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2.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S95-S105, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine is supposed to be the most effective means to prevent COVID-19 as it may not only save lives but also reduce productivity loss due to resuming pre-pandemic activities. Providing the results of economic evaluation for mass vaccination is of paramount importance for all stakeholders worldwide. METHODS: We developed a Markov decision tree for the economic evaluation of mass vaccination against COVID-19. The effectiveness of reducing outcomes after the administration of three COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and AZD1222 (Oxford-AstraZeneca)) were modelled with empirical parameters obtained from literatures. The direct cost of vaccine and COVID-19 related medical cost, the indirect cost of productivity loss due to vaccine jabs and hospitalization, and the productivity loss were accumulated given different vaccination scenarios. We reported the incremental cost-utility ratio and benefit/cost (B/C) ratio of three vaccines compared to no vaccination with a probabilistic approach. RESULTS: Moderna and Pfizer vaccines won the greatest effectiveness among the three vaccines under consideration. After taking both direct and indirect costs into account, all of the three vaccines dominated no vaccination strategy. The results of B/C ratio show that one dollar invested in vaccine would have USD $13, USD $23, and USD $28 in return for Moderna, Pfizer, and AstraZeneca, respectively when health and education loss are considered. The corresponding figures taking value of the statistical life into account were USD $176, USD $300, and USD $443. CONCLUSION: Mass vaccination against COVID-19 with three current available vaccines is cost-saving for gaining more lives and less cost incurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mass Vaccination , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Mass Vaccination/economics
3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S57-S68, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreaks associated with mass religious gatherings which have the potential of invoking epidemics at large scale have been a great concern. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of outbreak in mass religious gathering and further to assess the preparedness of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for preventing COVID-19 outbreak in this context. METHODS: The risk of COVID-19 outbreak in mass religious gathering was evaluated by using secondary COVID-19 cases and reproductive numbers. The preparedness of a series of NPIs for preventing COVID-19 outbreak in mass religious gathering was then assessed by using a density-dependent model. This approach was first illustrated by the Mazu Pilgrimage in Taiwan and validated by using the COVID-19 outbreak in the Shincheonji Church of Jesus (SCJ) religious gathering in South Korea. RESULTS: Through the strict implementation of 80% NPIs in the Mazu Pilgrimage, the number of secondary cases can be substantially reduced from 1508 (95% CI: 900-2176) to 294 (95% CI: 169-420) with the reproductive number (R) significantly below one (0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.78), indicating an effective containment of outbreak. The expected number of secondary COVID-19 cases in the SCJ gathering was estimated as 232 (basic reproductive number (R0) = 6.02) and 579 (R0 = 2.50) for the first and second outbreak, respectively, with a total expected cases (833) close to the observed data on high infection of COVID-19 cases (887, R0 = 3.00). CONCLUSION: We provided the evidence on the preparedness of NPIs for preventing COVID-19 outbreak in the context of mass religious gathering by using a density-dependent model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Crowding , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Religion , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
4.
J Am Coll Clin Pharm ; 3(4): 771-777, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898802

ABSTRACT

Introduction: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced the rapidly spreading epidemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Almost all countries started to take proactive precautionary measures to reduce the risk of contracting the virus. The education sector, including pharmacy education, has been drastically impacted by this pandemic. During the outbreak, many hospitals instructed the health profession's schools to restrict or prevent the presence of their students and interns in their hospitals in an effort to limit the spread of the virus. Objectives: Constraining the presence of interns in the affiliated hospital has impacted the integrity of delivering the learning outcomes of each clinical rotation. In this paper, we present the experience of four faculty preceptors in restructuring the advanced pharmacy practice experience in different clinical settings, including critical care, infectious diseases, cardiology, and internal medicine, in order to reduce the risk of contracting COVID-19 at a large academic medical institution in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: We believe that this experience could provide guidance and insights for other pharmacy schools dealing with this issue during this global pandemic.

