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1.
Curr Pharmacol Rep ; 6(5): 228-240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682288

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), marked the third time in the twenty-first century when a new, highly pathogenic human coronavirus outbreak has led to an epidemic. The COVID-19 epidemic has emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan city of China and spread rapidly to other parts of the world. This quick spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection to many states across the globe affecting many people has led WHO to declare it a pandemic on March 12, 2020. As of July 4, 2020, more than 523,011 people lost their lives worldwide because of this deadly SARS-CoV-2. The current situation becomes more frightening as no FDA-approved drugs or vaccines are available to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current therapeutic options for COVID-19 are limited only to supportive measures and non-specific interventions. So, the need of the hour is to search for SARS-CoV-2-specific antiviral treatments and to develop vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. Also, it is equally important to maintain our immunity, and natural products and Ayurvedic medicines are indispensable in this regard. In this review, we discuss recent updates regarding various therapeutic approaches to combat COVID-19 pandemic and enlist the major pipeline drugs and traditional medicines that are under trial for COVID-19. Also, possible mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis are discussed, which further allow us to understand various drug targets and helps in discovering novel therapeutic approaches for COVID-19. Altogether, the information provided in this review will work as an intellectual groundwork and provides an insight into the ongoing development of various therapeutic agents.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3503-3516, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, caused by a previously unknown infectious agent, posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems and unmasked their vulnerability and limitations worldwide. Patients with long-term immunomodulatory/suppressive therapies, as well as their physicians, were and are concerned about balancing the risk of infection and effects of disease-modifying therapy. Over the last few months, knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2 has been growing tremendously, and the first experiences of infections in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported. METHODS: This review summarizes the currently still limited knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 immunology and the commonly agreed modes of action of approved drugs in immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system (MS and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder). Specifically, we discuss whether immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory drugs may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and, conversely, may decrease the severity of a COVID-19 disease course. RESULTS: At present, it can be recommended in general that none of those therapies with a definite indication needs to be stopped per se. A possibly increased risk of infection for most medications is accompanied by the possibility to reduce the severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the knowledge gain over the last few months, current evidence remains limited, and, thus, further clinical vigilance and systematic documentation is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 755-759, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384219

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQ) is being scrutinized for repositioning in the treatment and prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This antimalarial drug is also chronically used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases. By analyzing the Portuguese anonymized data on private and public based medical prescriptions we have identified all cases chronically receiving HCQ for the management of diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we have detected all laboratory confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and all laboratory confirmed negative cases in the Portuguese population (mandatorily registered in a centrally managed database). Cross linking the two sets of data has allowed us to compare the proportion of HCQ chronic treatment (at least 2 grams per month) in laboratory confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with laboratory confirmed negative cases. Out of 26 815 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, 77 (0.29%) were chronically treated with HCQ, while 1215 (0.36%) out of 333 489 negative patients were receiving it chronically (P = .04). After adjustment for age, sex, and chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants, the odds ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection for chronic treatment with HCQ has been 0.51 (0.37-0.70). Our data suggest that chronic treatment with HCQ confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , Aged , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Portugal , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(7): 744-748, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323413

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome remains the main cause of death among people with COVID-19. Although many immunomodulatory and antiviral drug therapies have been tested, the only effective therapy against severe COVID-19 pneumonia among the general population is a regimen of high-dose corticosteroids for cases of severe associated inflammation. In solid-organ transplant recipients with long-term immunosuppression, data on disease presentation and evolution are scarce, and the benefit of high-dose corticosteroids remains uncertain for cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we report 2 cases of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome that occurred in lung transplant recipients in March and April 2020, respectively. Both cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in patients with long-term azithromycin treatment prescribed to prevent chronic allograft dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with severe inflammation and was cured after early administration of high-dose corticosteroids in both cases, with progressive and complete resolution of lung lesions evidenced on thoracic computed tomography scan. Our findings support the benefit of early high-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome with hyperinflammation in patients with long-term immunosuppression such as lung transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung Transplantation , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/virology , Remission Induction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 153: 110628, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272625

