protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We therefore studied T cell responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in a large cohort using a simple, fast, and high-throughput approach. Methods: An automated interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) for the Nucleocapsid (NC)-, Membrane (M)-, Spike-C-terminus (SCT)-, and N-terminus-protein (SNT)-specific T cell responses was performed using fresh whole blood from study subjects with convalescent, confirmed COVID-19 (n = 177, more than 200 days post infection), exposed household members (n = 145), and unexposed controls (n = 85). SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were assessed using Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Ro-N-Ig) and Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgG) (EI-S1-IgG). Results: 156 of 177 (88%) previously PCR confirmed cases were still positive by Ro-N-Ig more than 200 days after infection. In T cells, most frequently the M-protein was targeted by 88% seropositive, PCR confirmed cases, followed by SCT (85%), NC (82%), and SNT (73%), whereas each of these antigens was recognized by less than 14% of non-exposed control subjects. Broad targeting of these structural virion proteins was characteristic of convalescent SARS-CoV-2 infection; 68% of all seropositive individuals targeted all four tested antigens. Indeed, anti-NC antibody titer correlated loosely, but significantly with the magnitude and breadth of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response. Age, sex, and body mass index were comparable between the different groups. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity correlates with broad T cell reactivity of the structural virus proteins at 200 days after infection and beyond. The SARS-CoV-2-IGRA can facilitate large scale determination of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses with high accuracy against multiple targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 663688, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221939

ABSTRACT

The establishment of SARS CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped lentiviral (LV) systems has enabled the rapid identification of entry inhibitors and neutralizing agents, alongside allowing for the study of this emerging pathogen in BSL-2 level facilities. While such frameworks recapitulate the cellular entry process in ACE2+ cells, they are largely unable to factor in supplemental contributions by other SARS CoV-2 genes. To address this, we performed an unbiased ORF screen and identified the nucleoprotein (N) as a potent enhancer of spike-pseudotyped LV particle infectivity. We further demonstrate that the spike protein is better enriched in virions when the particles are produced in the presence of N protein. This enrichment of spike renders LV particles more infectious as well as less vulnerable to the neutralizing effects of a human IgG-Fc fused ACE2 microbody. Importantly, this improvement in infectivity is observed with both wild-type spike protein as well as the D614G mutant. Our results hold important implications for the design and interpretation of similar LV pseudotyping-based studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Humans , Nucleoproteins/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 167, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203416

ABSTRACT

The ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a worldwide pandemic and a major global public health threat. The severity and mortality of COVID-19 are associated with virus-induced dysfunctional inflammatory responses and cytokine storms. However, the interplay between host inflammatory responses and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein, the major structural protein of the virion, promotes the virus-triggered activation of NF-κB signaling. After binding to viral RNA, N protein robustly undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which recruits TAK1 and IKK complex, the key kinases of NF-κB signaling, to enhance NF-κB activation. Moreover, 1,6-hexanediol, the inhibitor of LLPS, can attenuate the phase separation of N protein and restrict its regulatory functions in NF-κB activation. These results suggest that LLPS of N protein provides a platform to induce NF-κB hyper-activation, which could be a potential therapeutic target against COVID-19 severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , A549 Cells , Acrylates/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Vero Cells
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009431, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172888

ABSTRACT

Tracking evolution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within infected individuals will help elucidate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis and inform use of antiviral interventions. In this study, we developed an approach for sequencing the region encoding the SARS-CoV-2 virion surface proteins from large numbers of individual virus RNA genomes per sample. We applied this approach to the WA-1 reference clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 passaged in vitro and to upper respiratory samples from 7 study participants with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 genomes from cell culture were diverse, including 18 haplotypes with non-synonymous mutations clustered in the spike NH2-terminal domain (NTD) and furin cleavage site regions. By contrast, cross-sectional analysis of samples from participants with COVID-19 showed fewer virus variants, without structural clustering of mutations. However, longitudinal analysis in one individual revealed 4 virus haplotypes bearing 3 independent mutations in a spike NTD epitope targeted by autologous antibodies. These mutations arose coincident with a 6.2-fold rise in serum binding to spike and a transient increase in virus burden. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a capacity for rapid genetic adaptation that becomes detectable in vivo with the onset of humoral immunity, with the potential to contribute to delayed virologic clearance in the acute setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epitopes , Immunity, Humoral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167780

