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1.
Curr Pharmacol Rep ; 6(5): 228-240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682288

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), marked the third time in the twenty-first century when a new, highly pathogenic human coronavirus outbreak has led to an epidemic. The COVID-19 epidemic has emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan city of China and spread rapidly to other parts of the world. This quick spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection to many states across the globe affecting many people has led WHO to declare it a pandemic on March 12, 2020. As of July 4, 2020, more than 523,011 people lost their lives worldwide because of this deadly SARS-CoV-2. The current situation becomes more frightening as no FDA-approved drugs or vaccines are available to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current therapeutic options for COVID-19 are limited only to supportive measures and non-specific interventions. So, the need of the hour is to search for SARS-CoV-2-specific antiviral treatments and to develop vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Also, it is equally important to maintain our immunity, and natural products and Ayurvedic medicines are indispensable in this regard. In this review, we discuss recent updates regarding various therapeutic approaches to combat COVID-19 pandemic and enlist the major pipeline drugs and traditional medicines that are under trial for COVID-19. Also, possible mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis are discussed, which further allow us to understand various drug targets and helps in discovering novel therapeutic approaches for COVID-19. Altogether, the information provided in this review will work as an intellectual groundwork and provides an insight into the ongoing development of various therapeutic agents.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605332

ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in December of 2019, researchers have raced to understand its pathogenesis and begun devising vaccine and treatment strategies. An accurate understanding of the body's temporal immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is paramount to successful vaccine development and disease progression monitoring. To provide insight into the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, plasma samples from 181 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients collected at various timepoints post-symptom onset (PSO) were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies via lateral flow. Additionally, 21 donors were tracked over time to elucidate patient-specific immune responses. We found sustained levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies past 130 days PSO, with 99% positivity observed at 31-60 days PSO. By 61-90 days PSO, the percentage of IgM-/IgG+ results were nearly equal to that of IgM+/IgG+ results, demonstrating a shift in the immune response with a decrease in IgM antibody levels. Results from this study not only provide evidence that the antibody response to COVID-19 can persist for over 4 months, but also demonstrates the ability of Easy Check™ to monitor seroconversion and antibody response of patients. Easy Check was sufficiently sensitive to detect antibodies in patient samples as early as 1-4 days PSO with 86% positivity observed at 5-7 days PSO. Further studies are required to determine the longevity and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and whether they are protective against re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
3.
Biomicrofluidics ; 14(6): 061507, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574498

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 became a pandemic affecting more than 200 countries and territories. Millions of lives are still affected because of mandatory quarantines, which hamstring economies and induce panic. Immunology plays a major role in the modern field of medicine, especially against virulent infectious diseases. In this field, neutralizing antibodies are heavily studied because they reflect the level of infection and individuals' immune status, which are essential when considering resumption of work, flight travel, and border entry control. More importantly, it also allows evaluating the antiviral vaccine efficacy as vaccines are still known for being the ultimate intervention method to inhibit the rapid spread of virulent infectious diseases. In this Review, we first introduce the host immune response after the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the latest results using conventional immunoassays. Next, as an enabling platform for detection with sufficient sensitivity while saving analysis time and sample size, the progress of microfluidic-based immunoassays is discussed and compared based on surface modification, microfluidic kinetics, signal output, signal amplification, sample matrix, and the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Based on the overall comparison, this Review concludes by proposing the future integration of visual quantitative signals on microfluidic devices as a more suitable approach for general use and large-scale surveillance.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575478

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Vero Cells
5.
Chin Chem Lett ; 32(10): 3019-3022, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520747

ABSTRACT

The wide-spreading SARS-CoV-2 virus has put the world into boiling water for more than a year, however pharmacological therapies to act effectively against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain elusive. Chloroquine (CQ), an antimalarial drug, was found to exhibit promising antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo at a high dosage, thus CQ was approved by the FDA for the emergency use authorization (EUA) in the fight against COVID-19 in the US, but later was revoked the EUA status due to the severe clinical toxicity. Herein, we show that supramolecular formulation of CQ by a macrocyclic host, curcurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), reduced its non-specific toxicity and improved its antiviral activity against coronavirus, working in synergy with CB[7]. CB[7] was found to form 1:1 host-guest complexes with CQ, with a binding constant of ∼104 L/mol. The CQ-CB[7] formulation decreased the cytotoxicity of CQ against Vero E6 and L-02 cell lines. In particular, the cytotoxicity of CQ (60 µmol/L) against both Vero E6 cell line and L-02 cell lines was completely inhibited in the presence of 300 µmol/L and 600 µmol/L CB[7], respectively. Furthermore, the CB[7] alone showed astonishing antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells and mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) infected N2A cells, and synergistically improved the antiviral activity of CQ-CB[7], suggesting that CB[7]-based CQ formulation has a great potential as a safe and effective antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus.

