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1.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(1): 63-74, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805676

ABSTRACT

Purpose Evaluation and management of voice and upper airway disorders in adults and children, by speech-language pathologists worldwide, have been significantly altered by the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary to the pathogenic nature of the virus in the respiratory tract and upper airway, it is essential that speech-language pathologists who specialize in these disorders are knowledgeable of current practices to provide evidence-based care while minimizing viral transmission. Understanding how and when SARS-CoV-2 spreads is critical to the development of effective infection prevention within clinical practices. Method We established an evidence-based clinical practice guide for clinicians working with voice and upper airway through a comprehensive evaluation of peer-reviewed journals, non-peer-reviewed manuscripts on preprint servers, national health guidelines, and published and online consensus statements and emerging data. Emphasis was placed on risk mitigation for viral transmission via safe clinical practices, including evaluative procedures, therapy including telehealth, personal protective equipment, room, staffing, and distancing considerations. Results/Conclusions While knowledge relevant to viral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly evolving, there is a paucity of literature specific to the evaluation and treatment of voice and upper airway disorders. Within these confines and given the potentially significant high risk of infection secondary to the nature of COVID-19, we summarize current considerations and recommend best practices that maximize risk mitigation whereby ensuring patient and provider safety.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Speech Disorders/diagnosis , Voice Disorders/diagnosis , Adult , Airway Obstruction/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Speech Disorders/therapy , Voice Disorders/therapy
2.
J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 30(2): 104-115, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This manuscript serves to provide an overview of the methods of the Multimorbidity in Children and Youth across the Life-course (MY LIFE) study, profile sample characteristics of the cohort, and provide baseline estimates of multimorbidity to foster collaboration with clinical and research colleagues across Canada. METHOD: MY LIFE is comprised of 263 children (2-16 years) with a physical illness recruited from McMaster Children's Hospital, their primary caregiving parent, and their closest-aged sibling. Participants are followed with data collection at recruitment, 6, 12, and 24 months which includes structured interviews, self-reported measures, and biological samples and occur in a private research office or at participants' homes. Post-COVID-19, data collection transitioned to mail and telephone surveys. RESULTS: At recruitment, children were 9.4 (4.2) years of age and 52.7% were male. The mean duration of their physical illness was 4.5 (4.1) years; 25% represent incident cases (duration <1 year). Most (69.7%) had healthy body weight and intelligence in the average range (73.5%). Overall, 38.2% of children screened positive for ≥1 mental illness according to parent report (24.8% screened positive based on child self-report). Compared to 2016 Census data, the MY LIFE cohort overrepresents families of higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity is common among children and these baseline data will serve to measure relative changes in the mental health of children with physical illness over time. MY LIFE will provide new information for understanding multimorbidity among children, though underrepresentation of lower socioeconomic families may have implications for the generalizability of findings.


OBJECTIF: Le présent manuscrit sert à présenter un aperçu des méthodes de l'étude sur la multimorbidité chez les enfants et les jeunes tout au long de la vie (MA VIE), à esquisser des caractéristiques d'échantillon de la cohorte et à fournir des estimations de base de la multimorbidité pour faciliter la collaboration avec les collègues cliniques et chercheurs du Canada. MÉTHODE: MA VIE comprend 263 enfants (de 2 à 16 ans) souffrant d'une maladie physique recrutés à l'hôpital pour enfants de McMaster, leur principal parent aidant, et leurs frères et sœurs les plus rapprochés en âge. Les participants sont suivis par une collecte de données lors du recrutement, à 6, 12, et 24 mois, ce qui comporte des entrevues structurées, des mesures auto-déclarées, et des échantillons biologiques qui sont prélevés dans un bureau privé de la recherche ou au domicile de participants. La collecte de données post-COVID-19 a effectué une transition par la poste et les sondages par téléphone. RÉSULTATS: Lors du recrutement, les enfants avaient 9,4 (4,2) ans et 52,7 % étaient de sexe masculin. La durée moyenne de leur maladie physique était de 4,5 (4,1) ans; 25 % représentaient des cas incidents (durée < 1 an). La plupart (69,7 %) avait un poids corporel sain et une intelligence dans la moyenne (73,5 %). En général, 38,2 % des enfants avaient un dépistage positif pour ≥ 1 maladie mentale selon le rapport des parents (24,8 % avaient un dépistage positif selon l'auto-déclaration des enfants). Comparativement aux données du recensement de 2016, la cohorte MA VIE surreprésente les familles de statut socio-économique plus élevé. CONCLUSIONS: La multimorbidité est commune chez les enfants et ces données de départ serviront à mesurer les changements relatifs de la santé mentale des enfants souffrant de maladie physique avec le temps. MA VIE fournira de nouvelles informations pour comprendre la multimorbidité chez les enfants, quoique la sous-représentation des familles au faible statut socio-économique puisse avoir des implications pour la généralisabilité des résultats.

