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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3230-3244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An incremental number of cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) in individuals with ongoing or recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of cases of ATM described in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by screening both articles published and in preprint. RESULTS: Twenty cases were identified. There was a slight male predominance (60.0%) and the median age was 56 years. Neurological symptoms first manifested after a mean of 10.3 days from the first onset of classical, mostly respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Overall, COVID-19 severity was relatively mild. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all 14 cases examined. Cerebrospinal fluid findings reflected an inflammatory process in most instances (77.8%). Aquaporin-4 and myelin oligodendrocyte protein antibodies in serum (tested in 10 and nine cases, respectively) were negative. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord lesions spanned a mean of 9.8 vertebral segments, necrotic-hemorrhagic transformation was present in three cases and two individuals had additional acute motor axonal neuropathy. More than half of the patients received a second immunotherapy regimen. Over a limited follow-up period of several weeks, 90% of individuals recovered either partially or near fully. CONCLUSION: Although causality cannot readily be inferred, it is possible that cases of ATM occur para- or post-infectiously in COVID-19. All identified reports are anecdotal and case descriptions are heterogeneous. Whether the condition and the observed radiological characteristics are specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI13-SI24, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the change in quality of life, disease-specific indicators, health and lifestyle before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among people with musculoskeletal diagnoses and symptoms. METHODS: We undertook an additional follow-up of two existing UK registers involving people with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and participants in a trial in the UK who had regional pain and were identified at high risk of developing chronic widespread pain. Participants completed the study questionnaire between July and December 2020, throughout which time there were public health restrictions in place. RESULTS: The number of people taking part in the study was 1054 (596 axSpA, 162 PsA, 296 regional pain). In comparison with their previous (pre-pandemic) assessment, there was an age-adjusted significant, small decrease in quality of life measured by EQ-5D [-0.020 (95% CI -0.030, -0.009)] overall and across all population groups examined. This was primarily related to poorer mental health and pain. There was a small increase in fibromyalgia symptoms, but a small decrease in sleep problems. There was a small deterioration in axSpA disease activity, and disease-specific quality of life and anxiety in PsA participants. Predictors of poor quality of life were similar pre- and during the pandemic. The effect of lockdown on activity differed according to age, gender and deprivation. CONCLUSION: Important lessons include focusing on addressing anxiety and providing enhanced support for self-management in the absence of normal health care being available, and awareness that all population groups are likely to be affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Musculoskeletal Diseases/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Rehabilitacion (Madr) ; 55(4): 282-290, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454497