ABSTRACT

Presently, it remains unclear why the prevalence of lung diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is much lower than other medical comorbidities and the general population among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). If COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, why is COPD not the leading risk factor for contracting COVID-19? The same odd phenomenon was also observed with other pathogenic human coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), but not other respiratory viral infections such as influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses. One commonly proposed reason for the low COPD rates among COVID-19 patients is the usage of inhaled corticosteroids or bronchodilators that may protect against COVID-19. However, another possible reason not discussed elsewhere is that lungs in a diseased state may not be conducive for the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to establish COVID-19. For one, COPD causes mucous plugging in large and small airways, which may hinder SARS-CoV-2 from reaching deeper parts of the lungs (i.e., alveoli). Thus, SARS-CoV-2 may only localize to the upper respiratory tract of persons with COPD, causing mild or asymptomatic infections requiring no hospital attention. Even if SARS-CoV-2 reaches the alveoli, cells therein are probably under a heavy burden of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and extensively damaged where it may not support efficient viral replication. As a result, limited SARS-CoV-2 virions would be produced in diseased lungs, preventing the development of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(5): 1017-1044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263932

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective control and prevention. Chinese medicine (CM) has developed systematic theories and approaches for infectious disease prevention over 2000 years. Here, we review and analyze Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) used in infectious disease prevention from ancient pestilences to modern epidemics and pandemics to share cumulative preventive medical experience. A total of 829 formulas, including 329 herbs from 189 ancient books, 131 formulas with 152 herbs, and 13 Chinese patent medicines (CPM) from 30 official Chinese prevention programs used in ancient epidemics, SARS, influenza and COVID-19 prevention, were reviewed and analyzed. Preventive CHM mainly has four functions and can be taken orally or applied externally. CHM that kill pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Cyrtomium Fortunei J. Sm[Guanzhong]) were commonly used externally for disinfection in ancient prevention while CHM tonifying Qi (Astragali Radix [Huangq], Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma [Gancao]) are used for modern prevention. Taking CHM that expel pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Lonicerae Japonicae Flos[Jinyinhua]) and CHM eliminating dampness (Atractylodis Rhizoma [Cangzhu], Pogostemonis Herba[Guanghuoxiang]) have been commonly used from ancient times to COVID-19. Damp toxins are a common characteristic of infectious diseases such as SARS and COVID-19. Thus, taking CHM expelling damp toxins and tonifying Qi are the main methods for SARS and COVID-19 prevention. CHM with different approaches have been widely used in infectious disease prevention from ancient times to the present. Multiple CM prevention methods may provide new perspectives for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics
8.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211021008, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255859

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic is one of the most significant public health events in recent history. Currently, no specific treatment is available. Some drugs and cell-based therapy have been tested as alternatives to decrease the disease's symptoms, length of hospital stay, and mortality. We reported the case of a patient with a severe manifestation of COVID-19 in critical condition who did not respond to the standard procedures used, including six liters of O2 supplementation under a nasal catheter and treatment with dexamethasone and enoxaparin in prophylactic dose. The patient was treated with tocilizumab and an advanced therapy product based on umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSC). The combination of tocilizumab and UC-MSC proved to be safe, with no adverse effects, and the results of this case report prove to be a promising alternative in the treatment of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Karyotyping , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Viral Load
9.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221200

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Pandemics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Macaca/immunology , Male , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trachea , Vaccination
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 389-400, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206780

