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1.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210202, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858185

ABSTRACT

Importance: Owing to concerns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, many congregant settings are forced to close when cases are detected because there are few data on the risk of different markers of transmission within groups. Objective: To determine whether symptoms and laboratory results on the first day of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with development of a case cluster in a congregant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of trainees with COVID-19 from May 11 through August 24, 2020, was conducted at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, the primary site of entry for enlistment in the US Air Force. Symptoms and duration, known contacts, and cycle threshold for trainees diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were collected. A cycle threshold value represents the number of nucleic acid amplification cycles that occur before a specimen containing the target material generates a signal greater than the predetermined threshold that defines positivity. Cohorts with 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection were defined as clusters. Participants included 10 613 trainees divided into 263 parallel cohorts of 30 to 50 people arriving weekly for 7 weeks of training. Exposures: All trainees were quarantined for 14 days on arrival. Testing was performed on arrival, on day 14, and anytime during training when indicated. Protective measures included universal masking, physical distancing, and rapid isolation of trainees with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between days of symptoms, specific symptoms, number of symptoms, or cycle threshold values of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent transmission within cohorts. Results: In this cohort study of 10 613 US Air Force basic trainees in 263 cohorts, 403 trainees (3%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 129 cohorts (49%). Among trainees with COVID-19 infection, 318 (79%) were men, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 20 (19-23) years; 204 (51%) were symptomatic, and 199 (49%) were asymptomatic. Median (IQR) cycle threshold values were lower in symptomatic trainees compared with asymptomatic trainees (21.2 [18.4-27.60] vs 34.8 [29.3-37.4]; P < .001). Cohorts with clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection were predominantly men (204 cohorts [89%] vs 114 cohorts [64%]; P < .001), had more symptomatic trainees (146 cohorts [64%] vs 53 cohorts [30%]; P < .001), and had more median (IQR) symptoms per patient (3 [2-5] vs 1 [1-2]; P < .001) compared with cohorts without clusters. Within cohorts, subsequent development of clusters of 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection compared with those that did not develop clusters was associated with cohorts that had more symptomatic trainees (31 of 58 trainees [53%] vs 43 of 151 trainees [28%]; P = .001) and lower median (IQR) cycle threshold values (22.3 [18.4-27.3] vs 35.3 [26.5-37.8]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US Air Force trainees living in a congregant setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, higher numbers of symptoms and lower cycle threshold values were associated with subsequent development of clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection. These values may be useful if validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/transmission , Cohort Studies , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785755

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707669

ABSTRACT

A research initiative was launched during the initial coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak by 3 New York metropolitan area institutions. Collaborators recruited community members and patients from previous research studies to examine COVID-19 experiences and mental health symptoms through self-report surveys. The current report descriptively presents findings from the initial survey characterized by both community and clinical cohorts, and discusses challenges encountered with rapid implementation. The clinical cohort exhibited higher rates of symptoms of mental health difficulties (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) as compared to the community cohort. COVID-19 positivity rates were similar among both groups and lower than the national average. While both groups reported low rates of job loss, community members reported higher rates of financial difficulty resulting from the pandemic. Findings indicate the need for further collaborative research on the mental health impact of COVID-19.

6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered in Wuhan and spread rapidly across China and worldwide. Characteristics of infected patients are needed to get insight into the full spectrum of the disease. METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical information of 1738 diagnosed patients during February 7-26, 2020 in Wuhan Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital were analyzed. A total of 709 patients were followed up on symptom, mental health, isolation site, and medication after discharge. RESULTS: There were 852 males and 886 females in the cohort. The average age of the patients was 48.8 y. A total of 79.98% of the patients were from Wuhan, Hubei Province. The most common initial symptoms were fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Among all the patients, 1463 had complications, with respiratory distress as the most common complication. The average duration of hospitalization was 15.95 ± 14.69 d. The most common postdischarge symptom is cough. After discharge, most patients were full of energy and chose hotel as their self-isolation site. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Chinese medicine No.2 prescription is the medication used most commonly by the patients after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. After receiving aggressive treatment of combined Chinese and Western medicine, most patients had a good prognosis and mental health after discharge.