ABSTRACT

One of the main roles of the prescription of physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes is to reduce hyperglycemia. The beneficial effect of physical training on glycemic levels is considered as the sum of the effects of each exercise session. A better understanding of acute responses to exercise, through short-term glycemic variability, could explain the differences in the results of distinct training protocols. The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific information on different exercise protocols and their association with short-term glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of studies published in English and Spanish was carried out. The databases used were PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and Medline. Only studies conducted in adults (older than 18 years) were included. A total of 36 studies were identified, which were analyzed and completed using the Covidence® platform. The final analysis included 10 articles with 296 patients. The 10 included articles were divided according to the type of intervention protocol used: group 1, acute exercise, and group 2, training. Significant differences were found in glycemic variability in 71.4% of the articles in group 1 and in 100% of the articles included in group 2. Positive effects of acute exercise and physical training on short-term glycemic variability were demonstrated. The findings were more pronounced in the intervention protocols than in physical training.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Humans , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 909-923, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic lung disease or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects the risk of contracting severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this population cohort study, records from 1205 general practices in England that contribute to the QResearch database were linked to Public Health England's database of SARS-CoV-2 testing and English hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and deaths for COVID-19. All patients aged 20 years and older who were registered with one of the 1205 general practices on Jan 24, 2020, were included in this study. With Cox regression, we examined the risks of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, admission to ICU, and death in relation to respiratory disease and use of ICS, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic status and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24 and April 30, 2020, 8 256 161 people were included in the cohort and observed, of whom 14 479 (0·2%) were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, 1542 (<0·1%) were admitted to ICU, and 5956 (0·1%) died. People with some respiratory diseases were at an increased risk of hospitalisation (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·45-1·63], asthma 1·18 [1·13-1·24], severe asthma 1·29 [1·22-1·37; people on three or more current asthma medications], bronchiectasis 1·34 [1·20-1·50], sarcoidosis 1·36 [1·10-1·68], extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·35 [0·82-2·21], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·59 [1·30-1·95], other interstitial lung disease 1·66 [1·30-2·12], and lung cancer 2·24 [1·89-2·65]) and death (COPD 1·54 [1·42-1·67], asthma 0·99 [0·91-1·07], severe asthma 1·08 [0·98-1·19], bronchiectasis 1·12 [0·94-1·33], sarcoidosis 1·41 [0·99-1·99), extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·56 [0·78-3·13], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·47 [1·12-1·92], other interstitial lung disease 2·05 [1·49-2·81], and lung cancer 1·77 [1·37-2·29]) due to COVID-19 compared with those without these diseases. Admission to ICU was rare, but the HR for people with asthma was 1·08 (0·93-1·25) and severe asthma was 1·30 (1·08-1·58). In a post-hoc analysis, relative risks of severe COVID-19 in people with respiratory disease were similar before and after shielding was introduced on March 23, 2020. In another post-hoc analysis, people with two or more prescriptions for ICS in the 150 days before study start were at a slightly higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with all other individuals (ie, no or one ICS prescription): HR 1·13 (1·03-1·23) for hospitalisation, 1·63 (1·18-2·24) for ICU admission, and 1·15 (1·01-1·31) for death. INTERPRETATION: The risk of severe COVID-19 in people with asthma is relatively small. People with COPD and interstitial lung disease appear to have a modestly increased risk of severe disease, but their risk of death from COVID-19 at the height of the epidemic was mostly far lower than the ordinary risk of death from any cause. Use of inhaled steroids might be associated with a modestly increased risk of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e042354, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relative infectiousness of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected persons compared with symptomatic individuals based on a scoping review of available literature. DESIGN: Rapid scoping review of peer-reviewed literature from 1 January to 5 December 2020 using the LitCovid database and the Cochrane library. SETTING: International studies on the infectiousness of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. PARTICIPANTS: Studies were selected for inclusion if they defined asymptomatics as a separate cohort distinct from presymptomatics and if they provided a quantitative measure of the infectiousness of asymptomatics relative to symptomatics. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: PCR result (PCR studies), the rate of infection (mathematical modelling studies) and secondary attack rate (contact tracing studies) - in each case from asymptomatic in comparison with symptomatic individuals. RESULTS: There are only a limited number of published studies that report estimates of relative infectiousness of asymptomatic compared with symptomatic individuals. 12 studies were included after the screening process. Significant differences exist in the definition of infectiousness. PCR studies in general show no difference in shedding levels between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals; however, the number of study subjects is generally limited. Two modelling studies estimate relative infectiousness to be 0.43 and 0.57, but both of these were more reflective of the infectiousness of undocumented rather than asymptomatic cases. The results from contact tracing studies include estimates of relative infectiousness of 0, but with insufficient evidence to conclude that it is significantly different from 1. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable heterogeneity in estimates of relative infectiousness highlighting the need for further investigation of this important parameter. It is not possible to provide any conclusive estimate of relative infectiousness, as the estimates from the reviewed studies varied between 0 and 1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing , Humans , Mass Screening
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8968, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387471

ABSTRACT

A significant number of studies invoked diabetes as a risk factor for virus infections, but the issue remains controversial. We aimed to examine whether non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus enhances the risk of virus infections compared with the risk in healthy individuals without non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed case-control and cohort studies on the association between non-autoimmune diabetes and viruses. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science with no language restriction, to identify articles published until February 15, 2021. The main outcome assessment was the risk of virus infection in individuals with non-autoimmune diabetes. We used a random-effects model to pool individual studies and assessed heterogeneity (I2) using the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019134142. Out of 3136 articles identified, we included 68 articles (90 studies, as the number of virus and or diabetes phenotype varied between included articles). The summary OR between non-autoimmune diabetes and virus infections risk were, 10.8(95% CI: 10.3-11.4; 1-study) for SARS-CoV-2; 3.6(95%CI: 2.7-4.9, I2 = 91.7%; 43-studies) for HCV; 2.7(95% CI: 1.3-5.4, I2 = 89.9%, 8-studies;) for HHV8; 2.1(95% CI: 1.7-2.5; 1-study) for H1N1 virus; 1.6(95% CI: 1.2-2.13, I2 = 98.3%, 27-studies) for HBV; 1.5(95% CI: 1.1-2.0; 1-study) for HSV1; 3.5(95% CI: 0.6-18.3 , I2 = 83.9%, 5-studies) for CMV; 2.9(95% CI: 1-8.7, 1-study) for TTV; 2.6(95% CI: 0.7-9.1, 1-study) for Parvovirus B19; 0.7(95% CI: 0.3-1.5 , 1-study) for coxsackie B virus; and 0.2(95% CI: 0-6.2; 1-study) for HGV. Our findings suggest that, non-autoimmune diabetes is associated with increased susceptibility to viruses especially SARS-CoV-2, HCV, HHV8, H1N1 virus, HBV and HSV1. Thus, these viruses deserve more attention from diabetes health-care providers, researchers, policy makers, and stakeholders for improved detection, overall proper management, and efficient control of viruses in people with non-autoimmune diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications , Virus Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Risk Factors
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389406