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated intense interest in the rapid development and evaluation of vaccine candidates for this disease and other emerging diseases. Several novel methods for preparing vaccine candidates are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in response to the urgent need to prevent the spread of COVID-19. In many cases, these methods rely on new approaches for vaccine production and immune stimulation. We report on the use of a novel method (SolaVAX) for production of an inactivated vaccine candidate and the testing of that candidate in a hamster animal model for its ability to prevent infection upon challenge with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The studies employed in this work included an evaluation of the levels of neutralizing antibody produced post-vaccination, levels of specific antibody sub-types to RBD and spike protein that were generated, evaluation of viral shedding post-challenge, flow cytometric and single cell sequencing data on cellular fractions and histopathological evaluation of tissues post-challenge. The results from this preliminary evaluation provide insight into the immunological responses occurring as a result of vaccination with the proposed vaccine candidate and the impact that adjuvant formulations, specifically developed to promote Th1 type immune responses, have on vaccine efficacy and protection against infection following challenge with live SARS-CoV-2. This data may have utility in the development of effective vaccine candidates broadly. Furthermore, the results of this preliminary evaluation suggest that preparation of a whole virion vaccine for COVID-19 using this specific photochemical method may have potential utility in the preparation of one such vaccine candidate.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090280

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the unceasing COVID-19 pandemic, the identification of immunogenic epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein plays a vital role in the advancement and development of intervention strategies. S is expressed on the exterior of the SARS-CoV-2 virion and contains two subunits, namely the N-terminal S1 and C-terminal S2. It is the key element for mediating viral entry as well as a crucial antigenic determinant capable of stimulating protective immune response through elicitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and activation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in COVID-19 patients. Given that S2 is highly conserved in comparison to the S1, here, we provide a review of the latest findings on the SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit and further discuss its potential as an attractive and promising target for the development of prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic agents against COVID-19.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 543: 45-49, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053221

ABSTRACT

In order to control the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, serious progress has been made to identify infected patients and to detect patients with a positive immune response against the virus. Currently, attempts to generate a vaccine against the coronavirus are ongoing. To understand SARS-CoV-2 immunoreactivity, we compared the IgG antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 in infected versus control patients by dot blot using recombinant viral particle proteins: N (Nucleocapsid), M (Membrane) and S (Spike). In addition, we used different protein fragments of the N and S protein to map immune epitopes. Most of the COVID-19 patients presented a specific immune response against the full length and fragments of the N protein and, to lesser extent, against a fragment containing amino acids 300-685 of the S protein. In contrast, immunoreactivity against other S protein fragments or the M protein was low. This response is specific for COVID-19 patients as very few of the control patients displayed immunoreactivity, likely reflecting an immune response against other coronaviruses. Altogether, our results may help develop method(s) for measuring COVID-19 antibody response, selectivity of methods detecting such SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Coronavirus M Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology
10.
Virology ; 556: 1-8, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045103

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is one of the emerged coronaviruses posing a significant threat to the swine industry. Previous work showed the presence of a viral accessory protein NS6 in PDCoV-infected cells. In this study, we detected the expression of the NS6 protein in small intestinal tissues of PDCoV-infected piglets. In addition, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of sucrose gradient-purified virions showed the presence of a 13-kDa NS6 protein. Further evidences of the presence of NS6 in the PDCoV virions were obtained by immunogold staining of purified virions with anti-NS6 antiserum, and by immunoprecipitation of NS6 from purified virions. Finally, the anti-NS6 antibody was not able to neutralize PDCoV in cultured cells. These data establish for the first time that the accessory protein NS6 is expressed during infection in vivo and incorporated into PDCoV virions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Mice , Rabbits , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2606-2618, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944152

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing huge impact on health, life, and global economy, which is characterized by rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2, high number of confirmed cases and a fatality/case rate worldwide reported by WHO. The most effective intervention measure will be to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect the population from the disease and limit the spread of the virus. An inactivated, whole virus vaccine candidate of SARS-CoV-2 has been developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Wuhan Institute of Virology. The low toxicity, immunogenicity, and immune persistence were investigated in preclinical studies using seven different species of animals. The results showed that the vaccine candidate was well tolerated and stimulated high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Low or no toxicity in three species of animals was also demonstrated in preclinical study of the vaccine candidate. Biochemical analysis of structural proteins and purity analysis were performed. The inactivated, whole virion vaccine was characterized with safe double-inactivation, no use of DNases and high purity. Dosages, boosting times, adjuvants, and immunization schedules were shown to be important for stimulating a strong humoral immune response in animals tested. Preliminary observation in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials of the vaccine candidate in Wuzhi County, Henan Province, showed that the vaccine is well tolerant. The results were characterized by very low proportion and low degree of side effects, high levels of neutralizing antibodies, and seroconversion. These results consistent with the results obtained from preclinical data on the safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
12.
J Virol ; 94(17)2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831425