5.
Gates Open Res ; 4: 159, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835880

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the already low resourced, fragmented and largely unregulated health systems in countries like India. It has only further exacerbated the stress on human resources for health (HRH) in many unanticipated ways. We explored the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the health workforce in India, and analytically extrapolated the learnings to draw critical components to be addressed in the HRH policies, which can further be used to develop a detailed 'health workforce resilience' policy. We examined the existing literature and media reports published during the pandemic period, covering the gaps and challenges that impeded the performance of the health workers. Recommendations were designed by studying the learnings from various measures taken within India and in some other countries. We identified seven key areas that could be leveraged and improved for strengthening resilience among the health workforce. The system-level factors (at macro level) include developing a health workforce resilience policy, planning and funding for emergency preparedness, stakeholder engagement and incentivization mechanisms; the organization-level factors (meso level) include identifying HRH bench strength, mobilizing the health workforce, psycho-social support, protection from disease; and the individual-level factors (micro level) include measures around self-care by health workers. In keeping with the interdisciplinary nature of the associated factors, we emphasize on developing a future-ready health workforce using a multi-sectoral approach for building its strength and resilience.

6.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(7): e3043, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795022

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presented a dramatic challenge to healthcare systems. Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital (Rozzano, MI, Italy) was declared a regional hub for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Our plastic surgery team, in consultation with our breast surgery colleagues, decided to perform immediate implant-based breast reconstruction for patients undergoing mastectomy for cancer. In this report, we present our experience performing breast reconstruction with a new protocol in the first month following the COVID-19 pandemic in the most affected region in Italy. METHODS: We adopted a new protocol to treat patients with breast cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main goals of our protocol were to reduce the risk of COVID-19 spread for both patients and clinicians, postpone nononcologic and more advanced surgery, develop rapid recovery for early patient discharge (within 24 hours from surgery) through pain management, and finally reduce postoperative consultations. RESULTS: The protocol was applied to 51 patients between early March and early April 2020. After 1 month, we decided to retrospectively review our experience. We found no significant differences in terms of postoperative pain and complication rate compared with our data in the pre-COVID period. CONCLUSION: Our new protocol is safe and effective, enabling tumor resection and immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, without increasing risks to the patient or staff.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725657

ABSTRACT

Iran has faced one of the worst COVID-19 outbreaks in the world, and no studies to date have examined COVID-19-related stress in the general Iranian population. In this first population-based study, a web-based survey was conducted during the peak of the outbreak to assess stress and its correlates in the Iranian population. A 54-item, valid, and reliable questionnaire, including items on demographic characteristics and past medical history, stress levels, awareness about signs and symptoms of COVID-19, knowledge about at-risk groups and prevention methods, knowledge about transmission methods, trust in sources of information, and availability of facemasks and sanitizers, was deployed via social and mass media networks. A total of 3787 Iranians participated in the study where the majority of the participants were females (67.4%), employed (56.1%), from developed provinces (81.6%), without chronic diseases (66.6%), and with ≥13 years of formal education (87.9%). The mean age of study participants was 34.9 years (range = 12-73), and the average stress score was 3.33 (SD = ±1.02). Stress score was significantly higher for females, those who were 30-39 years old, housewives, those with chronic diseases, individuals who were aware that there is no vaccine to prevent COVID-19, those who could not get facemasks or sanitizers, and individuals with higher knowledge about at-risk groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation of stress scores with knowledge about prevention methods for COVID-19 (r = 0.21, p = 0.01) and trust in sources of information about COVID-19 (r = -0.18, p = 0.01). All of the predictors, except knowledge of two important at-risk groups and education, had a significant effect on stress scores based on a multivariate regression model. The COVID-19 outbreak could increase stress among all population groups, with certain groups at higher risk. In the high-risk groups and based on experience with previous pandemics, interventions are needed to prevent long-term psychological effects. Professional support and family-centered programs should be a part of pandemic mitigation-related policymaking and public health practices.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(10)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725611

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationships between government interventions, risk perception, and the public's adoption of protective action recommendations (PARs) during the COVID-19 coronavirus disease emergency in mainland China. We conducted quota sampling based on the proportion of the population in each province and gender ratios in the Sixth Census and obtained a sample size of 3837. Government intervention was divided into government communication, government prevention and control, and government rescue. We used multiple regression and a bootstrap mediation effect test to study the mechanism of these three forms of government intervention on the public's adoption of PARs. The results show that government prevention and control and government rescue significantly increased the likelihood of the public adopting PARs. Risk perception was significantly associated with the public's adoption of PARs. The effects of government interventions and risk perception on the public's adoption of PARs was not found to vary by region. Risk perception is identified as an important mediating factor between government intervention and the public's adoption of PARs. These results indicate that increasing the public's risk perception is an effective strategy for governments seeking to encourage the public to adopt PARs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Male , Perception , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 92(1): 35-48, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721399