7.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12145, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680307

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated alternative pre-analytical handling of blood for neurofilament light (NfL) analysis where resources are limited. METHOD: Plasma NfL was measured with single molecule array after alternative blood processing procedures: dried plasma spots (DPS), dried blood spots (DBS), and delayed 48-hour centrifugation. These were compared to standardized plasma processing (reference standard [RS]). In a discovery cohort (n = 10) and a confirmatory cohort (n = 21), whole blood was obtained from individuals with unknown clinical etiology. In the confirmatory cohort, delayed centrifugation protocol was paired with either 37°C incubation or sample shaking to test the effect of these parameters. RESULTS: Delayed centrifugation (R2 = 0.991) and DPS (discovery cohort, R2 = 0.954; confirmatory cohort, DPS: R2 = 0.961) methods were strongly associated with the RS. Delayed centrifugation with higher temperatures (R2 = 0.995) and shaking (R2 = 0.975) did not affect this association. DPS (P < 0.001) returned concentrations considerably lower than the RS. DISCUSSION: DPS or delayed centrifugation are viable pre-analytical procedures for the accurate quantification of plasma NfL.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 294-300, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of reinfection after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become one of the healthcare priorities in the current pandemic. We determined the rate of reinfection, associated factors, and mortality during follow-up in a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We analyzed 9119 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who received serial tests in total of 62 healthcare facilities in the United States between 1 December 2019 and 13 November 2020. Reinfection was defined by 2 positive tests separated by interval of >90 days and resolution of first infection was confirmed by 2 or more consecutive negative tests. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with reinfection. RESULTS: Reinfection was identified in 0.7% (n = 63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .5%-.9%) during follow-up of 9119 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The mean period (±standard deviation [SD]) between 2 positive tests was 116 ± 21 days. A logistic regression analysis identified that asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2) and nicotine dependence/tobacco use (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5) were associated with reinfection. There was a significantly lower rate of pneumonia, heart failure, and acute kidney injury observed with reinfection compared with primary infection among the 63 patients with reinfection There were 2 deaths (3.2%) associated with reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a low rate of reinfection confirmed by laboratory tests in a large cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although reinfection appeared to be milder than primary infection, there was associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection , United States/epidemiology
9.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 721-729, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636188

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother's and child's physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide an insight into mental well-being of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19 by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (N=330) completed questionnaires between 8 April and 6 May. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (N=1428). Mental well-being was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. Multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference=1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference=4.0 points). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women questioned during the COVID-19 pandemic showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a non-pandemic period in 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 59-65, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines are now available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. Vaccine impact on asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39 156) within a large US healthcare system who underwent 48 333 preprocedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between 17 December 2020 and 8 February 2021. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination with ≥1 dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was relative risk (RR) of a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test among those asymptomatic persons who had received ≥1 dose of vaccine compared with persons who had not received vaccine during the same time period. RR was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, patient residence relative to the hospital (local vs nonlocal), healthcare system regions, and repeated screenings among patients using mixed-effects log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Positive molecular tests in asymptomatic individuals were reported in 42 (1.4%) of 3006 tests and 1436 (3.2%) of 45 327 tests performed on vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively (RR, .44; 95% CI, .33-.60; P < .0001). Compared with unvaccinated patients, risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among those >10 days after the first dose (RR, .21; 95% CI, .12-.37; P < .0001) and >0 days after the second dose (RR, .20; 95% CI, .09-.44; P < .0001) in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine showed a significant association with reduced risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured during preprocedural molecular screening. Results of this study demonstrate the impact of the vaccines on reduction in asymptomatic infections supplementing the randomized trial results on symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3339-3347, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of neurological complications observed in a hospital-based cohort of COVID-19 patients who required a neurological assessment. METHODS: We conducted an observational, monocentric, prospective study of patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis hospitalized during the 3-month period of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain). We describe the neurological diagnoses that arose after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. These diagnoses could be divided into different groups. RESULTS: Only 71 (2.6%) of 2750 hospitalized patients suffered at least one neurological complication (77 different neurological diagnoses in total) during the timeframe of the study. The most common diagnoses were neuromuscular disorders (33.7%), cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) (27.3%), acute encephalopathy (19.4%), seizures (7.8%), and miscellanea (11.6%) comprising hiccups, myoclonic tremor, Horner syndrome and transverse myelitis. CVDs and encephalopathy were common in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to neuromuscular disorders, which usually appeared later on (p = 0.005). Cerebrospinal fluid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction was negative in 15/15 samples. The mortality was higher in the CVD group (38.1% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neurological complications is low in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Different mechanisms appear to be involved in these complications, and there was no evidence of direct invasion of the nervous system in our cohort. Some of the neurological complications can be classified into early and late neurological complications of COVID-19, as they occurred at different times following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23026, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For the clinical care of patients with well-established diseases, randomized trials, literature, and research are supplemented with clinical judgment to understand disease prognosis and inform treatment choices. In the void created by a lack of clinical experience with COVID-19, artificial intelligence (AI) may be an important tool to bolster clinical judgment and decision making. However, a lack of clinical data restricts the design and development of such AI tools, particularly in preparation for an impending crisis or pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and test the feasibility of a "patients-like-me" framework to predict the deterioration of patients with COVID-19 using a retrospective cohort of patients with similar respiratory diseases. METHODS: Our framework used COVID-19-like cohorts to design and train AI models that were then validated on the COVID-19 population. The COVID-19-like cohorts included patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, unspecified pneumonia, influenza, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at an academic medical center from 2008 to 2019. In total, 15 training cohorts were created using different combinations of the COVID-19-like cohorts with the ARDS cohort for exploratory purposes. In this study, two machine learning models were developed: one to predict invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) within 48 hours for each hospitalized day, and one to predict all-cause mortality at the time of admission. Model performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. We established model interpretability by calculating SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) scores to identify important features. RESULTS: Compared to the COVID-19-like cohorts (n=16,509), the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (n=159) were significantly younger, with a higher proportion of patients of Hispanic ethnicity, a lower proportion of patients with smoking history, and fewer patients with comorbidities (P<.001). Patients with COVID-19 had a lower IMV rate (15.1 versus 23.2, P=.02) and shorter time to IMV (2.9 versus 4.1 days, P<.001) compared to the COVID-19-like patients. In the COVID-19-like training data, the top models achieved excellent performance (AUROC>0.90). Validating in the COVID-19 cohort, the top-performing model for predicting IMV was the XGBoost model (AUROC=0.826) trained on the viral pneumonia cohort. Similarly, the XGBoost model trained on all 4 COVID-19-like cohorts without ARDS achieved the best performance (AUROC=0.928) in predicting mortality. Important predictors included demographic information (age), vital signs (oxygen saturation), and laboratory values (white blood cell count, cardiac troponin, albumin, etc). Our models had class imbalance, which resulted in high negative predictive values and low positive predictive values. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a feasible framework for modeling patient deterioration using existing data and AI technology to address data limitations during the onset of a novel, rapidly changing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Area Under Curve , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574883