ABSTRACT

Accessory genes occurring between the S and E genes of coronaviruses have been studied quite intensively during the last decades. In porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), the only gene at this location, ORF3, encodes a 224-residue membrane protein shown to exhibit ion channel activity and to enhance virus production. However, little is known about its intracellular trafficking or about its function during PEDV infection. In this study, two recombinant PEDVs were rescued by targeted RNA recombination, one carrying the full-length ORF3 gene and one from which the gene had been deleted entirely. These viruses as well as a PEDV encoding a naturally truncated ORF3 protein were employed to study the ORF3 protein's subcellular trafficking. In addition, ORF3 expression vectors were constructed to study the protein's independent transport. Our results show that the ORF3 protein uses the exocytic pathway to move to and accumulate in the Golgi area of the cell similarly in infected and transfected cells. Like the S protein, but unlike the other structural proteins M and N, the ORF3 protein was additionally observed at the surface of PEDV-infected cells. In addition, the C-terminally truncated ORF3 protein entered the exocytic pathway but it was unable to leave the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Consistently, a YxxØ motif essential for ER exit was identified in the C-terminal domain. Finally, despite the use of sensitive antibodies and assays no ORF3 protein could be detected in highly purified PEDV particles, indicating that the protein is not a structural virion component.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses typically express several accessory proteins. They vary in number and nature, and only one is conserved among most of the coronaviruses, pointing at an important biological function for this protein. PEDV is peculiar in that it expresses just this one accessory protein, termed the ORF3 protein. While its analogs in other coronaviruses have been studied to different extents, and these studies have indicated that they share an ion channel property, little is still known about the features and functions of the PEDV ORF3 protein except for its association with virulence. In this investigation, we studied the intracellular trafficking of the ORF3 protein both in infected cells and when expressed independently. In addition, we analyzed the effects of mutations in five sorting motifs in its C-terminal domain and investigated whether the protein, found to follow the same exocytic route by which the viral structural membrane proteins travel, is also incorporated into virions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Exocytosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Open Reading Frames , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Genetic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Plasmids/genetics , Protein Transport , Proteomics , Swine , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
13.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827743

ABSTRACT

TER94 is a multifunctional AAA+ ATPase crucial for diverse cellular processes, especially protein quality control and chromatin dynamics in eukaryotic organisms. Many viruses, including coronavirus, herpesvirus, and retrovirus, coopt host cellular TER94 for optimal viral invasion and replication. Previous proteomics analysis identified the association of TER94 with the budded virions (BVs) of baculovirus, an enveloped insect large DNA virus. Here, the role of TER94 in the prototypic baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) life cycle was investigated. In virus-infected cells, TER94 accumulated in virogenic stroma (VS) at the early stage of infection and subsequently partially rearranged in the ring zone region. In the virions, TER94 was associated with the nucleocapsids of both BV and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). Inhibition of TER94 ATPase activity significantly reduced viral DNA replication and BV production. Electron/immunoelectron microscopy revealed that inhibition of TER94 resulted in the trapping of nucleocapsids within cytoplasmic vacuoles at the nuclear periphery for BV formation and blockage of ODV envelopment at a premature stage within infected nuclei, which appeared highly consistent with its pivotal function in membrane biogenesis. Further analyses showed that TER94 was recruited to the VS or subnuclear structures through interaction with viral early proteins LEF3 and helicase, whereas inhibition of TER94 activity blocked the proper localization of replication-related viral proteins and morphogenesis of VS, providing an explanation for its role in viral DNA replication. Taken together, these data indicated the crucial functions of TER94 at multiple steps of the baculovirus life cycle, including genome replication, BV formation, and ODV morphogenesis.IMPORTANCE TER94 constitutes an important AAA+ ATPase that associates with diverse cellular processes, including protein quality control, membrane fusion of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum network, nuclear envelope reformation, and DNA replication. To date, little is known regarding the role(s) of TER94 in the baculovirus life cycle. In this study, TER94 was found to play a crucial role in multiple steps of baculovirus infection, including viral DNA replication and BV and ODV formation. Further evidence showed that the membrane fission/fusion function of TER94 is likely to be exploited by baculovirus for virion morphogenesis. Moreover, TER94 could interact with the viral early proteins LEF3 and helicase to transport and further recruit viral replication-related proteins to establish viral replication factories. This study highlights the critical roles of TER94 as an energy-supplying chaperon in the baculovirus life cycle and enriches our knowledge regarding the biological function of this important host factor.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleopolyhedroviruses/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Nucleus/virology , Cytoplasm/virology , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA, Viral/biosynthesis , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Sf9 Cells/virology , Vacuoles/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion
14.
Front Nutr ; 7: 143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803085