ABSTRACT

Recently, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome cornoavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a great perturbation all around the globe and has many devastating effects on every aspect of life. Apart from the oxygen therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Remdesivir and Dexamethasone have been proven to be efficacious against COVID-19, along with various vaccine candidates and monoclonal antibody cocktail therapy for Regeneron. All of these are currently at different stages of clinical trials. People with weak immunity are more prone to a severe infection of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, early and judicious nutritional supplementation along with pharmacological treatment and clinician collaborations are critical in restituting the current situation. Nutritional supplements help in acquiring strong immunity to prevent the progression of disease any further. Vitamin C, vitamin D, selenium, zinc and many other nutritional and dietary supplements inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines during a viral infection and prevents several unwanted symptoms of infection. Many dietary components like citrus fruits, black elderberry, ginger, and probiotics have the ability to attack viral replication. These supplements can also tame the overriding immune system during coronavirus infection. Keeping in view these facts, nutritional and dietary supplements can be used along with other management modalities. These nutritional and dietary supplements are potential candidates to curb the convulsive unfolding of novel COVID-19, in combination with other standard treatment protocols. In this review, various search engines were used to exploit available literature in order to provide a comprehensive review on nutritional and dietary supplements with respect to the viral infections. It will also provide a brief overview on some of the clinical trials that are in progress to assess the role of nutritional supplements, either alone or in combination with other pharmacological drugs, in fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 597-603, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents and staff were included in the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in the United States. Because the primary trial endpoint was vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic disease, there are limited data on the extent to which vaccines protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the ability to infect others (infectiousness). Assumptions about VE against infection and infectiousness have implications for changes to infection prevention guidance for vaccinated populations, including testing strategies. METHODS: We use a stochastic agent-based Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious (Asymptomatic/Symptomatic)-Recovered model of a nursing home to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We model 3 scenarios, varying VE against infection, infectiousness, and symptoms, to understand the expected impact of vaccination in nursing homes, increasing staff vaccination coverage, and different screening testing strategies under each scenario. RESULTS: Increasing vaccination coverage in staff decreases total symptomatic cases in the nursing home (among staff and residents combined) in each VE scenario. In scenarios with 50% and 90% VE against infection and infectiousness, increasing staff coverage reduces symptomatic cases among residents. If vaccination only protects against symptoms, and asymptomatic cases remain infectious, increased staff coverage increases symptomatic cases among residents. However, this is outweighed by the reduction in symptomatic cases among staff. Higher frequency testing-more than once weekly-is needed to reduce total symptomatic cases if the vaccine has lower efficacy against infection and infectiousness, or only protects against symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Encouraging staff vaccination is not only important for protecting staff, but might also reduce symptomatic cases in residents if a vaccine confers at least some protection against infection or infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States , Vaccination
11.
Stress Health ; 38(1): 140-146, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661635

