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1.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
2.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1012-1024, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472229

ABSTRACT

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.


Subject(s)
Aging/genetics , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/pathology , Biological Specimen Banks , Chromosome Aberrations , Communicable Diseases/complications , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/genetics , Digestive System Diseases/microbiology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mosaicism , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Urogenital Abnormalities/genetics , Urogenital Abnormalities/microbiology , Young Adult
3.
Eur Phys J Plus ; 136(3): 319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388540

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases afflict human beings since ancient times. We can classify the infectious disease in two principal types: the emerging diseases, that are caused by new pathogens, and the re-emerging diseases, due to a new spread of a known pathogen. Both types can then be subdivided in natural, accidental or intentional spreads. The risk associated to infectious diseases strongly increased in the last decades, especially because of the globalisation, which leads to a denser and more efficient link between nations, involving that a local infectious may easily spread worldwide, such as the SARS-CoV-2 in 2019-2020. The development of new methods to predict the spread of diseases is crucial. However, sometimes the variables are too many that classical algorithms fail in the prediction. Aim of this work is to investigate the use of an ensemble of recurrent neural networks for disease prediction, using real flu's data to train and develop an instrument with the capability to determine the future flues. Two different types of study have been conducted. The first study investigates the influence of the neural network architecture, and it has been performed using 12 seasons to train the model and 3 seasons to test it. The second test aims to investigate the number of seasons needed to have a good prediction for future ones. The results demonstrated that this approach could ensure very high performances also with simple architectures. The ensemble approach allows to have information about the uncertainty of the prediction, allowing also to take countermeasures as a function of that value. In the future, the use of this approach may be applied to many other types of disease.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 223(3): 399-402, 2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387901

ABSTRACT

Social distancing (SD) measures aimed at curbing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 remain an important public health intervention. Little is known about the collateral impact of reduced mobility on the risk of other communicable diseases. We used differences in dengue case counts pre- and post implementation of SD measures and exploited heterogeneity in SD treatment effects among different age groups in Singapore to identify the spillover effects of SD measures. SD policy caused an increase of over 37.2% in dengue cases from baseline. Additional measures to preemptively mitigate the risk of other communicable diseases must be considered before the implementation/reimplementation of SARS-CoV-2 SD measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Dengue/transmission , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Singapore/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterised by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalised patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalisation. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major haemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, p<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, p=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major haemorrhages.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266725

ABSTRACT

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are commonly affected by medical illness. The aim of the present study was to explore the risks of contracting respiratory infectious diseases (RIDs), including upper and lower RIDs and influenza, in children with ADHD. We also examined whether methylphenidate has a protective effect regarding the risk of contracting RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment. Children in the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2016 were included in the present study. Upper and lower RIDs, influenza, ADHD, age, sex, and records of methylphenidate prescription were identified. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the significance of the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD in comparison with that among children without ADHD after adjustment for sex and age. The self-controlled case series analysis was conducted to examine the protective effect of methylphenidate treatment against RIDs. In total, 85,853 children with ADHD and 1,458,750 children without ADHD were included in the study. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, we observed that children with ADHD had significantly higher risks of upper RIDs, lower RIDs, and influenza infection than did those without ADHD. Among the children with ADHD who had a history of methylphenidate treatment, the risk of contracting RIDs was lower during the methylphenidate treatment period than during the nontreatment period. Children with ADHD had a higher RID risk than those without ADHD. Methylphenidate might reduce the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Communicable Diseases , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Taiwan/epidemiology
7.
EPMA J ; 12(2): 221-241, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261824