ABSTRACT

Glutathione peroxidases (GPX), a family of antioxidant selenoenzymes, functionally link selenium and glutathione, which both show correlations with clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Thus, it is highly significant that cytosolic GPX1 has been shown to interact with an inactive C145A mutant of Mpro, the main cysteine protease of SARS-CoV-2, but not with catalytically active wild-type Mpro. This seemingly anomalous result is what might be expected if GPX1 is a substrate for the active protease, leading to its fragmentation. We show that the GPX1 active site sequence is substantially similar to a known Mpro cleavage site, and is identified as a potential cysteine protease site by the Procleave algorithm. Proteolytic knockdown of GPX1 is highly consistent with previously documented effects of recombinant SARS-CoV Mpro in transfected cells, including increased reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. Because NF-κB in turn activates many pro-inflammatory cytokines, this mechanism could contribute to increased inflammation and cytokine storms observed in COVID-19. Using web-based protease cleavage site prediction tools, we show that Mpro may be targeting not only GPX1, but several other selenoproteins including SELENOF and thioredoxin reductase 1, as well as glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis. This hypothesized proteolytic knockdown of components of both the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems is consistent with a viral strategy to inhibit DNA synthesis, to increase the pool of ribonucleotides for RNA synthesis, thereby enhancing virion production. The resulting "collateral damage" of increased oxidative stress and inflammation would be exacerbated by dietary deficiencies of selenium and glutathione precursors.

15.
Microb Risk Anal ; 16: 100140, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779468

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infect the human respiratory tract. A prototype thermodynamic equilibrium model is presented here for the probability of the virions getting through the mucus barrier and infecting epithelial cells based on the binding affinity (Kmucin) of the virions to mucin molecules in the mucus and parameters for binding and infection of the epithelial cell. Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 bind strongly to their cellular receptors, DDP4 and ACE2, respectively, and infect very efficiently both bronchus and lung ex vivo cell cultures which are not protected by a mucus barrier. According to the model, mucin binding could reduce the infectivity for MERS-CoV compared to SARS-CoV-2 by at least 100-fold depending on the magnitude of Kmucin. Specifically Kmucin values up to 106 M-1 have little protective effect and thus the mucus barrier would not remove SARS-CoV-2 which does not bind to sialic acids (SA) and hence would have a very low Kmucin. Depending on the viability of individual virions, the ID50 for SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be ~500 virions (viral RNA genomic copies) representing 1 to 2 pfu. In contrast MERS-CoV binds both SA and human mucin and a Kmucin of 5 × 109 M-1 as reported for lectins would mop up 99.83% of the virus according to the model with the ID50 for MERS-CoV estimated to be ~295,000 virions (viral RNA genomic copies) representing 819 pfu. This could in part explain why MERS-CoV is poorly transmitted from human to human compared to SARS-CoV-2. Some coronaviruses use an esterase to escape the mucin, although MERS-CoV does not. Instead, it is shown here that "clustering" of virions into single aerosol particles as recently reported for rotavirus in extracellular vesicles could provide a co-operative mechanism whereby MERS-CoV could theoretically overcome the mucin barrier locally and a small proportion of 10 µm diameter aerosol particles could contain ~70 virions based on reported maximum levels in saliva. Although recent evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 initiates infection in the nasal epithelium, the thermodynamic equilibrium models presented here could complement published approaches for modelling the physical entry of pathogens to the lung based on the fate and transport of the pathogen particles (as for anthrax spores) to develop a dose-response model for aerosol exposure to respiratory viruses. This would enable the infectivity through aerosols to be defined based on molecular parameters as well as physical parameters. The role of the spike proteins of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 binding to SA and heparan sulphate, respectively, may be to aid non-specific attachment to the host cell. It is proposed that a high Kmucin is the cost for subsequent binding of MERS-CoV to SAs on the cell surface to partially overcome the unfavourable entropy of immobilisation as the virus adopts the correct orientation for spike protein interactions with its protein cellular receptor DPP4.