ABSTRACT

We examined stress as a predictor of behaviours related to Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) through its effects on delay discounting. Adults (N = 3686) completed an online survey with a behavioural measure of delay discounting and questions regarding stress, physical distancing, and stockpiling of food and supplies. Stress was weakly, but positively, correlated with delay discounting (p < 0.01). Delay discounting was positively correlated with stockpiling (p < 0.01); and discounting was negatively correlated with physical distancing (p < 0.01). Mediation models indicated that discounting was a significant mediator of the relationship between stress and physical distancing (-0.003) and stockpiling (0.003); bootstrap 95% CIs (-0.006, -0.001) and (0.001, 0.005), respectively. After accounting for its indirect effects through discounting, stress continued to have a direct effect on these outcomes. This study indicates that delay discounting partially mediates the link between stress and behaviours related to COVID-19. Results suggest that interventions reducing stress and/or delay discounting may be profitable for increasing infection prevention and reducing stockpiling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delay Discounting , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 357-362, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Opioid use is prevalent in the United Kingdom and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic it had been recognized that the safety of opioids was an important issue to be monitored by the UK medicines regulatory agency. With the emergence of COVID-19, this requirement has been even greater. This review was undertaken to determine the impact of the pandemic on safety and surveillance of opioids in the United Kingdom. RECENT FINDINGS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the surveillance of opioids in the United Kingdom continued, although primary research was often conducted with data prior to the pandemic. Of those studies that were conducted while the pandemic was ongoing, access to opioids (or opioid substitution therapy) and the subsequent effect on patient safety was the main theme. SUMMARY: In the United Kingdom, changes in accessibility to the healthcare system and how healthcare providers operated during the COVID-19 pandemic may have had unintended consequences on use and safety of opioids, due to the shift in focus to preventing COVID-19 from overwhelming the healthcare system. The findings from this review support the need to continue surveillance in the United Kingdom, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on opioid utilization and safety.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Misuse/prevention & control , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Palliative Care/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminal Care/methods , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3503-3516, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, caused by a previously unknown infectious agent, posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems and unmasked their vulnerability and limitations worldwide. Patients with long-term immunomodulatory/suppressive therapies, as well as their physicians, were and are concerned about balancing the risk of infection and effects of disease-modifying therapy. Over the last few months, knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2 has been growing tremendously, and the first experiences of infections in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported. METHODS: This review summarizes the currently still limited knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 immunology and the commonly agreed modes of action of approved drugs in immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system (MS and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder). Specifically, we discuss whether immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory drugs may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and, conversely, may decrease the severity of a COVID-19 disease course. RESULTS: At present, it can be recommended in general that none of those therapies with a definite indication needs to be stopped per se. A possibly increased risk of infection for most medications is accompanied by the possibility to reduce the severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the knowledge gain over the last few months, current evidence remains limited, and, thus, further clinical vigilance and systematic documentation is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 646570, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607116

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological studies show that BCG-vaccinated population seems to be more likely protected from COVID-19 infection, but WHO gave a stark warning on use of BCG vaccine without confirmed COVID-19 trials. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether TB vaccination, performed several years earlier, could confer protection against COVID-19. Methods: After the Ethical Committee authorization, professional orders were used to contact physicians with an online survey. Specialty, COVID-19 infection and previous BCG vaccination were recorded. Statistical data analysis was performed. Results: 1906 physicians answered the questionnaire, (M = 1068; F = 838; mean age 50.7 ± 13.3 years; range 24-87), more than half (1062; 55.7%) experienced BCG vaccination. Professional activity was recorded, and only 49 subjects (2.6%) of them were infected by SARS-CoV2. Among the group of infected people, asymptomatic form occurred in 12 subjects (24.5%); a pauci-symptomatic form in 24 subjects (49.0%); and a severe form (pneumonia and/or respiratory distress) in 13 (26.5%). Considering only the clinically relevant form of COVID-19, period prevalence was 2.2% (23/1062) in the vaccinated group and 1.7% (14/844) in the unvaccinated group (OR: 1.31, 95% C.I.: 0.68-2.63, p = 0.427). Conclusion: Our experience does not confirm the possible protective role of BCG vaccination, performed years earlier, against COVID-19. Although recent epidemiological studies point out in BCG-vaccinated population a lower prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection, in our cohort of physicians no significant difference was found in terms of prevalence of COVID-19 infection. Our data underline the necessity to follow the WHO warning about the indiscriminate use of BCG vaccine, until clear evidence of protection by BCG vaccination against COVID-19 is fully demonstrated.

15.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575478

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Vero Cells
16.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 19(12): 2250-2275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575288

ABSTRACT

The edible cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis and its chief biliprotein C-Phycocyanin have shown protective activity in animal models of diverse human health diseases, often reflecting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The beneficial effects of C-Phycocyanin seem likely to be primarily attributable to its covalently attached chromophore Phycocyanobilin (PCB). Within cells, biliverdin is generated from free heme and it is subsequently reduced to bilirubin. Although bilirubin can function as an oxidant scavenger, its potent antioxidant activity reflects its ability to inactivate some isoforms of NADPH oxidase. Free bilirubin can also function as an agonist for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); this may explain its ability to promote protective Treg activity in cellular and rodent models of inflammatory disease. AhR agonists also promote transcription of the gene coding for Nrf-2, and hence can up-regulate phase 2 induction of antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1. Hence, it is proposed that C-Phycocyanin/PCB chiefly exert their protective effects via inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity, as well as by AhR agonism that both induces Treg activity and up-regulates phase 2 induction. This simple model may explain their potent antioxidant/antiinflammatory effects. Additionally, PCB might mimic biliverdin in activating anti-inflammatory signaling mediated by biliverdin reductase. This essay reviews recent research in which CPhycocyanin and/or PCB, administered orally, parenterally, or intranasally, have achieved marked protective effects in rodent and cell culture models of Ischemic Stroke and Multiple Sclerosis, and suggests that these agents may likewise be protective for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and in COVID-19 and its neurological complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Animals , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Phycobilins , Phycocyanin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 284-287, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554689