6.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(17): 2530-2543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504184

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain and the causative agent of COVID-19 was emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. This pandemic situation and magnitude of suffering have led to global effort to find out effective measures for discovery of new specific drugs and vaccines to combat this deadly disease. In addition to many initiatives to develop vaccines for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, some of which are at various stages of clinical trials, researchers worldwide are currently using available conventional therapeutic drugs with the potential to combat the disease effectively in other viral infections and it is believed that these antiviral drugs could act as a promising immediate alternative. Remdesivir (RDV), a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent, initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV) and known to showed promising efficiency in in vitro and in vivo studies against SARS and MERS coronaviruses, is now being investigated against SARS-CoV-2. On May 1, 2020, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for RDV to treat COVID- 19 patients [2]. A number of multicentre clinical trials are on-going to check the safety and efficacy of RDV for the treatment of COVID-19. Results of published double blind, and placebo-controlled trial on RDV against SARS-CoV-2, showed that RDV administration led to faster clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo. This review highlights the available knowledge about RDV as a therapeutic drug for coronaviruses and its preclinical and clinical trials against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432419

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 755-759, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384219

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ) is being scrutinized for repositioning in the treatment and prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This antimalarial drug is also chronically used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases. By analyzing the Portuguese anonymized data on private and public based medical prescriptions we have identified all cases chronically receiving HCQ for the management of diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we have detected all laboratory confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and all laboratory confirmed negative cases in the Portuguese population (mandatorily registered in a centrally managed database). Cross linking the two sets of data has allowed us to compare the proportion of HCQ chronic treatment (at least 2 grams per month) in laboratory confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with laboratory confirmed negative cases. Out of 26 815 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 77 (0.29%) were chronically treated with HCQ, while 1215 (0.36%) out of 333 489 negative patients were receiving it chronically (P = .04). After adjustment for age, sex, and chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants, the odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection for chronic treatment with HCQ has been 0.51 (0.37-0.70). Our data suggest that chronic treatment with HCQ confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Portugal , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389388

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 660019, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389181

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of a recent pandemic that has led to more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Most individuals are asymptomatic or display mild symptoms, which raises an inherent question as to how does the immune response differs from patients manifesting severe disease? During the initial phase of infection, dysregulated effector immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, megakaryocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid progenitor cells, and Th17 cells can alter the trajectory of an infected patient to severe disease. On the other hand, properly functioning CD4+, CD8+ cells, NK cells, and DCs reduce the disease severity. Detailed understanding of the immune response of convalescent individuals transitioning from the effector phase to the immunogenic memory phase can provide vital clues to understanding essential variables to assess vaccine-induced protection. Although neutralizing antibodies can wane over time, long-lasting B and T memory cells can persist in recovered individuals. The natural immunological memory captures the diverse repertoire of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes after natural infection whereas, currently approved vaccines are based on a single epitope, spike protein. It is essential to understand the nature of the immune response to natural infection to better identify 'correlates of protection' against this disease. This article discusses recent findings regarding immune response against natural infection to SARS-CoV-2 and the nature of immunogenic memory. More precise knowledge of the acute phase of immune response and its transition to immunological memory will contribute to the future design of vaccines and the identification of variables essential to maintain immune protection across diverse populations.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Disease Resistance , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388405

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the level and duration of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after primary infection is of crucial importance for preventive approaches. Currently, there is a lack of evidence on the persistence of specific antibodies. We investigated the generation and maintenance of neutralizing antibodies of convalescent SARS-CoV-2-afflicted patients over a ten-month period post-primary infection using an immunofluorescence assay, a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay and an in-house enzyme-linked neutralization assay. We present the successful application of an improved version of the plaque-reduction neutralization assay which can be analysed optometrically to simplify data interpretation. Based on the results of the enzyme-linked neutralization assay, neutralizing antibodies were maintained in 77.4% of convalescent individuals without relevant decay over ten months. Furthermore, a positive correlation between severity of infection and antibody titre was observed. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2-afflicted individuals have been proven to be able to develop and maintain neutralizing antibodies over a period of ten months after primary infection. Findings suggest long-lasting presumably protective humoral immune responses after wild-type infection.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5890, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387466