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the harm caused by coronaviruses to the world cannot be underestimated. Recently, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]) initially found to trigger human severe respiratory illness in Wuhan City of China in 2019, has infected more than six million people worldwide by 21 June 2020, and which has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern as well. And the virus has spread to more than 200 countries around the world. However, the effective drug has not yet been officially licensed or approved to treat SARS-Cov-2 and SARS-Cov infection. NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 complex of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV, essential for viral replication and transcription, is generally regarded as a potential target to fight against the virus. According to the NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 complex (PDB ID: 7BW4) structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 complex (PDB ID: 6NUR) structure of SARS-CoV, NSP12-NSP7 interface model, and NSP12-NSP8 interface model were established for virtual screening in the present study. Eight compounds (Nilotinib, Saquinavir, Tipranavir, Lonafarnib, Tegobuvir, Olysio, Filibuvir, and Cepharanthine) were selected for binding free energy calculations based on virtual screening and docking scores. All eight compounds can combine well with NSP12-NSP7-NSP8 in the crystal structure, providing drug candidates for the treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 and SARS.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Discovery/methods , Models, Molecular , Small Molecule Libraries
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 223-233, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206775

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a disease known from a few months, caused by a recently arisen virus and, consequently, it is little known. The disease has a benign course in most infected subjects (children and young adults), is often symptomatic in adults over the age of 50 and often serious and life threatening in people with comorbidities and the elderly. The few data published on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the blood-oncology field report a serious clinical presentation, a serious course of the disease, and a high mortality rate, as has also been reported for other cancer contexts. The current strategy for treating patients with SARS-CoV-2 includes antivirals that are effective against other viral infections and drugs that can moderate the cytokine storm. There is no specific vaccine and consequently all possible precautions must be taken to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the areas of oncology, oncohematology, and bone marrow transplantation. In this reviewer's article, we report the information currently available on SARS-CoV-2 infection to help young doctors and hematologists to successfully manage patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 9979032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202118

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped and harbor an unusually large (30-32 kb) positive-strand linear RNA genome. Highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (MERS-CoV) in humans. The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infects mice and serves as an ideal model of viral pathogenesis, mainly because experiments can be conducted using animal-biosafety level-2 (A-BSL2) containment. Human thymosin beta-4 (Tß4), a 43-residue peptide with an acetylated N-terminus, is widely expressed in human tissues. Tß4 regulates actin polymerization and functions as an anti-inflammatory molecule and an antioxidant as well as a promoter of wound healing and angiogenesis. These activities led us to test whether Tß4 serves to treat coronavirus infections of humans. To test this possibility, here, we established a BALB/c mouse model of coronavirus infection using mouse CoV MHV-A59 to evaluate the potential protective effect of recombinant human Tß4 (rhTß4). Such a system can be employed under A-BSL2 containment instead of A-BSL3 that is required to study coronaviruses infectious for humans. We found that rhTß4 significantly increased the survival rate of mice infected with MHV-A59 through inhibiting virus replication, balancing the host's immune response, alleviating pathological damage, and promoting repair of the liver. These results will serve as the basis for further application of rhTß4 to the treatment of human CoV diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Murine hepatitis virus , Thymosin/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 375-382, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196391

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T-cell immune responses in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may be instrumental in resolution of and protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we tested 25 hospitalized patients either with microbiologically documented COVID-19 (n = 19) or highly suspected of having the disease (n = 6) for presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD69+ expressing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing CD8+ T cells using flow-cytometry for intracellular cytokine staining assay. Two sets of overlapping peptides encompassing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein N-terminal 1 to 643 amino acid sequence and the entire sequence of SARS-CoV-2 M protein were used simultaneously as antigenic stimulus. Ten patients (40%) had detectable responses, displaying frequencies ranging from 0.15 to 2.7% (median of 0.57 cells/µL; range, 0.43-9.98 cells/µL). The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T cells in patients admitted to intensive care was comparable (P = .28) to the rate in patients hospitalized in other medical wards. No correlation was found between SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T-cell counts and SARS-CoV-2 S-specific antibody levels. Likewise, no correlation was observed between either SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T cells or S-specific immunoglobulin G-antibody titers and blood cell count or levels of inflammatory biomarkers. In summary, in this descriptive, preliminary study we showed that SARS-CoV-2-reactive IFN-γ CD8+ T cells can be detected in a non-negligible percentage of patients with moderate to severe forms of COVID-19. Further studies are warranted to determine whether quantitation of these T-cell subsets may provide prognostic information on the clinical course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 47(4): 673-684, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171731