ABSTRACT

There are considerable psychological and psychiatric consequences of the pandemic. Researchers have started to take into account the real or perceived sense of social threats that may be expressed, such as anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. However, analyses on pandemic-related anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders mostly rarely addresses the situation of people with autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the mental health factors among people with systemic lupus erythematosus by quantifying the severity of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In total, 723 people took part in the study. The study group consisted of 134 individuals with a systemic lupus erythematosus. The control group consisted of 589 people without systemic lupus erythematosus. The regression adjusted by age, gender, and diagnosis of other chronic diseases showed individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus were at a much higher risk of elevated symptoms of anxiety on the GAD-7 scale (OR = 3.683; p < 0.001), depression on the PHQ-9 scale (OR = 4.183; p < 0.001), and sleep disorders on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale (OR = 6.781; p < 0.001). Therefore, the mental health of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the times of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only an extremely important medical problem but also a social one and must require special attention.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 2020, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389203

ABSTRACT

Emerging highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a serious ongoing threat to the public health worldwide. The spike (S) proteins of CoVs are surface glycoproteins that facilitate viral entry into host cells via attachment to their respective cellular receptors. The S protein is believed to be a major immunogenic component of CoVs and a target for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and most candidate vaccines. Development of a safe and convenient assay is thus urgently needed to determine the prevalence of CoVs nAbs in the population, to study immune response in infected individuals, and to aid in vaccines and viral entry inhibitor evaluation. While live virus-based neutralization assays are used as gold standard serological methods to detect and measure nAbs, handling of highly pathogenic live CoVs requires strict bio-containment conditions in biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories. On the other hand, use of replication-incompetent pseudoviruses bearing CoVs S proteins could represent a safe and useful method to detect nAbs in serum samples under biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) conditions. Here, we describe a detailed protocol of a safe and convenient assay to generate vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudoviruses to evaluate and measure nAbs against highly pathogenic CoVs. The protocol covers methods to produce VSV pseudovirus bearing the S protein of the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) and the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), pseudovirus titration, and pseudovirus neutralization assay. Such assay could be adapted by different laboratories and researchers working on highly pathogenic CoVs without the need to handle live viruses in the BSL-3 environment.

10.
Front Neurol ; 12: 647425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369681

ABSTRACT

After gaining experience conducting both auto and allografts in persons with hematological diseases in the HSCT programs in Puebla and Monterrey, México, this study outlines subsequent program autografting patients with autoimmune conditions. The first transplant in multiple sclerosis was conducted in Puebla on July 5, 2006. From 2015 we increased activity autografting persons with autoimmune conditions in the two campuses of the HSCT-México program: Puebla and Monterrey. By December 6, 2020, patient number 1,000 in the program was autografted. In our experience, a significant reduction in the expanded disability status scale score was achieved in all of the three phenotypes of the disease (from a median of 5.1 to 4.5 points), whereas the response rate (defined as a decrease of at least 0.5 of EDSS score regardless of baseline EDSS, or unchanged EDSS) was 83, 78, and 73% after 12 months in the relapsing-remitting, primary-progressive and secondary-progressive forms of multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to analyzing the viability, safety, and efficacy of our method, this study contributes new knowledge to the field of both stem cell transplantation and multiple sclerosis.