ABSTRACT

Sleep quality and duration play a pivotal role in maintaining physical and mental health. In turn, sleep shortage, deprivation and disorders are per evidence the risk factors and facilitators of a broad spectrum of disorders, amongst others including depression, stroke, chronic inflammation, cancers, immune defence insufficiency and individual predisposition to infection diseases with poor outcomes, for example, related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Keeping in mind that COVID-19-related global infection distribution is neither the first nor the last pandemic severely affecting societies around the globe to the costs of human lives accompanied with enormous economic burden, lessons by predictive, preventive and personalised (3P) medical approach are essential to learn and to follow being better prepared to defend against global pandemics. To this end, under extreme conditions such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, the reciprocal interrelationship between the sleep quality and individual outcomes becomes evident, namely, at the levels of disease predisposition, severe versus mild disease progression, development of disease complications, poor outcomes and related mortality for both - population and healthcare givers. The latter is the prominent example clearly demonstrating the causality of severe outcomes, when the long-lasting work overload and shift work rhythm evidently lead to the sleep shortage and/or deprivation that in turn causes immune response insufficiency and strong predisposition to the acute infection with complications. This article highlights and provides an in-depth analysis of the concerted risk factors related to the sleep disturbances under the COVID-19 pandemic followed by the evidence-based recommendations in the framework of predictive, preventive and personalised medical approach.

8.
Transfus Med ; 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the impact of ABO histo-blood group type on COVID-19 severity. BACKGROUND: ABO histo-blood type has been associated with different outcomes in infectious diseases. It has also shown a higher proportion of type A patients with SARS-CoV-2. In this observational study, extracted from an ongoing clinical trial on the efficacy of convalescent plasma transfused in COVID-19 patients, we describe the impact of ABO blood type on the risk of developing severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive patients (37 type A, 23 type O, 11 type B, 1 type AB) with severe (respiratory failure) COVID-19 were included. Control group was composed of 160 individuals randomly selected from the same populational basis. RESULTS: Blood group A was overrepresented (51.39%) in the patient group in relation to the control group (30%), whereas blood group O was less represented (31.94%) in patient than in control group (48%). Odds ratio (A vs. O) was 2.581 (1.381-4.817), CI 95%; p = 0.004. Also, blood group A patients appeared to have more severe disease, given by the scores of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Simplified Acute Physiologic Score 3 (p = 0.036 and p = 0.058, respectively). CONCLUSION: Histo-blood type A is associated with a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 in relation to blood type O.

9.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 20(5): 289-303, 2021 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258749

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have recently emerged as a new type of vaccine technology, showing strong potential to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 which caused the pandemic, mRNA vaccines have been developed and tested to prevent infectious diseases caused by other viruses such as Zika virus, the dengue virus, the respiratory syncytial virus, influenza H7N9 and Flavivirus. Interestingly, mRNA vaccines may also be useful for preventing non-infectious diseases such as diabetes and cancer. This review summarises the current progresses of mRNA vaccines designed for a range of diseases including COVID-19. As epitope study is a primary component in the in silico design of mRNA vaccines, we also survey on advanced bioinformatics and machine learning algorithms which have been used for epitope prediction, and review on user-friendly software tools available for this purpose. Finally, we discuss some of the unanswered concerns about mRNA vaccines, such as unknown long-term side effects, and present with our perspectives on future developments in this exciting area.


Subject(s)
Epitopes/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Algorithms , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cancer Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control , Computational Biology , Dengue Vaccines , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Machine Learning , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Software , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244036

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found locus 3p21.31 associated with severe COVID-19. CCR5 resides at the same locus and, given its known biological role in other infection diseases, we investigated if common noncoding and rare coding variants, affecting CCR5, can predispose to severe COVID-19. We combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met the suggestive significance level (P ≤ 1 × 10-5) at the 3p21.31 locus in public GWAS datasets (6406 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 902,088 controls) with gene expression data from 208 lung tissues, Hi-C, and Chip-seq data. Through whole exome sequencing (WES), we explored rare coding variants in 147 severe COVID-19 patients. We identified three SNPs (rs9845542, rs12639314, and rs35951367) associated with severe COVID-19 whose risk alleles correlated with low CCR5 expression in lung tissues. The rs35951367 resided in a CTFC binding site that interacts with CCR5 gene in lung tissues and was confirmed to be associated with severe COVID-19 in two independent datasets. We also identified a rare coding variant (rs34418657) associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Our results suggest a biological role of CCR5 in the progression of COVID-19 as common and rare genetic variants can increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 by affecting the functions of CCR5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Alleles , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chromosomes, Human/genetics , Cohort Studies , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Whole Exome Sequencing
11.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(2): G99-G112, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234310