ABSTRACT

To circumvent time-consuming clinical trials, testing whether existing drugs are effective inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, has led to the discovery of Remdesivir. We decided to follow this path and screened approved medications "off-label" against SARS-CoV-2. Fluoxetine inhibited SARS-CoV-2 at a concentration of 0.8 µg/ml significantly in these screenings, and the EC50 was determined with 387 ng/ml. Furthermore, Fluoxetine reduced viral infectivity in precision-cut human lung slices showing its activity in relevant human tissue targeted in severe infections. Fluoxetine treatment resulted in a decrease in viral protein expression. Fluoxetine is a racemate consisting of both stereoisomers, while the S-form is the dominant serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that both isomers show similar activity on the virus, indicating that the R-form might specifically be used for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. Fluoxetine inhibited neither Rabies virus, human respiratory syncytial virus replication nor the Human Herpesvirus 8 or Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene expression, indicating that it acts virus-specific. Moreover, since it is known that Fluoxetine inhibits cytokine release, we see the role of Fluoxetine in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients of risk groups.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/pathology , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 588480, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389229

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is a complex multifactorial disease that can lead to destruction of tooth supporting tissues and subsequent tooth loss. The most recent global burden of disease studies highlight that severe periodontitis is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory conditions affecting humans. Periodontitis risk is attributed to genetics, host-microbiome and environmental factors. Empirical diagnostic and prognostic systems have yet to be validated in the field of periodontics. Early diagnosis and intervention prevents periodontitis progression in most patients. Increased susceptibility and suboptimal control of modifiable risk factors can result in poor response to therapy, and relapse. The chronic immune-inflammatory response to microbial biofilms at the tooth or dental implant surface is associated with systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or gastrointestinal diseases. Oral fluid-based biomarkers have demonstrated easy accessibility and potential as diagnostics for oral and systemic diseases, including the identification of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. Advances in biotechnology have led to innovations in lab-on-a-chip and biosensors to interface with oral-based biomarker assessment. This review highlights new developments in oral biomarker discovery and their validation for clinical application to advance precision oral medicine through improved diagnosis, prognosis and patient stratification. Their potential to improve clinical outcomes of periodontitis and associated chronic conditions will benefit the dental and overall public health.

14.
Sleep Biol Rhythms ; 19(1): 109-110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384761
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e719-e734, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing amidst widespread transmission during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Disease phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 exposure occurring around the time of vaccine administration have not been described. METHODS: Two-dose (14 days apart) vaccination regimen with formalin-inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamster model was established. To investigate the disease phenotypes of a 1-dose regimen given 3 days prior (D-3), 1 (D1) or 2 (D2) days after, or on the day (D0) of virus challenge, we monitored the serial clinical severity, tissue histopathology, virus burden, and antibody response of the vaccinated hamsters. RESULTS: The 1-dose vaccinated hamsters had significantly lower clinical disease severity score, body weight loss, lung histology score, nucleocapsid protein expression in lung, infectious virus titers in the lung and nasal turbinate, inflammatory changes in intestines, and a higher serum neutralizing antibody or IgG titer against the spike receptor-binding domain or nucleocapsid protein when compared to unvaccinated controls. These improvements were particularly noticeable in D-3, but also in D0, D1, and even D2 vaccinated hamsters to varying degrees. No increased eosinophilic infiltration was found in the nasal turbinate, lung, and intestine after virus challenge. Significantly higher serum titer of fluorescent foci microneutralization inhibition antibody was detected in D1 and D2 vaccinated hamsters at day 4 post-challenge compared to controls despite undetectable neutralizing antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination just before or soon after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not worsen disease phenotypes and may even ameliorate infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302391