16.
Nano Lett ; 20(7): 5367-5375, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628240

ABSTRACT

Geometry-matching has been known to benefit the formation of stable biological interactions in natural systems. Herein, we report that the spiky nanostructures with matched topography to the influenza A virus (IAV) virions could be used to design next-generation advanced virus inhibitors. We demonstrated that nanostructures with spikes between 5 and 10 nm bind significantly better to virions than smooth nanoparticles, due to the short spikes inserting into the gaps of glycoproteins of the IAV virion. Furthermore, an erythrocyte membrane (EM) was coated to target the IAV, and the obtained EM-coated nanostructures could efficiently prevent IAV virion binding to the cells and inhibit subsequent infection. In a postinfection study, the EM-coated nanostructures reduced >99.9% virus replication at the cellular nontoxic dosage. We predict that such a combination of geometry-matching topography and cellular membrane coating will also push forward the development of nanoinhibitors for other virus strains, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Design , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Models, Biological , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Virus Internalization/drug effects
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(28): 7685-7699, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737989

ABSTRACT

Pathogen-host cell interactions play an important role in many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. Several pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and even the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), can cause serious breathing and brain disorders, tissue injury and inflammation, leading to high rates of mortality and resulting in great loss to human physical and mental health as well as the global economy. These infectious diseases exploit the microbial and host factors to induce serious inflammatory and immunological symptoms. Thus the development of anti-inflammatory drugs targeting bacterial/viral infection is an urgent need. In previous studies, YojI-IFNAR2, YojI-IL10RA, YojI-NRP1,YojI-SIGLEC7, and YojI-MC4R membrane-protein interactions were found to mediate E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which activated the downstream anti-inflammatory proteins NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2(NLRP2), using a proteomic chip conjugated with cell immunofluorescence labeling. However, the studies of pathogen (bacteria/virus)-host cell interactions mediated by membrane protein interactions did not extend their principles to broad biomedical applications such as 2019-nCoV infectious disease therapy. The first part of this feature article presents in-depth analysis of the cross-talk of cellular anti-inflammatory transduction signaling among interferon membrane protein receptor II (IFNAR2), interleukin-10 receptor subunit alpha (IL-10RA), NLRP2 and [Ca2+]-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G5), based on experimental results and important published studies, which lays a theoretical foundation for the high-throughput construction of the cytokine and virion solution chip. The paper then moves on to the construction of the novel GPCR recombinant herpes virion chip and virion nano-oscillators for profiling membrane protein functions, which drove the idea of constructing the new recombinant virion and cytokine liquid chips for HTS of leading drugs. Due to the different structural properties of GPCR, IFNAR2, ACE2 and Spike of 2019-nCoV, their ligands will either bind the extracellular domain of IFNAR2/ACE2/Spike or the specific loops of the GPCR on the envelope of the recombinant herpes virions to induce dynamic charge distribution changes that lead to the variable electron transition for detection. Taken together, the combined overview of two of the most innovative and exciting developments in the immunoinflammatory field provides new insight into high-throughput construction of ultrasensitive cytokine and virion liquid chips for HTS of anti-inflammatory drugs or clinical diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases, acute or chronic inflammation (acute gouty arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), cardiovascular disease, atheromatosis, diabetes, obesity, tissue injury and tumors. It has significant value in the prevention and treatment of these serious and painful diseases. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/instrumentation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Animals , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Discovery/instrumentation , Drug Discovery/methods , Equipment Design , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Virion/drug effects , Virion/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology
18.
Malays J Pathol ; 42(1): 3-11, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-159537