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 represents a novel infectious disease induced by SARS-CoV-2. It has to date affected 24,240,000 individuals and killed 2,735,805 people worldwide. The highly infectious virus attacks mainly the lung, causing fever, cough, and fatigue in symptomatic patients, but also pneumonia in severe cases. However, growing evidence highlights SARS-CoV-2-mediated extrarespiratory manifestations, namely, gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic complications. The detection of 1) the virus in the GI system (duodenum, colon, rectum, anal region, and feces); 2) the high expression of additional candidate coreceptors/auxiliary proteins to facilitate the virus entry; 3) the abundant viral angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor; 4) the substantial expression of host transmembrane serine protease 2, necessary to induce virus-cell fusion; 5) the viral replication in the intestinal epithelial cells; and 6) the primarily GI disorders in the absence of respiratory symptoms lead to increased awareness of the risk of disease transmission via the fecal-oral route. The objectives of this review are to provide a brief update of COVID-19 pathogenesis and prevalence, present a critical overview of its GI and liver complications that affect clinical COVID-19 outcomes, clarify associated mechanisms (notably microbiota-related), define whether gut/liver disorders occur more frequently among critically ill patients with COVID-19, determine the impact of COVID-19 on preexisting gut/liver complications and vice versa, and discuss the available strategies for prevention and treatment to improve prognosis of the patients. The novel SARS-CoV-2 can cause gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary manifestations. Metagenomics studies of virobiota in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are necessary to highlight the contribution of bacterial microflora to COVID-19 phenotype, which is crucial for developing biomarkers and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
12.
J Clin Med Res ; 13(4): 195-203, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225971

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given the rapid spread of the disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019 - 2020 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020, and a pandemic on March 11, 2020. There have been several reports of the limited resources including the lack of intensive care unit (ICU) beds and mechanical ventilators. Thus, biomarkers that predict ICU stay and mortality will be an important tool to appropriately allocate the limited resources. The aim of this review was to identify laboratory markers that can effectively predict the risk of severe infection and increased mortality in COVID-19 cases. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature in six databases to evaluate the predictive value of various biomarkers. We used the keywords "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Novel corona virus pneumonia", "Biomarkers", "Adverse outcomes", "Mortality", etc. among many others to refine our search. Several biomarkers were identified to be associated with adverse outcomes in the above studies. These biomarkers can be used as a tool to identify patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes so that the need for aggressive critical care in such patients is met.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e019650, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which has posed a significant threat to global health. Although the infection is frequently asymptomatic or associated with mild symptoms, in a small proportion of patients it can produce an intense inflammatory and prothrombotic state that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, and death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, highly expressed in the respiratory system, has been identified as a functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Notably, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is also expressed in the cardiovascular system, and there are multiple cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. Cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease have been associated with severe manifestations and poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. More important, patients with COVID-19 may have thrombotic and coagulation abnormalities, promoting a hypercoagulable state and resulting in an increased rate of thrombotic and thromboembolic events. This review will describe the pathophysiological characteristics of the cardiovascular involvement following infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, with a focus on thrombotic and thromboembolic manifestations and implications for antithrombotic management.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Thromboembolism/etiology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 368-372, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases can cause psychological changes in patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and related risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sino-French New City branch of Wuhan Tongji Hospital from January to February 2020. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales were used to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression. Demographic, clinical, and sociological data were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In the current study, 183 patients were enrolled (mean age = 53 ± 9 years; 41.1% women). The prevalences of anxiety and depression were 56.3% and 39.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, female sex, being divorced or widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, renal disease, and depression were identified as independent risk factors for anxiety in patients with COVID-19. Factors that were associated with depression were female sex, being widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 at the peak of the epidemic in Wuhan, China. The identification of demographic, clinical, and social factors may help identify health care professionals to provide psychological care as part of treatment for patients with COVID-19 and other life-threatening infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors
15.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201865