ABSTRACT

There is a vast practice of using antimalarial drugs, RAS inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the virus and immunosuppressants for the treatment of the severe form of COVID-19, which often occurs in patients with chronic diseases and older persons. Currently, the clinical efficacy of these drugs for COVID-19 has not been proven yet. Side effects of antimalarial drugs can worsen the condition of patients and increase the likelihood of death. Peptides, given their physiological mechanism of action, have virtually no side effects. Many of them are geroprotectors and can be used in patients with chronic diseases. Peptides may be able to prevent the development of the pathological process during COVID-19 by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins, thereby having immuno- and bronchoprotective effects on lung cells, and normalizing the state of the hemostasis system. Immunomodulators (RKDVY, EW, KE, AEDG), possessing a physiological mechanism of action at low concentrations, appear to be the most promising group among the peptides. They normalize the cytokines' synthesis and have an anti-inflammatory effect, thereby preventing the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemical synthesis , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Respiratory System Agents/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(1): e3465, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292067

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore variables associated with the serological response following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: Eighty-six healthcare workers adhering to the vaccination campaign against COVID-19 were enrolled in January-February 2021. All subjects underwent two COVID-19 mRNA vaccine inoculations (Pfizer/BioNTech) separated by 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected before the 1st and 1-4 weeks after the second inoculation. Clinical history, demographics, and vaccine side effects were recorded. Baseline anthropometric parameters were measured, and body composition was performed through dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Higher waist circumference was associated with lower antibody (Ab) titres (R = -0.324, p = 0.004); smokers had lower levels compared to non-smokers [1099 (1350) vs. 1921 (1375), p = 0.007], as well as hypertensive versus normotensive [650 ± 1192 vs. 1911 (1364), p = 0.001] and dyslipideamic compared to those with normal serum lipids [534 (972) vs 1872 (1406), p = 0.005]. Multivariate analysis showed that higher waist circumference, smoking, hypertension, and longer time elapsed since second vaccine inoculation were associated with lower Ab titres, independent of BMI, age. and gender. CONCLUSIONS: Central obesity, hypertension, and smoking are associated with lower Ab titres following COVID-19 vaccination. Although it is currently impossible to determine whether lower SARS-CoV-2 Abs lead to higher likelihood of developing COVID-19, it is well-established that neutralizing antibodies correlate with protection against several viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Our findings, therefore, call for a vigilant approach, as subjects with central obesity, hypertension, and smoking could benefit from earlier vaccine boosters or different vaccine schedules.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/immunology , Obesity, Abdominal/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Smoking/immunology
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24708, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284920