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The last two decades have seen the emergence of several viral outbreaks. Some of them are the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV2) - the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Ever, vaccines for emergency use have been authorized for the control and prevention of COVID-19. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine for prophylaxis of COVID-19 and for other future epidemics. METHODS: This review describes patented vaccines for SARS and MERS-CoV and vaccines developed and approved for emergency use against the new coronavirus (COVID-19). The European Patent Office and the World Intellectual Property Organization were the patent databases used using specific terms. In addition, another search was carried out in the Clinical Trials in search of ongoing clinical studies focused on the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The patent search showed that most vaccines are based on viral vector platforms, nucleic acids, or protein subunits. The review also includes an overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2 in several countries. CONCLUSION: The information provided here lists vaccines for other types of coronavirus that have been used in the development of vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 47, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159813

ABSTRACT

To generate an inexpensive readily manufactured COVID-19 vaccine, we employed the LVS ΔcapB vector platform, previously used to generate potent candidate vaccines against Select Agent diseases tularemia, anthrax, plague, and melioidosis. Vaccines expressing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins are constructed using the LVS ΔcapB vector, a highly attenuated replicating intracellular bacterium, and evaluated for efficacy in golden Syrian hamsters, which develop severe COVID-19-like disease. Hamsters immunized intradermally or intranasally with a vaccine co-expressing the Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins and challenged 5 weeks later with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 are protected against severe weight loss and lung pathology and show reduced viral loads in the oropharynx and lungs. Protection correlates with anti-Nucleocapsid antibody. This potent vaccine should be safe; inexpensive; easily manufactured, stored, and distributed; and given the high homology between Membrane and Nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, potentially serve as a universal vaccine against the SARS subset of pandemic causing ß-coronaviruses.

16.
J Pharm Investig ; 51(3): 281-296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the new Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) strain causing severe acute respiratory syndrome swept the world. From November 2019 till February 2021, this virus infected nearly 104 million, with more than two million deaths and about 25 million active cases. This has prompted scientists to discover effective drugs to combat this pandemic. AREA COVERED: Drug repurposing is the magic bullet for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Therefore, several drugs have been investigated in silico, in vitro, as well as through human trials such as anti-SARS-CoV2 agents, or to prevent the complications resulting from the virus. In this review, the mechanisms of action of different therapeutic strategies are summarized. According to the WHO, different classes of drugs can be used, including anti-malarial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-coagulant drugs, as well as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, antibiotics, vitamins, zinc, neutralizing antibodies, and convalescent plasma therapy. Recently, there are some vaccines which are approved against SARS-CoV2. EXPERT OPINION: A complete understanding of the structure and function of all viral proteins that play a fundamental role in viral infection, which contribute to the therapeutic intervention and the development of vaccine in order to reduce the mortality rate. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40005-021-00520-4.

17.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 32: 101358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057292

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary infection of 2019-nCoV can frequently induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (pO2/FiO2) of less than 300 mmHg. Moreover, it can be complicated with cardiac injury or arrhythmia, microvascular and large-vessel thrombosis. We describe a case of a patient with COVID19-ARDS and concomitant critical ischemia of the limbs. Iloprost treatment, an analogue of a prostacyclin PGI2, was started for residual left forefoot ischemia after surgical thromboembolectomy. Unexpectedly, we documented improvement of respiratory performance and lung high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed significant regression of the diffuse pulmonary ground-glass opacity. The hypothetical mechanism is that iloprost can enhance perfusion preferentially to well-ventilated lung regions, reduce pressures of peripheral pulmonary vessels and induce reduction of lung interstitial edema. In addition, iloprost antithrombotic effect, endothelial damage repairing and neo-angiogenesis activity could play a relevant role.

18.
J Virol ; 94(20)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024213

ABSTRACT

The Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus), reservoir host of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), carries many bat SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) with high genetic diversity, particularly in the spike gene. Despite these variations, some bat SARSr-CoVs can utilize the orthologs of the human SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entry. It is speculated that the interaction between bat ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike proteins drives diversity. Here, we identified a series of R. sinicus ACE2 variants with some polymorphic sites involved in the interaction with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Pseudoviruses or SARSr-CoVs carrying different spike proteins showed different infection efficiencies in cells transiently expressing bat ACE2 variants. Consistent results were observed by binding affinity assays between SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV spike proteins and receptor molecules from bats and humans. All tested bat SARSr-CoV spike proteins had a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to bat ACE2, although they showed a 10-fold lower binding affinity to human ACE2 compared with that of their SARS-CoV counterpart. Structure modeling revealed that the difference in binding affinity between spike and ACE2 might be caused by the alteration of some key residues in the interface of these two molecules. Molecular evolution analysis indicates that some key residues were under positive selection. These results suggest that the SARSr-CoV spike protein and R. sinicus ACE2 may have coevolved over time and experienced selection pressure from each other, triggering the evolutionary arms race dynamics.IMPORTANCE Evolutionary arms race dynamics shape the diversity of viruses and their receptors. Identification of key residues which are involved in interspecies transmission is important to predict potential pathogen spillover from wildlife to humans. Previously, we have identified genetically diverse SARSr-CoVs in Chinese horseshoe bats. Here, we show the highly polymorphic ACE2 in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. These ACE2 variants support SARS-CoV and SARSr-CoV infection but with different binding affinities to different spike proteins. The higher binding affinity of SARSr-CoV spike to human ACE2 suggests that these viruses have the capacity for spillover to humans. The positive selection of residues at the interface between ACE2 and SARSr-CoV spike protein suggests long-term and ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between them. Continued surveillance of this group of viruses in bats is necessary for the prevention of the next SARS-like disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Coevolution , Chiroptera/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Binding Sites , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Ir J Med Sci ; 190(4): 1271-1274, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012247

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, causing the lethal disease COVid-19, is a public health emergency in the 2020 global pandemic. The outbreak and fast spreading of SARS-CoV-2 have a high morbidity and mortality specifically in elder patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and organ transplanted patients with immunosuppressive therapy. Preliminary results support different treatments such as chloroquine and convalescent plasma infusion in severe cases, with good outcome. On the other hand, the efficacy of supplementation with active vitamin D, an immunomodulator hormone with antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects, is unproven. A recent study reported that vitamin D attains antiviral effects, via blocking viral replication directly. SARS-CoV-2 primarily uses the immune evasion process during infection via the envelope spike glycoprotein, which is followed by a cytokine storm, causing severe acute respiratory disease syndrome and death. SARS-CoV-2, by using the well-known angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by the protein spike, as the host receptor to enter into alveolar, myocardial, and renal epithelial cells, can be disrupted by vitamin D. However, the correlation between vitamin D levels and COVID-19 deaths in previous studies was insignificant. Retrospective studies demonstrated a correlation between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality, while other studies did not find this correlation. Studies have shown that, vitamin D reduces the risk of acute viral respiratory tract infections and pneumonia via direct inhibition of viral replication, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The data available today regarding the beneficial protective effect of vitamin D is unclear and with conflicting results. Large randomized control trials are necessary to test this hypothesis. In this review, we will explain the cross talk between the active vitamin D and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and summarize the data from the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173551, 2020 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006190

ABSTRACT

The severity of the recent pandemic and the absence of any specific medication impelled the identification of existing drugs with potential in the treatment of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Curcumin, known for its pharmacological abilities especially as an anti-inflammatory agent, can be hypothesized as a potential candidate in the therapeutic regimen. COVID-19 has an assorted range of pathophysiological consequences, including pulmonary damage, elevated inflammatory response, coagulopathy, and multi-organ damage. This review summarizes the several evidences for the pharmacological benefits of curcumin in COVID-19-associated clinical manifestations. Curcumin can be appraised to hinder cellular entry, replication of SARS-CoV-2, and to prevent and repair COVID-19-associated damage of pneumocytes, renal cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, etc. The modulation and protective effect of curcumin on cytokine storm-related disorders are also discussed. Collectively, this review provides grounds for its clinical evaluation in the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Curcumin/adverse effects , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety
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