12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23 Suppl 1: 3-16, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324985

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic multisystem disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity makes it a major healthcare challenge across both developed and developing countries. Traditional measures such as body mass index do not always identify individuals at increased risk of comorbidities, yet continue to be used in deciding who qualifies for weight loss treatment. A better understanding of how obesity is associated with comorbidities, in particular non-metabolic conditions, is needed to identify individuals at risk in order to prioritize treatment. For metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), weight loss can prevent T2D in individuals with prediabetes. It can improve and reverse T2D if weight loss is achieved early in the course of the disease. However, access to effective weight loss treatments is a significant barrier to improved health for people with obesity. In the present paper, we review the rising prevalence of obesity and why it should be classed as a multisystem disease. We will discuss potential mechanisms underlying its association with various comorbidities and how these respond to treatment, with a particular focus on cardiometabolic disease, malignancy and mental health.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Weight Loss
13.
Aging Dis ; 12(3): 710-717, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315005

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the People's Republic of China and the World Health Organization first reported on a cluster of pneumonia with an unknown cause. Nine months later more than 1.4 million people have died from COVID 19. In this work, the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on five nursing homes in Austria, which cared for 889 residents in the first half of 2020, were examined. The research question was whether the measures taken were appropriate to prevent an outbreak within the individual facilities. To detect previously unrecognized infections, the present study evaluated the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in residents and employees of the nursing homes. Following the analysis of blood samples, the prospectively collected data was connected to data from screening examinations and data from contact tracing. The present study demonstrated an overall prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in nursing homes of 3.7%. Whereas the prevalence in those facilities that have never been hit by an outbreak is 0%, the prevalence in those facilities with an outbreak is up to 4.9%. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 35 persons. A retrospective analysis of all 5 included nursing homes demonstrated that upon regular clinical screening in combination with PCRs an infection with SARS-COV-2 was detected in 66 residents and 24 employees from different professional groups. In only 25 of the 35 persons with neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 an infection was proven in advance. This study suggests that specific measures can prevent transmission within a health care facility. Nevertheless, the results also show that a risk reduction to 0% cannot be achieved. In preparation for further pandemic waves there is still the need to reduce the probability of a transmission in nursing homes with specific test strategies.

14.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

16.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(6): e23118, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Similar to other populations with highly stigmatized medical or psychiatric conditions, people who hear voices (ie, experience auditory verbal hallucinations [AVH]) are often difficult to identify and reach for research. Technology-assisted remote research strategies reduce barriers to research recruitment; however, few studies have reported on the efficiency and effectiveness of these approaches. OBJECTIVE: This study introduces and evaluates the efficacy of technology-assisted remote research designed for people who experience AVH. METHODS: Our group developed an integrated, automated and human complementary web-based recruitment and enrollment apparatus that incorporated Google Ads, web-based screening, identification verification, hybrid automation, and interaction with live staff. We examined the efficacy of that apparatus by examining the number of web-based advertisement impressions (ie, number of times the web-based advertisement was viewed); clicks on that advertisement; engagement with web-based research materials; and the extent to which it succeeded in representing a broad sample of individuals with AVH, assessed through the self-reported AVH symptom severity and demographic representativeness (relative to the US population) of the sample recruited. RESULTS: Over an 18-month period, our Google Ads advertisement was viewed 872,496 times and clicked on 11,183 times. A total amount of US $4429.25 was spent on Google Ads, resulting in 772 individuals who experience AVH providing consent to participate in an entirely remote research study (US $0.40 per click on the advertisement and US $5.73 per consented participant) after verifying their phone number, passing a competency screening questionnaire, and providing consent. These participants reported high levels of AVH frequency (666/756, 88.1% daily or more), distress (689/755, 91.3%), and functional interference (697/755, 92.4%). They also represented a broad sample of diversity that mirrored the US population demographics. Approximately one-third (264/756, 34.9%) of the participants had never received treatment for their AVH and, therefore, were unlikely to be identified via traditional clinic-based research recruitment strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based procedures allow for time saving, cost-efficient, and representative recruitment of individuals with AVH and can serve as a model for future studies focusing on hard-to-reach populations.

17.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 61(3): e75-e77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272512