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly worldwide. The major transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 are recognised as inhalation of aerosol/droplets and person-to-person contact. However, some studies have demonstrated that live SARS-CoV-2 can be isolated from the faeces and urine of infected patients, which can then enter the wastewater system. The currently available evidence indicates that the viral RNA present in wastewater may become a potential source of epidemiological data. However, to investigate whether wastewater may present a risk to humans such as sewage workers, we investigated whether intact particles of SARS-CoV-2 were observable and whether it was possible to isolate the virus in wastewater. Using a correlative strategy of light microscopy and electron microscopy (CLEM), we demonstrated the presence of intact and degraded SARS-like particles in RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-positive sewage sample collected in the city of Marseille. However, the viral infectivity assessment of SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater was inconclusive, due to the presence of other viruses known to be highly resistant in the environment such as enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and adenoviruses. Although the survival and the infectious risk of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater cannot be excluded from our study, additional work may be required to investigate the stability, viability, fate, and decay mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 thoroughly in wastewater.

16.
Gene Rep ; 23: 101169, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is necessary to assess the cellular, molecular, and pathogenetic characteristics of COVID-19 and attention is required to understand highly effective gene targets and mechanisms. In this study, we suggest understandings into the fundamental pathogenesis of COVID-19 through gene expression analyses using the microarray data set GSE156445 publicly reachable at NIH/NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database. The data set consists of MCF7 which is a human breast cancer cell line with estrogen, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. The cell lines treated with different quantities of Cissampelos pareira (Cipa). Cipa is a traditional medicinal plant which would possess an antiviral potency in preventing viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Utilizing Biobase, GEOquery, gplots packages in R studio, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The gene ontology (GO) of pathway enrichments employed by utilizing DAVID and KEGG enrichment analyses were studied. We further constructed a human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and performed, based upon that, a subnetwork module analysis for significant signaling pathways. RESULTS: The study identified 418 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using bioinformatics tools. The gene ontology of pathway enrichments employed by GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of down-regulated and up-regulated DEGs were studied. Gene expression analysis utilizing gene ontology and KEGG results uncovered biological and signaling pathways such as "cell adhesion molecules", "plasma membrane adhesion molecules", "synapse assembly", and "Interleukin-3-mediated signaling" which are mostly linked to COVID-19. Our results provide in silico evidence for candidate genes which are vital for the inhibition, adhesion, and encoding cytokine protein including LYN, IGFBP5, IL-1R1, and IL-13RA1 that may have strong biomarker potential for infectious diseases such as COVID-19 related therapy targets.

17.
Sports Med ; 51(8): 1673-1686, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is the prime modality for the prevention of numerous non-communicable diseases and has also been advocated for resilience against COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. However, there is currently no systematic and quantitative evidence synthesis of the association between physical activity and the strength of the immune system. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between habitual physical activity and (1) the risk of community-acquired infectious disease, (2) laboratory-assessed immune parameters, and (3) immune response to vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched seven databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus) up to April 2020 for randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were included if they compared groups of adults with different levels of physical activity and reported immune system cell count, the concentration of antibody, risk of clinically diagnosed infections, risk of hospitalisation and mortality due to infectious disease. Studies involving elite athletes were excluded. The quality of the selected studies was critically examined following the Cochrane guidelines using ROB2 and ROBINS_E. Data were pooled using an inverse variance random-effects model. RESULTS: Higher level of habitual physical activity is associated with a 31% risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.78, 6 studies, N = 557,487 individuals) of community-acquired infectious disease and 37% risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.59-0.70, 4 studies, N = 422,813 individuals) of infectious disease mortality. Physical activity interventions resulted in increased CD4 cell counts (32 cells/µL, 95% CI 7-56 cells/µL, 24 studies, N = 1112 individuals) and salivary immunoglobulin IgA concentration (standardised mean difference 0.756, 95% CI 0.146-1.365, 7 studies, N = 435 individuals) and decreased neutrophil counts (704 cells/µL, 95% CI 68-1340, 6 studies, N = 704 individuals) compared to controls. Antibody concentration after vaccination is higher with an adjunct physical activity programme (standardised mean difference 0.142, 95% CI 0.021-0.262, 6 studies, N = 497 individuals). CONCLUSION: Regular, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with reduced risk of community-acquired infectious diseases and infectious disease mortality, enhances the first line of defence of the immune system, and increases the potency of vaccination. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The original protocol was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020178825).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Immune System , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Neurol Res ; 43(8): 633-641, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192511