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pathogeny of thrombosis in COVID-19 is related to interaction of SARS-Cov-2 with vascular wall through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This induces 2 pathways with immunothrombosis from activated endothelium (cytokine storm, leukocyte and platelet recruitment, and activation of coagulation extrinsic pathway), and rise of angiotensin II levels promoting inflammation. While thrombosis is widely described in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care unit, cerebrovascular diseases remains rare, in particular cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe 2 cases of women admitted during the spring of 2020 for intracranial hypertension signs, in stroke units in Great-east, a French area particularly affected by COVID-19 pandemia. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral imaging revealed extended CVT in both cases. The first case described was more serious due to right supratentorial venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation leading to herniation. Both patients presented typical pneumonia due to SARS-Cov-2 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab in only one. INTERVENTIONS: The first patient had to undergo decompressive craniectomy, and both patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: Favorable outcome was observed for 1 patient. Persistent coma, due to bi thalamic infarction, remained for the other with more serious presentation. LESSONS: CVT, as a serious complication of COVID-19, has to be searched in all patients with intracranial hypertension syndrome. Data about anticoagulation therapy to prevent such serious thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection are lacking, in particular in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/immunology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 314-322, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined whether existing licensed pharmacotherapies could reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: An open-label parallel randomized controlled trial was performed among healthy migrant workers quarantined in a large multi-storey dormitory in Singapore. Forty clusters (each defined as individual floors of the dormitory) were randomly assigned to receive a 42-day prophylaxis regimen of either oral hydroxychloroquine (400 mg once, followed by 200 mg/day), oral ivermectin (12 mg once), povidone-iodine throat spray (3 times/day, 270 µg/day), oral zinc (80 mg/day)/vitamin C (500 mg/day) combination, or oral vitamin C, 500 mg/day. The primary outcome was laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as shown by either: (1) a positive serologic test for SARS-CoV-2 antibody on day 42, or (2) a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at any time between baseline and day 42. RESULTS: A total of 3037 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 33.0 years; all men) who were seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 at baseline were included in the primary analysis. Follow-up was nearly complete (99.6%). Compared with vitamin C, significant absolute risk reductions (%, 98.75% confidence interval) were observed for oral hydroxychloroquine (21%, 2-42%) and povidone-iodine throat spray (24%, 7-39%). No statistically significant differences were observed with oral zinc/vitamin C combination (23%, -5 to +41%) and ivermectin (5%, -10 to +22%). Interruptions due to side effects were highest among participants who received zinc/vitamin C combination (6.9%), followed by vitamin C (4.7%), povidone-iodine (2.0%), and hydroxychloroquine (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Chemoprophylaxis with either oral hydroxychloroquine or povidone-iodine throat spray was superior to oral vitamin C in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection in young and healthy men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pharynx , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(39): 1-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which at the time of writing (January 2021) was responsible for more than 2.25 million deaths worldwide and over 100,000 deaths in the UK. SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly transmissible and could rapidly spread in residential care homes. OBJECTIVE: The work undertaken aimed to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of viral detection point-of-care tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 compared with laboratory-based tests in the setting of a hypothetical care home facility for elderly residents. PERSPECTIVE/SETTING: The perspective was that of the NHS in 2020. The setting was a hypothetical care home facility for elderly residents. Care homes with en suite rooms and with shared facilities were modelled separately. METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was constructed to model individual residents and simulate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 once it had entered the residential care facility. The numbers of COVID-19-related deaths and critical cases were recorded in addition to the number of days spent in isolation. Thirteen strategies involving different hypothetical SARS-CoV-2 tests were modelled. Recently published desirable and acceptable target product profiles for SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests and for hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 tests were modelled. Scenario analyses modelled early release from isolation based on receipt of a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result and the impact of vaccination. Incremental analyses were undertaken using both incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and net monetary benefits. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness results depended on the proportion of residential care facilities penetrated by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests with desirable target product profiles appear to have high net monetary benefit values. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests with acceptable target product profiles had low net monetary benefit values because of unnecessary isolations. The benefit of allowing early release from isolation depended on whether or not the facility had en suite rooms. The greater the assumed efficacy of vaccination, the lower the net monetary benefit values associated with SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests, when assuming that a vaccine lowers the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. LIMITATIONS: There is considerable uncertainty in the values for key parameters within the model, although calibration was undertaken in an attempt to mitigate this. Some degree of Monte Carlo sampling error persists because of the timelines of the project. The example care home simulated will also not match those of decision-makers deciding on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. Given these limitations, the results should be taken as indicative rather than definitive, particularly the cost-effectiveness results when the relative cost per SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests have considerable potential for benefit for use in residential care facilities, but whether or not this materialises depends on the diagnostic accuracy and costs of forthcoming SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. FUTURE WORK: More accurate results would be obtained when there is more certainty on the diagnostic accuracy of and the reduction in time to test result associated with SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests when used in the context of residential care facilities, the proportion of care home penetrated by SARS-CoV-2 and the levels of immunity once vaccination is administered. These parameters are currently uncertain. FUNDING: This report was commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Evidence Synthesis programme as project number 132154. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 39. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious, and this can cause problems in care homes, where the virus can spread quickly. Laboratory-based tests can determine whether or not someone has SARS-CoV-2, but these tests are not perfect and can take a long time to provide a result. Point-of-care tests that can be performed quickly in the care home to detect SARS-CoV-2 are being developed and they may have much shorter times to get a result than laboratory-based tests, although with worse accuracy. The benefit of quicker tests is that decisions to put residents into or release them from isolation can be made sooner, reducing the risk of spreading SARS-CoV-2 and reducing time in isolation. The disadvantage of reduced accuracy is that wrong decisions could be made, resulting in either unnecessary isolation or increased spread of SARS-CoV-2. A computer model was built to explore the impact of using SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests for residents of care homes. The model estimated the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, deaths due to COVID-19 and days in isolation. Strategies were run using different values, including the time to get a test result back, the accuracy of tests, the proportion of care homes where there is a case of SARS-CoV-2, whether residents were isolated individually or in groups and how well vaccines work. The results of the model indicated that point-of-care tests could be good if there was a large decrease in the time to get a test result back, if accuracy was high and if vaccination protection was moderate. However, the accuracy and speed of future point-of-care tests is uncertain. When newer SARS-CoV-2 tests are available, the model will allow an estimate of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the tests to be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Models, Theoretical , Point-of-Care Testing , Residential Facilities , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Humans , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
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