3.
Pneumologe (Berl) ; : 1-5, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic the focus of attention was on children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases. Due to a lack of epidemiological data and clinical experience, it was feared that children with respiratory diseases were a risk group for particularly severe courses of COVID-19, as has been reported for adults. OBJECTIVE: The currently available (epidemiological) data on this patient group are presented as well as a description of our own experiences based on three selected cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of the literature was carried out and three selected case reports and a discussion of current recommendations are presented. RESULTS: The incidence of COVID-19 is significantly lower in children than in adults. Furthermore, the known risk factors in adults cannot be simply transferred to pediatric patients. In the majority of cases, children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases show a milder course of SARS-CoV­2 infections. CONCLUSION: Although the hitherto available data show that children and adolescents have a lower risk for COVID-19 courses than adults, it should not be ignored that fatal outcomes have also been reported in pediatric patients. Moreover, late effects, such as the pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) can sometimes lead to a fatal outcome. Nevertheless, care must be taken that this vulnerable patient group does not suffer from avoidable negative side effects of restriction and isolation measures. As an example, the no-show behavior in outpatient departments during the lockdown might have led to a relevant undertreatment of underlying chronic health conditions.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100527, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, is a new dangerous childhood disease that is temporally associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the typical presentation and outcomes of children diagnosed with this hyperinflammatory condition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to communicate the clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging results, and outcomes of individuals with MIS-C. We searched four medical databases to encompass studies characterizing MIS-C from January 1st, 2020 to July 25th, 2020. Two independent authors screened articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. This review was registered with PROSPERO CRD42020191515. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 39 observational studies (n = 662 patients). While 71·0% of children (n = 470) were admitted to the intensive care unit, only 11 deaths (1·7%) were reported. Average length of hospital stay was 7·9 ± 0·6 days. Fever (100%, n = 662), abdominal pain or diarrhea (73·7%, n = 488), and vomiting (68·3%, n = 452) were the most common clinical presentation. Serum inflammatory, coagulative, and cardiac markers were considerably abnormal. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were necessary in 22·2% (n = 147) and 4·4% (n = 29) of patients, respectively. An abnormal echocardiograph was observed in 314 of 581 individuals (54·0%) with depressed ejection fraction (45·1%, n = 262 of 581) comprising the most common aberrancy. INTERPRETATION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a new pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is dangerous and potentially lethal. With prompt recognition and medical attention, most children will survive but the long-term outcomes from this condition are presently unknown. FUNDING: Parker B. Francis and pilot grant from 2R25-HL126140. Funding agencies had no involvement in the study.

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 176, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is still a global public health problem contributing for under-five morbidity and mortality. The case is similar in Ethiopia in which severe acute malnutrition is the major contributor to mortality being an underlying cause for nearly 45% of under-five deaths. However, there is no recent evidence that shows the time to death and public health importance of oxygen saturation and chest in drawing in the study area. Therefore, estimated time to death and its predictors can provide an input for program planners and decision-makers. METHODS: A facility -based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 488 severe acute malnourished under-five children admitted from the 1st of January 2016 to the 30th of December 2019. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version15 statistical software for further analysis. The Kaplan Meier was used to estimate cumulative survival probability and a log-rank test was used to compare the survival time between different categories of explanatory variables. The Cox-proportional hazard regression model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. P-value< 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of the total 488 randomly selected charts of children with severe acute malnutrition, 476 records were included in the final analysis. A total of 54(11.34%) children died with an incidence rate of 9.1death /1000 person- days. Failed appetite test (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.26, 4.67), altered consciousness level at admission (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.08, 4.67), oxygen saturation below 90% (AHR: 3.3; 95%CI: 1.40, 7.87), edema (AHR 2.9; 95%CI: 1.45, 5.66) and HIV infection (AHR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.24, 6.36) were predictors of mortality for children diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The overall survival status of severe acute malnourished children was low as compared to national sphere standards and previous reports in the literature. The major predictors of mortality were oxygen saturation below 90%, altered consciousness, HIV infection, edema and failed appetite test. Therefore, early screening of complications, close follow up and regular monitoring of sever acute malnourished children might improve child survival rate.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(9): e3080, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is anticipated that in due course the burden of emergency care due to COVID-19 infected patients will reduce sufficiently to permit elective surgical procedures to recommence. Prioritizing cleft/craniofacial surgery in the already overloaded medical system will then become an issue. The European Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association, together with the European Cleft and Craniofacial Initiative for Equality in Care, performed a brief survey to capture a current snapshot during a rapidly evolving pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the 2242 participants who attended 1 of 3 recent international cleft/craniofacial meetings. RESULTS: The respondents indicated that children with Robin sequence who were not responding to nonsurgical options should be treated as emergency cases. Over 70% of the respondents indicated that palate repair should be performed before the age of 15 months, an additional 22% stating the same be performed by 18 months. Placement of middle ear tubes, primary cleft lip surgery, alveolar bone grafting, and velopharyngeal insufficiency surgery also need prioritization. Children with craniofacial conditions such as craniosynostosis and increased intracranial pressure need immediate care, whilst children with craniosynostosis and associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or proptosis need surgical care within 3 months of the typical timing. Craniosynostosis without signs of increased intracranial pressure needs correction before the age of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several areas of cleft and craniofacial conditions that need prioritization, but also certain areas where intervention is less urgent. We acknowledge that there will be differences in the post COVID-19 response according to circumstances and policies in individual countries.