ABSTRACT

Background׃COVID-19 (CoranaVirus disease 2019) is an ongoing infectious disease caused by the RNA SARS-CoV-2 virus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2). More than one-third of COVID-19 patients report neurological symptoms and cases of neurological diseases are increasingly accumulating. The aim of this systematic review was to characterize all - to date - reported cases with COVID-19 related myelopathy. Methods׃Eighteen papers were included in this review. Patients of all ages could be affected, although there is a predilection for middle-aged people. Results׃There were no significant co-morbidities or immunodeficiencies in the affected patients. COVID-19 related myelopathy started roughly within the first month after COVID-19 onset, either concomitantly with COVID-19 symptoms or within 10 days after their remission. The vast majority of cases fulfilled our criteria for postinfectious transverse myelitis. However, some cases were considered to have had parainfectious or infectious myelitis or, in one case, vascular myelopathy. Motor, sensory and bowel and/or bladder symptoms predominated the clinical presentation of myelopathies, explained mainly by centrally localized and longitudinally extensive lesions within the cervical and/or thoracic segments of the spinal cord. Occasionally lesions were complicated by necrosis and hemorrhages. Treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange was offered mostly a mild to marked improvement within a period of some weeks. Conclusions׃ Considering the imminent arrival of new vaccines against COVID-19 pandemic, and their potential risk for postvaccination transverse myelitis, this characterization of COVID-19 related myelopathy is of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Spinal Cord Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Int J Pept Res Ther ; 27(3): 1729-1740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188142

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus SARS-COV-2. It is the most dangerous epidemic existing currently all over the world. To date, there is no licensed vaccine and not any particular efficient therapeutic agent available to prevent or cure the disease. So development of an effective vaccine is the urgent need of the time. The proposed study aims to identify potential vaccine candidates by screening the complete proteome of SARS-COV-2 using the computational approach. From 14 protein entries in UniProtKB, 4 proteins were screened for epitope prediction based on consensus antigenicity predictions and various physico-chemical criteria like transmembrane domain, allergenicity, GRAVY value, toxicity, stability index. Comprehensive analysis of these 4 antigens revealed that spike protein (P0DTC2) and nucleoprotein (P0DTC9) show the greatest potential for experimental immunogenicity analysis. These 2 proteins have several potential CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitopes, as well as high probability of B-cell epitope regions as compared to well-characterized antigen the matrix protein 1 [Influenza A virus (H5N1)]. In addition, the epitope SIIAYTMSL predicted from spike protein (P0DTC2) and epitope SPRWYFYYL predicted from nucleoprotein (P0DTC9) exhibited more than 60% population coverage in the target populations Europe, North America, South Asia, Northeast Asia taken in this study. These epitopes have also been found to exhibit highly significant TCR-pMHC interactions having a joint Z value of 4.51 and 4.37 respectively. Therefore, this analysis suggests that the predicted epitopes might be suitable vaccine candidates and should be subjected to further in-vivo and in-vitro studies.

20.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 419-426, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182899

ABSTRACT

Platelets, as nonnucleated blood components, are classically recognized for their pivotal role in hemostasis. In recent years, however, accumulating evidence points to a nonhemostatic role for platelets, as active participants in the inflammatory and immune responses to microbial organisms in infectious diseases. This stems from the ability of activated platelets to secrete a plethora of immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as directly interplaying with viral receptors. While much attention has been given to the role of the cytokine storm in the severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), less is known about the contribution of platelets to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we give a brief overview on the platelet contribution to antiviral immunity and response during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans
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