ABSTRACT

Owing to the extended nature and worldwide exposure of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it is likely that the presence and impact of behavioral health conditions will increase. For example, it is anticipated that individuals living with a major depressive disorder could reach as high as 60% of the population owing to the ongoing disruption from COVID-19. In 2017, the annual rate of individuals experiencing a major depressive episode was only 7.1%. Pharmacists, specifically community pharmacists, are well positioned to provide needed intervention and triage services to individuals living with, and struggling with, a mental health condition. Pharmacists, therefore, need additional training and support to be effective in serving the community in this way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Pharmacists , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 101, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world presents an unprecedented challenge to public health inequities. People who use opioids may be a vulnerable group disproportionately impacted by the current pandemic, however, the limited prior research in this area makes it unclear whether COVID-19 and opioid use outcomes may be related, and whether other environmental and socioeconomic factors might play a role in explaining COVID-19 mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between opioid-related mortality and COVID-19 mortality across U.S. counties. METHODS: Data from 3142 counties across the U.S. were used to model the cumulative count of deaths due to COVID-19 up to June 2, 2020. A multivariable negative-binomial regression model was employed to evaluate the adjusted COVID-19 mortality rate ratios (aMRR). RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, counties with higher rates of opioid-related mortality per 100,000 persons were found to be significantly associated with higher rates of COVID-19 mortality (aMRR: 1.0134; 95% CI [1.0054, 1.0214]; P = 0.001). Counties with higher average daily Particulate Matter (PM2.5) exposure also saw significantly higher rates of COVID-19 mortality. Analyses revealed rural counties, counties with higher percentages of non-Hispanic whites, and counties with increased average maximum temperatures are significantly associated with lower mortality rates from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates need for public health efforts in hard hit COVID-19 regions to also focus prevention efforts on overdose risk among people who use opioids. Future studies using individual-level data are needed to allow for detailed inferences.

19.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 63, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health emergency, which presents wide-ranging negative impacts on individuals with diabetes. To examine psychosocial well-being and diabetes outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and investigate how these factors vary in different countries. METHODS: Between April and June 2020 we employed a cross national comparative research study in the United States (US), Brazil, and Iran to collect data from 1788 adults with type 1 diabetes using web-based survey. Study participants answered questions relevant to diabetes distress, diabetes burnout, depressive symptoms, COVID-19 related changes, and socio-demographic characteristics. They also reported their last Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and daily Time-in-Range (TiR) blood glucose. We analyzed data using comparative tests (Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and McNemar test), logistic and linear regression adjusted for fixed effects. RESULTS: There were significant changes prior and during the pandemic regarding access to diabetes care, diabetes supplies and medications, healthy food and safe places to exercise in all countries (p < 0.05). Participants in Iran experienced higher levels of diabetes distress (57.1%), diabetes burnout (50%), and depressive symptoms (60.9%), followed by Brazil and US (p < 0.0001). US participants reported better glycemic control (HbA1c = 6.97%, T1R = 69.64%) compared to Brazil (HbA1c = 7.94%, T1R = 51.95%) and Iran (HbA1c = 7.47%, T1R = 51.53%) (p < 0.0001). There were also significant relationships between psychosocial well-being, diabetes outcomes, socio-demographic data, and COVID-19 related challenges in overall sample (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of differences among US, Brazil, and Iran, our findings revealed that different countries may experience similar challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic which can impact negatively diabetes outcomes and psychosocial well-being in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Countries need to consider modifiable variables associated with poor diabetes outcomes and sub optimal psychosocial well-being and target vulnerable population using significant socio-demographic variables.

20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(22): 825-829, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257247

ABSTRACT

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which kidney function has permanently declined such that renal replacement therapy* is required to sustain life (1). The mortality rate for patients with ESRD in the United States has been declining since 2001 (2). However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, ESRD patients are at high risk for COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality, which is due, in part, to weakened immune systems and presence of multiple comorbidities (3-5). The ESRD National Coordinating Center (ESRD NCC) supports the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the ESRD Networks†,§ through analysis of data, dissemination of best practices, and creation of educational materials. ESRD NCC analyzed deaths reported to the Consolidated Renal Operations in a Web-Enabled Network (CROWNWeb), a system that facilitates the collection of data and maintenance of information about ESRD patients on chronic dialysis or receiving a kidney transplant who are treated in Medicare-certified dialysis facilities and kidney transplant centers in the United States. Excess death estimates were obtained by comparing observed and predicted monthly numbers of deaths during February 1-August 31, 2020; predicted deaths were modeled based on data from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2019. The analysis estimated 8.7-12.9 excess deaths per 1,000 ESRD patients, or a total of 6,953-10,316 excess deaths in a population of 798,611 ESRD patients during February 1-August 31, 2020. These findings suggest that deaths among ESRD patients during the early phase of the pandemic exceeded those that would have been expected based on previous years' data. Geographic and temporal patterns of excess mortality, including those among persons with ESRD, should be considered during planning and implementation of interventions, such as COVID-19 vaccination, infection control guidance, and patient education. These findings underscore the importance of data-driven technical assistance and further analyses of the causes and patterns of excess deaths in ESRD patients.


Subject(s)
Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Mortality/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology
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