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have adopted community containment to manage COVID-19. These measures to reduce human contact, such as social distancing, are deemed necessary to contain the spread of the virus and protect those at increased risk of developing complications following infection with COVID-19. People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are advised to adhere to even more stringent restrictions compared to the general population, and avoid any social contact with people outside their household. This social isolation combined with the anxiety and stress associated with the pandemic, is likely to particularly have an impact on mental health and psychological wellbeing in people with RA. Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour can improve mental health and psychological wellbeing in RA. However, COVID-19 restrictions make it more difficult for people with RA to be physically active and facilitate a more sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, guidance is necessary for people with RA to adopt a healthy lifestyle within the constraints of COVID-19 restrictions to support their mental health and psychological wellbeing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1920-1923, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522136

ABSTRACT

Nationally, immunization delivery has decreased significantly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Internationally, >60 national vaccine programs have been disrupted or suspended. As a result of these immunization declines, the global community is at risk for a resurgence in vaccine-preventable infections including measles, pertussis, and polio-all highly contagious diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. Measles outbreaks have already occurred in many countries that suspended their vaccination programs. Outbreaks in the United States are likely to occur when social distancing stops and children return to school. Healthcare providers have acted quickly to institute multiple risk mitigation strategies to restore vaccine administration. However, childhood immunization rates remain below pre-COVID-19 levels. Partnerships between healthcare providers, community leaders, and local, state, regional, and national public health departments are needed to reassure families that vaccine delivery during COVID-19 is safe and to identify and catch up those children who are underimmunized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
19.
Chin Chem Lett ; 32(10): 3019-3022, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520747

ABSTRACT

The wide-spreading SARS-CoV-2 virus has put the world into boiling water for more than a year, however pharmacological therapies to act effectively against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain elusive. Chloroquine (CQ), an antimalarial drug, was found to exhibit promising antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo at a high dosage, thus CQ was approved by the FDA for the emergency use authorization (EUA) in the fight against COVID-19 in the US, but later was revoked the EUA status due to the severe clinical toxicity. Herein, we show that supramolecular formulation of CQ by a macrocyclic host, curcurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), reduced its non-specific toxicity and improved its antiviral activity against coronavirus, working in synergy with CB[7]. CB[7] was found to form 1:1 host-guest complexes with CQ, with a binding constant of ∼104 L/mol. The CQ-CB[7] formulation decreased the cytotoxicity of CQ against Vero E6 and L-02 cell lines. In particular, the cytotoxicity of CQ (60 µmol/L) against both Vero E6 cell line and L-02 cell lines was completely inhibited in the presence of 300 µmol/L and 600 µmol/L CB[7], respectively. Furthermore, the CB[7] alone showed astonishing antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells and mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) infected N2A cells, and synergistically improved the antiviral activity of CQ-CB[7], suggesting that CB[7]-based CQ formulation has a great potential as a safe and effective antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus.

20.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(17): 2530-2543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504184

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain and the causative agent of COVID-19 was emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. This pandemic situation and magnitude of suffering have led to global effort to find out effective measures for discovery of new specific drugs and vaccines to combat this deadly disease. In addition to many initiatives to develop vaccines for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, some of which are at various stages of clinical trials, researchers worldwide are currently using available conventional therapeutic drugs with the potential to combat the disease effectively in other viral infections and it is believed that these antiviral drugs could act as a promising immediate alternative. Remdesivir (RDV), a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent, initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV) and known to showed promising efficiency in in vitro and in vivo studies against SARS and MERS coronaviruses, is now being investigated against SARS-CoV-2. On May 1, 2020, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for RDV to treat COVID- 19 patients [2]. A number of multicentre clinical trials are on-going to check the safety and efficacy of RDV for the treatment of COVID-19. Results of published double blind, and placebo-controlled trial on RDV against SARS-CoV-2, showed that RDV administration led to faster clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo. This review highlights the available knowledge about RDV as a therapeutic drug for coronaviruses and its preclinical and clinical trials against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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