ABSTRACT

were identified beginning with the discovery of SARS-CoV in 2002. With the recent detection of SARS-CoV-2, there are now seven human coronaviruses. Those that cause mild diseases are the 229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1, and the pathogenic species are SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 Coronaviruses (order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, and subfamily Orthocoronavirinae) are spherical (125nm diameter), and enveloped with club-shaped spikes on the surface giving the appearance of a solar corona. Within the helically symmetrical nucleocapsid is the large positive sense, single stranded RNA. Of the four coronavirus genera (α,ß,γ,δ), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are classified under α-CoV (HCoV-229E and NL63) and ß-CoV (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoVOC43 and HCoV-HKU1). SARS-CoV-2 is a ß-CoV and shows fairly close relatedness with two bat-derived CoV-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. Even so, its genome is similar to that of the typical CoVs. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV originated in bats, and it appears to be so for SARS-CoV-2 as well. The possibility of an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans has already been shown with civet cats acting as intermediate hosts for SARS-CoVs, and dromedary camels for MERS-CoV. Human-to-human transmission is primarily achieved through close contact of respiratory droplets, direct contact with the infected individuals, or by contact with contaminated objects and surfaces. The coronaviral genome contains four major structural proteins: the spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, all of which are encoded within the 3' end of the genome. The S protein mediates attachment of the virus to the host cell surface receptors resulting in fusion and subsequent viral entry. The M protein is the most abundant protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope. The E protein is the smallest of the major structural proteins and participates in viral assembly and budding. The N protein is the only one that binds to the RNA genome and is also involved in viral assembly and budding. Replication of coronaviruses begin with attachment and entry. Attachment of the virus to the host cell is initiated by interactions between the S protein and its specific receptor. Following receptor binding, the virus enters host cell cytosol via cleavage of S protein by a protease enzyme, followed by fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. The next step is the translation of the replicase gene from the virion genomic RNA and then translation and assembly of the viral replicase complexes. Following replication and subgenomic RNA synthesis, encapsidation occurs resulting in the formation of the mature virus. Following assembly, virions are transported to the cell surface in vesicles and released by exocytosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Genome, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus M Proteins , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(3): e1008392, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-5756

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses recognize a variety of receptors using different domains of their envelope-anchored spike protein. How these diverse receptor recognition patterns affect viral entry is unknown. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) is the only known coronavirus that uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike to recognize a protein receptor, CEACAM1a. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure of MHV spike complexed with mouse CEACAM1a. The trimeric spike contains three receptor-binding S1 heads sitting on top of a trimeric membrane-fusion S2 stalk. Three receptor molecules bind to the sides of the spike trimer, where three NTDs are located. Receptor binding induces structural changes in the spike, weakening the interactions between S1 and S2. Using protease sensitivity and negative-stain EM analyses, we further showed that after protease treatment of the spike, receptor binding facilitated the dissociation of S1 from S2, allowing S2 to transition from pre-fusion to post-fusion conformation. Together these results reveal a new role of receptor binding in MHV entry: in addition to its well-characterized role in viral attachment to host cells, receptor binding also induces the conformational change of the spike and hence the fusion of viral and host membranes. Our study provides new mechanistic insight into coronavirus entry and highlights the diverse entry mechanisms used by different viruses.


Subject(s)
Carcinoembryonic Antigen/chemistry , Murine hepatitis virus/chemistry , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization , Animals , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/metabolism , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/ultrastructure , Cell Line, Tumor , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Mice , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Proteolysis , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS Virus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Virus Attachment
20.
J Virol ; 94(4)2020 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) nucleocapsid (N) proteins are key for incorporating genomic RNA into progeny viral particles. In infected cells, N proteins are present at the replication-transcription complexes (RTCs), the sites of CoV RNA synthesis. It has been shown that N proteins are important for viral replication and that the one of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a commonly used model CoV, interacts with nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), a component of the RTCs. These two aspects of the CoV life cycle, however, have not been linked. We found that the MHV N protein binds exclusively to nsp3 and not other RTC components by using a systematic yeast two-hybrid approach, and we identified two distinct regions in the N protein that redundantly mediate this interaction. A selective N protein variant carrying point mutations in these two regions fails to bind nsp3 in vitro, resulting in inhibition of its recruitment to RTCs in vivo Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type N protein, this N protein variant impairs the stimulation of genomic RNA and viral mRNA transcription in vivo and in vitro, which in turn leads to impairment of MHV replication and progeny production. Altogether, our results show that N protein recruitment to RTCs, via binding to nsp3, is an essential step in the CoV life cycle because it is critical for optimal viral RNA synthesis.IMPORTANCE CoVs have long been regarded as relatively harmless pathogens for humans. Severe respiratory tract infection outbreaks caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, however, have caused high pathogenicity and mortality rates in humans. These outbreaks highlighted the relevance of being able to control CoV infections. We used a model CoV, MHV, to investigate the importance of the recruitment of N protein, a central component of CoV virions, to intracellular platforms where CoVs replicate, transcribe, and translate their genomes. By identifying the principal binding partner at these intracellular platforms and generating a specific mutant, we found that N protein recruitment to these locations is crucial for promoting viral RNA synthesis. Moreover, blocking this recruitment strongly inhibits viral infection. Thus, our results explain an important aspect of the CoV life cycle and reveal an interaction of viral proteins that could be targeted in antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Transcription, Genetic/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Humans , Mice , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL