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1.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620639

ABSTRACT

Major public and private laboratories have entered into a race to find an effective COVID-19 vaccine. When that vaccine arrives, the governments will have to implement vaccination programs to achieve the necessary immunization levels to prevent the disease transmission. In this context, the ethical dilemma of compulsory vaccination vs. voluntary vaccination will be raised. Underlying this dilemma, lies the problem of the ethical models on which the political decisions of governments in matters of health are based. The article proposes and argues the need to base health policy decisions on an ethical «first person¼ model, based on responsibility, that allows us to move from a normative ethic to an ethic of responsible behavior. This change in the ethical model, together with certain proposals for political action, will help us to restore institutional trust so that the necessary levels of collective immunity against COVID-19 can be achieved through the voluntary vaccination of the citizens.

2.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524942

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: With COVID-19 affecting millions of people around the globe, quarantine of international arrivals is a critical public health measure to prevent further disease transmission in local populations. This measure has also been applied in the repatriation of citizens, undertaken by several countries as an ethical obligation and legal responsibility. This article describes the process of planning and preparing for the repatriation operation in South Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interagency collaboration, development of a COVID-19 testing and quarantining protocol, implementing infection prevention and control, and building a specialised health care delivery model were essential aspects of the repatriation operational planning, with a focus on maintaining dignity and wellbeing of the passengers as well as on effective prevention of COVID-19 transmission. From April 2020 to mid-February 2021, more than 14,000 international arrivals travellers have been repatriated under the South Australian repatriation operations. This paper has implications to inform ongoing repatriation efforts in Australia and overseas in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Infection Control/methods , International Health Regulations , Pandemics , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/methods , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Australia/epidemiology , Travel
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432419

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
4.
IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med ; 9: 4900711, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411484

ABSTRACT

Viral and bacterial pathogens can be transmitted through direct contact with contaminated surfaces. Efficient decontamination of contaminated surfaces could lead to decreased disease transmission, if optimized methods for detecting contaminated surfaces can be developed. Here we describe such a method whereby thermal tracking technology is utilized to detect thermal signatures incurred by surfaces through direct contact. This is applicable in public places to assist with targeted sanitation and cleaning efforts to potentially reduce chance of disease transmission. In this study, we refer to the touched region of the surface as a "touch-point" and examine how the touch-point regions can be automatically localized with a computer vision pipeline of a thermal image sequence. The pipeline mainly comprises two components: a single-frame and a multi-frame analysis. The single-frame analysis consists of a Background subtraction method for image pre-processing and a U-net deep learning model for segmenting the touch-point regions. The multi-frame analysis performs a summation of the outputs from the single-frame analysis and creates a cumulative map of touch-points. Results show that the touch-point detection pipeline can achieve 75.0% precision and 81.5% F1-score for the testing experiments of predicting the touch-point regions. This preliminary study shows potential applications of preventing indirect pathogen spread in public spaces and improving the efficiency of cleaning sanitation.


Subject(s)
Touch Perception , Viruses , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Sanitation , Touch
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(7): 1787-1798, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336052

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate identification of respiratory tract infection pathogens is of utmost importance for clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as prevention of pathogen transmission. To meet this demand, a microfluidic chip-based PCR-array system, Onestart, was developed. The Onestart system uses a microfluidic chip packaged with all the reagents required, and the waste liquid is also collected and stored on the chip. This ready-to-use system can complete the detection of 21 pathogens in a fully integrated manner, with sample lysis, nucleic acid extraction/purification, and real-time PCR sequentially implemented on the same chip. The entire analysis process is completed within 1.5 h, and the system automatically generates a test report. The lower limit-of-detection (LOD) of the Onestart assay was determined to be 1.0 × 103 copies·mL-1. The inter-batch variation of cycle threshold (Ct) values ranged from 0.08% to 0.69%, and the intra-batch variation ranged from 0.9% to 2.66%. Analytical results of the reference sample mix showed a 100% specificity of the Onestart assay. The analysis of batched clinical samples showed consistency of the Onestart assay with real-time PCR. With its ability to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of respiratory tract infection pathogens, application of the Onestart system will facilitate timely clinical management of respiratory tract infections and effective prevention of pathogen transmission. Onestart, a ready-to-use system, can detect 21 pathogens in a fully integrated manner on a microchip within 1.5 h.


Subject(s)
Automation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Equipment Design , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Limit of Detection , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Microfluidics , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Quality Control , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viruses
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12621, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275955

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, with limited or no supplies of vaccines and treatments, people and policymakers seek easy to implement and cost-effective alternatives to combat the spread of infection during the pandemic. The practice of wearing a mask, which requires change in people's usual behavior, may reduce disease transmission by preventing the virus spread from infectious to susceptible individuals. Wearing a mask may result in a public good game structure, where an individual does not want to wear a mask but desires that others wear it. This study develops and analyzes a new intervention game model that combines the mathematical models of epidemiology with evolutionary game theory. This approach quantifies how people use mask-wearing and related protecting behaviors that directly benefit the wearer and bring some advantage to other people during an epidemic. At each time-step, a suspected susceptible individual decides whether to wear a facemask, or not, due to a social learning process that accounts for the risk of infection and mask cost. Numerical results reveal a diverse and rich social dilemma structure that is hidden behind this mask-wearing dilemma. Our results highlight the sociological dimension of mask-wearing policy.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology/methods , Health Behavior , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Decision Making , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211024400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277897

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Clinicians treating COVID-19 patients face a major challenge in providing an effective relationship with patients who are discharged to return to home in order to optimize patient self-management after discharge. The purpose of these discharge instructions is to assist and provide guidance for physicians, nurses, and other health care personnel involved in discharging COVID-19 patients to home after encounters at hospitals, emergency departments, urgent care settings, and medical offices. METHODS: A systematic literature-search of studies evaluating both symptoms and signs of COVID-19 was performed in order to establish specific optimal performance criteria in monitoring a patient's status with regard to disease safety. These optimal performance criteria parameters were considered with regard to the severity of morbidity and mortality. Strategies used to develop the discharge instructions included review of a broad spectrum of literature to develop the discharge criteria. RESULTS: These guidelines are presented for patient education and should achieve the essential goals including: enabling patients to understand their medical situation, preventing complications, supporting patients by providing instructions, helping patients make more effective use of available health services, and managing patient stress by giving patients comfort through the knowledge of specific recommendations including how to respond to situations. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic requires clinicians to efficiently teach their patients self-management strategies and to provide a safe educated response to the patient and the surrounding community environment. The primary goal of the patient education discharge-instructions (PEDI) is to provide self-management strategies for preventing complications and disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(8): 102865, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel SARS-CoV-2 has been rattling the world since its outbreak in December 2019, leading to the COVID-19 pandemic. The learning curve of this new virus has been steep, with a global scientific community desperate to learn how the virus is transmitted, how it replicates, why it causes such a wide spectrum of disease manifestations, resulting in none or few symptoms in some. Others are burdened by an intense immune response that resembles the cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), which leads to severe disease manifestations, often complicated by fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Research efforts have been focusing on finding effective cures and vaccinations for this virus. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, represented by several GI manifestations, has led to its investigation as a target for the virus and as an indicator of disease severity. The response of the microbiome (which is heavily linked to immunity) to the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, and its role in igniting the exaggerated immune response has therefore become a focus of interest. The objective of our study was to gather the data connecting between the microbiome, the GI tract and COVID-19 and to investigate whether these reported alterations in the gut microbiome bear any resemblance to those seen in lupus, the prototypical autoimmune disease. Confirming such changes may become the steppingstone to potential therapies that may prevent transmission, progression and immune related manifestations of COVID-19, via manipulation of the gut microbiota. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature review, utilizing the Pubmed search engine and Google Scholar for studies evaluating the microbiome in COVID-19 patients and compared results with studies evaluating the microbiome in lupus. We searched for the terms: microbiome, dysbiosis, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, gastrointestinal as well as lupus and autoimmune. While there were hundreds of articles which referred to gastrointestinal manifestations in COVID-19, to date only 4 studies investigated the gastrointestinal microbiome in this setting. We compared the similarities between microbiome of COVID-19 patients and lupus patients. RESULTS: We found that there are several similar processes of immune dysregulation in patients with COVID-19 and in those with lupus, with several other alterations seen in other pathological states. Some of these similarities include loss of microbiota biodiversity, increased representation of pathobionts, which are microbes associated with inflammation and disease (i.e Proteobacteria) and a relative decrease of symbionts, which are protective microbes, associated with anti-inflammatory properties (i.e Lactobacillus). Compromise to the intestinal barrier has also been reported in both. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the disease manifestations in COVID-19. Whether gastrointestinal dysbiosis is the cause or effect of gastrointestinal manifestations and several severe systemic manifestations, which may be the response to an increased pro-inflammatory environment, is still debatable and warrants further investigation. Given the resemblance of the microbiome in COVID-19 patients to that seen in lupus patients, it becomes clearer why several therapies used in autoimmune conditions are currently under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these findings should promote further investigating the utility of manipulation of the microbiome, via nutritional supplementation or even fecal transplantations, interventions that may alter the course of the disease, and potentially prevent disease transmission at low cost and low risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autoimmunity , Dysbiosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
10.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257614

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: With COVID-19 affecting millions of people around the globe, quarantine of international arrivals is a critical public health measure to prevent further disease transmission in local populations. This measure has also been applied in the repatriation of citizens, undertaken by several countries as an ethical obligation and legal responsibility. This article describes the process of planning and preparing for the repatriation operation in South Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interagency collaboration, development of a COVID-19 testing and quarantining protocol, implementing infection prevention and control, and building a specialised health care delivery model were essential aspects of the repatriation operational planning, with a focus on maintaining dignity and wellbeing of the passengers as well as on effective prevention of COVID-19 transmission. From April 2020 to mid-February 2021, more than 14,000 international arrivals travellers have been repatriated under the South Australian repatriation operations. This paper has implications to inform ongoing repatriation efforts in Australia and overseas in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Infection Control/methods , International Health Regulations , Pandemics , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/methods , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Australia/epidemiology , Travel
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252014

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234737

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic introduced a set of mitigation measures based on personal behavior and attitudes. In the absence of vaccination or specific treatment, it became essential to comply with these measures to reduce infection transmission. Health literacy is the basis for changing behaviors. AIM: To characterize the impact of literacy on knowledge and attitudes towards preventive strategies against COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved an online questionnaire applied to students of the University of Porto, Portugal, containing questions about knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19 based on European guidelines. Health literacy was assessed through the Newest Vital Sign questionnaire. Logistic regression estimated the relationship between health literacy and both knowledge and attitudes. RESULTS: We included 871 participants (76.3% female), with a median age of 22 years old. We found adequate literacy in 92% of our sample, irrespective of gender and age. In the global analysis, 78.6% of the participants had adequate knowledge, and 90.4% had adequate attitudes. We found that better literacy was significantly associated with attitudes towards COVID-19, but not with better knowledge. In a model adjusted for gender, age, and previous education in the health field, female gender and previous education in the health field were associated with better knowledge and attitudes. CONCLUSION: Better health literacy is associated with better attitudes towards preventive strategies against COVID-19. We should invest in ways to improve health literacy, so we can improve people's attitudes and consequently reduce coronavirus' transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202101

ABSTRACT

AIM: Emergent infectious diseases often lack medical treatment or preventive vaccines, thus requiring non-pharmaceutical interventions such as quarantine to reduce disease transmission. Quarantine, defined as the separation and restriction of movement of healthy people who have potentially been exposed to the disease, remains contentious especially when the risks and benefits are not fully discussed and not effectively communicated to the people by the organizations who impose this public health measure. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A qualitative evidence synthesis was conducted to examine the phenomenon of adherence to quarantine focused on the following questions: What strategies affect adherence to quarantine? What are the barriers and facilitators to quarantine acceptance? What benefits and harms of quarantine have been described or measured? RESULTS: The evidence synthesis produced 18 findings assessed with high confidence. The findings were used to construct a conceptual framework for inter- and within-organization coordination and public communication that includes the following topics for consideration: desired orientation for implementation; population demographics; perceptions of messages; prior acceptance of quarantine; likelihood of impacts of quarantine; perceptions of health infrastructure; and perceptions of policy importance. CONCLUSION: The findings and conceptual framework can guide development of effective non-pharmaceutical interventions and as such have direct relevance to public health policy and decision-making for intervening in emergent infectious diseases outbreak such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 613292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201756

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a range of emergency measures worldwide. Early in the pandemic, children were suspected to act as drivers of the COVID-19 spread in the population, which was based on experiences with influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Consequently, closures of schools and kindergartens were implemented in many countries around the world, alongside with other non-pharmaceutical interventions for transmission control. Given the grave and multifaceted consequences of contact restriction measures for children, it is crucial to better understand the effect size of these incisive actions for the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we systematically review the current evidence on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to and by children. Data Sources: PubMed and preprints uploaded on medRxiv. Study Selection: Original research articles, case reports, brief communications, and commentaries were included into the analysis. Each title or abstract was independently reviewed to identify relevant articles. Studies in other languages than English were not included. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently reviewed the selected studies. Extracted data included citation of each study, type of healthcare setting, location of the study, characteristics of patient population, and reported outcomes. Results: Data on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on or by children is scarce. Several studies show a lower seropositivity of children compared to adults, suggesting a lower susceptibility of especially younger children. Most insight currently comes from household studies suggesting, that children are predominantly infected by their household contacts. The contagiousness however, seems to be comparable between children and adults, based on our meta-analysis of included studies. Conclusions: Larger and systematic studies are urgently needed to better understand the age dependent patterns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and thereby design more effective non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce disease transmission.

15.
Asian Spine J ; 15(2): 164-171, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191223

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: An original article describing a comprehensive methodology for making a traditional spine surgery clinic telemedicineready in terms of logistical considerations and workflow. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to promote the use of telemedicine via videoconferencing to reduce human exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and reduce the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission at outpatient clinics. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest healthcare crisis in the 21st century. Until a vaccine is developed or herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is achieved, social distancing to avoid crowding is an important strategy to reduce disease transmission and resurgence. Telemedicine has already been applied in the field of orthopedics with encouraging results. METHODS: We reviewed the evidence behind telemedicine and described our clinical protocol, patient selection criteria, and workflow for telemedicine. We discussed a simple methodology to convert pre-existing traditional clinic resources into telemedicine tools, along with future challenges. RESULTS: Our methodology was successfully and easily applied in our clinical practice, with a streamlined workflow allowing our spine surgery service to implement telemedicine as a consultation modality in line with the national recommendations of social distancing. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine was well incorporated into our outpatient practice using the above workflow. We believe that the use of telemedicine via videoconferencing can become part of the new normal and a safe strategy for healthcare systems as both a medical and an economic countermeasure against COVID-19.

16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 6616654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After several waves of spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world are struggling to regain their economies by slowly lifting mobility restrictions and social distance measures applied during the crisis. Meanwhile, recent studies provide compelling evidence on how contact distancing, the use of face masks, and handwashing habits can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In this context, we investigated the effect that these personal protection habits can have in preventing new waves of contagion. METHODS: We extended an agent-based COVID-19 epidemic model in a simulated community to incorporate the mechanisms of these aforementioned personal care habits and measure their incidence in person-to-person transmission. A full factorial experiment design was performed to illustrate the extent to which the interplay between these personal habits is effective in mitigating the spread of disease. A global sensitivity analysis was performed on the parameters that control these habits to further validate the results. RESULTS: We found that observing physical distance is the dominant habit in reducing disease transmission, although adopting either or both of the other two habits is necessary to some extent to suppress a new outbreak entirely. When physical distance is not observed, adherence to the use of masks or handwashing has a significant decrease in infections and mortality, but the epidemic still unfolds. We also found that in all scenarios, the combined effect of adhering to the three habits is more powerful than adopting them separately. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a broad adherence of the population to voluntary self-care habits would help contain unfold of new outbreaks. The purpose of our model is illustrative and contributes to ratify the importance of urging citizens to adopt the amalgam of personal care habits as a primary collective protection measure to prevent communities from returning to confinements, while immunisation is carried out in late stages of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Systems Analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Habits , Humans , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Population Density , Quarantine
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 56579-56586, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952789

ABSTRACT

Surgical mask is recommended by the World Health Organization for personal protection against disease transmission. However, most of the surgical masks on the market are disposable that cannot be self-sterilized for reuse. Thus, when confronting the global public health crisis, a severe shortage of mask resource is inevitable. In this paper, a novel low-cost electrothermal mask with excellent self-sterilization performance and portability is reported to overcome this shortage. First, a flexible, ventilated, and conductive cloth tape is patterned and adhered to the surface of a filter layer made of melt-blown nonwoven fabrics (MNF), which functions as interdigital electrodes. Then, a graphene layer with premier electric and thermal conductivity is coated onto the MNF. Operating under a low voltage of 3 V, the graphene-modified MNF (mod-MNF) can quickly generate large amounts of heat to achieve a high temperature above 80 °C, which can kill the majority of known viruses attached to the filter layer and the mask surface. Finally, the optimized graphene-modified masks based on the mod-MNF filter retain a relatively high particulate matter (PM) removal efficiency and a low-pressure drop. Moreover, the electrothermal masks can maintain almost the same PM removal efficiency over 10 times of electrifying, suggesting its outstanding reusability.

18.
Procedia Comput Sci ; 179: 662-669, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131741

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new emerging disease and a pandemic causing a high number of deaths. It is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and transmitted via droplets. Several countries including Indonesia had applied social distancing to reduce the disease transmission. In this study, we were using two groups, with social distancing and without social distancing represented by quarantine parameter Q. We predict the peak number in both groups using Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Deceased (SIRD) model. The aims of this study are to compare the peak number of cases in groups with and without social distancing cases in Jakarta. This study result in a lower peak number and longer days of disease period in group with strict social distancing than in groups without social distancing, the current case number represent quarantine parameter Q 0.4 of SIRD Model. We suggest applying strict social distancing in Jakarta considering the duration, health standard, and other factors affecting COVID-19 cases.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 634949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120248

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of delivery mode on the infection rates of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the newborn remains unknown. We aimed to summarize the existing literature on COVID-19 infection during pregnancy to evaluate which mode of delivery is better for preventing possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) from 31 December 2019 to 18 June 2020. We applied no language restrictions. We screened abstracts for relevance, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in duplicate. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. The primary outcome was severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test positivity in neonates born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19 following different delivery modes. Secondary outcomes were neonatal deaths and maternal deaths. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020194049. Results: Sixty-eight observational studies meeting inclusion criteria were included in the current study, with no randomized controlled trials. In total, information on the mode of delivery, detailed neonatal outcomes, and SARS-CoV-2 status were available for 1,019 pregnant women and 1,035 neonates. Six hundred and eighteen (59.71%) neonates were born through cesarean section and 417(40.29%) through vaginal delivery. Probable congenital SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported in 34/1,035 (3.29%) neonates. Of babies born vaginally, 9/417 (2.16%) were tested positive compared with 25/618 (4.05%) born by cesarean. Of babies born vaginally, 0/417 (0.00%) neonatal deaths were reported compared with 6/618 (0.97%) born by cesarean. Of women who delivered vaginally, 1/416 (0.24%) maternal deaths were reported compared with 11/603 (1.82%) delivered by cesarean. Two women died before delivery. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses showed similar findings. Conclusions: The rate of neonatal COVID-19 infection, neonatal deaths, and maternal deaths are no greater when the mother gave birth through vaginal delivery. Based on the evidence available, there is no sufficient evidence supporting that the cesarean section is better than vaginal delivery in preventing possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate. The mode of birth should be individualized and based on disease severity and obstetric indications. Additional good-quality studies with comprehensive serial tests from multiple specimens are urgently needed. Study registration: PROSPERO CRD42020194049.

20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 693-695, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111650

ABSTRACT

Recent literature strongly supports the hypothesis that mobility restriction and social distancing play a crucial role in limiting the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). During the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it was shown that mobility restriction reduced transmission significantly. This study found that, in the period between the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was high positive correlation between trends in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and mobility. These two trends oscillated simultaneously, and increased mobility following the relaxation of lockdown rules was significantly associated with increased transmission. From a public health perspective, these results highlight the importance of tracking changes in mobility when relaxing mitigation measures in order to anticipate future changes in the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , Quarantine , Recreation , Travel
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