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, we aimed to analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, risk factors for mortality and impact of COVID-19 on outcomes of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients compared to a cohort of non transplant patients, evaluating if transplantation could be considered a risk factor for mortality. From March to May 2020, 261 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated, including 41 SOT recipients. Of these, thirty-two were kidney recipients, 4 liver, 3 heart and 2 combined kidney-liver transplants. Median time from transplantation to COVID-19 diagnosis was 6 years. Thirteen SOT recipients (32%) required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 5 patients died (12%). Using a propensity score match analysis, we found no significant differences between SOT recipients and non-transplant patients. Older age (OR 1.142; 95% [CI 1.08-1.197]) higher levels of C-reactive protein (OR 3.068; 95% [CI 1.22-7.71]) and levels of serum creatinine on admission (OR 3.048 95% [CI 1.22-7.57]) were associated with higher mortality. The clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our cohort of SOT recipients appear to be similar to that observed in the non-transplant population. Older age, higher levels of C-reactive protein and serum creatinine were associated with higher mortality, whereas SOT was not associated with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Organ Transplantation/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allografts/physiology , Allografts/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spain/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574068

ABSTRACT

ß2-microglobulin (ß2-m), a 11.8 kDa protein, pairs non-covalently with the α3 domain of the major histocompatibility class (MHC) I α-chain and is essential for the conformation of the MHC class I protein complex. Shed ß2-m is measurable in circulation, and various disorders are accompanied by increases in ß2-m levels, including several viral infections. Therefore, we explored whether ß2-m levels could also be elevated in Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and whether they predict disease severity. Serum ß2-m levels were measured in a cohort of 34 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 on admission to a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as in an approximately age-sex matched group of 34 uninfected controls. Mean ß2-m level was 3.25±1.68 mg/l (reference range 0.8-2.2 mg/l) in patients (mean age 48.2±21.6) and 1.98±0.61 mg/l in controls (mean age 48.2±21.6). 17 patients (mean age 36.9± 18.0) with mean ß2-m levels of 2.27±0.64 mg/l had mild disease by WHO severity categorization, 12 patients (mean age 53.3±18.1) with mean ß2-m levels of 3.57±1.39 mg/l had moderate disease, and five patients (of whom 2 died; mean age 74.4±13.8) with mean ß2-m levels of 5.85±1.85 mg/l had severe disease (P < = 0.001, by ANOVA test for linear trend). In multivariate ordinal regression ß2-m levels were the only significant predictor of disease severity. Our findings suggest that higher ß2-m levels could be an early indicator of severity of disease and predict outcome of Covid-19. As the main limitations of the study are a single-center study, sample size and ethnicity, these results need confirmation in larger cohorts outside the Arabian Peninsula in order to delineate the value of ß2-m measurements. The role of ß2-m in the etiology and pathogenesis of severe Covid-19 remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Severity of Illness Index , beta 2-Microglobulin/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Saudi Arabia
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4197-e4205, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently require mechanical ventilation and have high mortality rates. However, the impact of viral burden on these outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from 30 March 2020 to 30 April 2020 at 2 hospitals in New York City. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load was assessed using cycle threshold (Ct) values from a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay applied to nasopharyngeal swab samples. We compared characteristics and outcomes of patients with high, medium, and low admission viral loads and assessed whether viral load was independently associated with intubation and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 678 patients with COVID-19. Higher viral load was associated with increased age, comorbidities, smoking status, and recent chemotherapy. In-hospital mortality was 35.0% (Ct <25; n = 220), 17.6% (Ct 25-30; n = 216), and 6.2% (Ct >30; n = 242) with high, medium, and low viral loads, respectively (P < .001). The risk of intubation was also higher in patients with a high viral load (29.1%) compared with those with a medium (20.8%) or low viral load (14.9%; P < .001). High viral load was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.92-12.52) and intubation (aOR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.68-4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Admission SARS-CoV-2 viral load among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 independently correlates with the risk of intubation and in-hospital mortality. Providing this information to clinicians could potentially be used to guide patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 643-647, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545949

ABSTRACT

Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies in 2 prospective cohorts of Nicaraguan children aged 2-14 years: 1 before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction (2008-2010) and 1 following introduction and near universal adoption (2011-2018). The association between influenza and pneumonia was similar in both cohorts. Participants with influenza (across types/subtypes) had higher odds of developing pneumonia in the month following influenza infection. These findings underscore the importance of considering influenza in interventions to reduce global pneumonia burden.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nicaragua , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Conjugate
19.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 998-1008, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify the potential for and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: Symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis in whom PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at delivery using maternal serum and at least one of the biological samples: cord blood (CB), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS) of the neonate. The association of parameters with maternal, AF and/or CB positivity and the influence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in AF and/or CB on neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Overall 73.4% (80/109) were admitted in hospital due to COVID-19, 22.9% needed intensive care and there were four maternal deaths. Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 14.7% of maternal blood, 13.9% of AF, 6.7% of CB, 2.1% of colostrum and 3.7% of OPS samples. The interval between COVID-19 symptoms and delivery was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the maternal blood (p = 0.002) and in the AF and/or CB (p = 0.049). Maternal viremia was associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in AF and/or CB (p = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the compartments was not associated with neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission is possible in pregnant women with COVID-19 and a shorter interval between maternal symptoms and delivery is an influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Colostrum/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 985-991, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525573

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis occur frequently in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, the prevalence increases on the intensive care unit (ICU) and is very high in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We undertook a literature review to assess the usefulness of screening for peripheral venous thrombosis or pulmonary thrombosis in patients admitted with COVID-19. Outside of the ICU setting, D-dimer elevation on presentation or marked increase from baseline should alert the need for doppler ultrasound scan of the lower limbs. In the ICU setting, consideration should be given to routine screening with doppler ultrasound, given the high prevalence of thrombosis in this cohort despite standard anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. However, absence of lower limb thrombosis on ultrasound does not exclude pulmonary venous thrombosis. Screening with CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is not justified in patients on the general wards, unless there are clinical features and/or marked elevations in markers of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. However, the risk of pulmonary embolism or pulmonary thrombosis in ICU patients is very high, especially in patients on ECMO, where studies that employed routine screening for thrombosis with CT scanning have uncovered up to 100% incidence of pulmonary thrombosis despite standard anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. Therefore, in patients at low bleeding risk and high clinical suspicion of venous thromboembolism, therapeutic anticoagulation should be considered even before screening, Our review highlights the need for increased vigilance for VTE, with a low threshold for doppler ultrasound and CTPA in high risk in-patient cohorts, where clinical features and D-dimer levels may not accurately reflect the occurrence of pulmonary thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
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