7.
AIMS Public Health ; 7(2): 258-273, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the infection caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) led to an outbreak in Wuhan, situated in the Hubei Province of China. Following this, there has been a rapid increase in the number of cases. On 12th March 2020, there were over 100,000 confirmed cases and almost 4,300 deaths worldwide. The clinical profile of children with COVID-19 is unknown due to the few number of cases reported. Currently, available data suggest they may have a milder form of illness. METHODS: A review of the literature published from June 2019 to March 2020 was undertaken to evaluate the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of COVID-19 in in children. Data sources included EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, ISI Web of Knowledge and references within identified articles. RESULTS: We identified 303 potential studies, and 295 were excluded for reasons including duplicates, experimental studies and case reports. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion, including a total of 820 paediatric cases of COVID-19. Asymptomatic cases represented 14.3% (n = 117) of the total number of cases identified, and thus the remaining 85.7% (n = 703) experienced symptoms. Fever was the commonest symptom in 53.9% (n = 48) of cases, followed by cough in 39.3% (n = 35) of cases, and rhinorrhoea or pharyngeal congestion in 13.5% (n = 12) of cases. Diarrhoea and sore throats were less common symptoms, 7.9% (n = 7) and 9.0% (n = 8) respectively. Other symptoms, including fatigue, headache and dizziness were rare. CONCLUSION: Children are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 and are more likely to run a milder cause of illness following this infection compared to adults. This outbreak only started 3 months ago, therefore, further population wide studies are needed to validate these findings.

8.
Cancer Invest ; 40(5): 401-405, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778718

ABSTRACT

The study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in the Pediatric Oncology Units (POUs) of Pakistan. Data from 1 April 2019 to 30 June 2019 and 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 for the first and second cohort, respectively, in order to compare the registration, abandonment rate, and delay in treatment. Six hundred and thirty-four were registered cases, 379 and 255 in the first and second cohort, respectively, which was significantly different <0.005. Seventy-seven were abandoned, 45 and 32 in the first and second cohort, respectively. Fifty-nine COVID-19 positive cases, 24, 4, 27, and 4 were admitted, referred, home isolated, and leave against medical advice (LAMA), respectively. Delayed treatment and reduction in new cases were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753532

ABSTRACT

Sialendoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic tool for juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP); the procedure is under general anesthesia, but local anesthesia has been used for sialendoscopy in children >8 years. Based on the experience in children with sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy, we investigated the reliability and safety of deep sedation for sialendoscopy in JRP. Six children (3 females, 6-13 years) with episodes of parotid swelling underwent interventional (duct dilation and steroid irrigation) sialendoscopy with intravenous bolus of 1 mg/kg propofol and 1 mcg/kg fentanyl, and continuous infusion of 2 mg/kg/h propofol. Sialendoscopy under deep sedation was successfully performed in all the patients; the procedure was well tolerated, without any adverse effects. One event of full awakening was registered and promptly solved without needing to interrupt the procedure. Effectiveness of sialendoscopy under deep sedation was subjectively attested by high positive scores obtained at post-operative standardized questionnaires administered to the patients and their parents, and objectively by the lack of clinical recurrences during the follow-up. The combination of propofol and fentanyl seems to be a reliable and safe means of sedating children with JRP undergoing sialendoscopy.

12.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(3-4): 59-62, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734006

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of surgical "everday" face masks on the physical performance and perceived exertion in trained eleven-year-old boys.No decrease in objective performance parameters was found in the aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic transition zones. However, at the maximum performance level with surgical face mask, there was a significant reduction in running time as well as a significant increase in the subjective perception of exertion with otherwise unchanged performance parameters. In summary, the use of surgical face masks in trained children does not affect athletic activities as long as the loads are performed primarily in the aerobic intensity range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Exertion , Child , Exercise , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Masks
16.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 727-733, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been raised about the risk to children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to collate global experience and provide provisional guidance for managing paediatric IBD (PIBD) in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: An electronic reporting system of children with IBD infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been circulated among 102 PIBD centres affiliated with the Porto and Interest-group of ESPGHAN. A survey has been completed by major PIBD centres in China and South-Korea to explore management during the pandemic. A third survey collected current practice of PIBD treatment. Finally, guidance points for practice have been formulated and voted upon by 37 PIBD authors and Porto group members. RESULTS: Eight PIBD children had COVID-19 globally, all with mild infection without needing hospitalization despite treatment with immunomodulators and/or biologics. No cases have been reported in China and South Korea but biologic treatment has been delayed in 79 children, of whom 17 (22%) had exacerbation of their IBD. Among the Porto group members, face-to-face appointments were often replaced by remote consultations but almost all did not change current IBD treatment. Ten guidance points for clinicians caring for PIBD patients in epidemic areas have been endorsed with consensus rate of 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data for PIBD patients during COVID-19 outbreak are reassuring. Standard IBD treatments including biologics should continue at present through the pandemic, especially in children who generally have more severe IBD course on one hand, and milder SARS-CoV-2 infection on the other.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(7): 1585-1587, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706979
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