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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(2): e007643, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883362

ABSTRACT

Following decades of decline, maternal mortality began to rise in the United States around 1990-a significant departure from the world's other affluent countries. By 2018, the same could be seen with the maternal mortality rate in the United States at 17.4 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. When factoring in race/ethnicity, this number was more than double among non-Hispanic Black women who experienced 37.1 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. More than half of these deaths and near deaths were from preventable causes, with cardiovascular disease being the leading one. In an effort to amplify the magnitude of this epidemic in the United States that disproportionately plagues Black women, on June 13, 2020, the Association of Black Cardiologists hosted the Black Maternal Heart Health Roundtable-a collaborative task force to tackle the maternal health crisis in the Black community. The roundtable brought together diverse stakeholders and champions of maternal health equity to discuss how innovative ideas, solutions and opportunities could be implemented, while exploring additional ways attendees could address maternal health concerns within the health care system. The discussions were intended to lead the charge in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality through advocacy, education, research, and collaborative efforts. The goal of this roundtable was to identify current barriers at the community, patient, and clinician level and expand on the efforts required to coordinate an effective approach to reducing these statistics in the highest risk populations. Collectively, preventable maternal mortality can result from or reflect violations of a variety of human rights-the right to life, the right to freedom from discrimination, and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. This is the first comprehensive statement on this important topic. This position paper will generate further research in disparities of care and promote the interest of others to pursue strategies to mitigate maternal mortality.


Subject(s)
Cardiologists , Maternal Health , African Americans , Female , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Mothers , United States/epidemiology
2.
Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench ; 13(Suppl1): S134-S138, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801572

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate the epidemiological parameters related to the Covid-19 outbreak in Iran. BACKGROUND: Estimating the epidemiological parameters of new public health threat (COVID-19) is essential to support and inform public health decision-making in different communities including Iran. METHODS: We established a mathematical model to estimate the epidemiological parameters from 19 Feb to 15 March based on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases in Iran. Then, we estimated the effect of early traffic restriction on our estimation. RESULTS: We estimated the R0 at 2.11 (95% CI, 1.87-2.50) and the infected number at 92,260 (95% CI: 59,263 -152,212) by 15 March. Our estimate for the ascertainment rate was about 1.2% (95% CI: 1.1-1.4). The latent period estimation was 4.24 (95% CI: 2.84-6.65). We observed a decline in our estimate after considering the traffic restriction. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that health authorities in Iran must take impactful strategies to control the COVID-19 outbreak to reach R0<1. Therefore, the establishment of complementary, multilateral, and cost-effective measures for the treatment of symptomatic and early diagnosis and isolation of asymptomatic cases/contacts are strongly recommended because of low ascertainment rate and large number of infected cases. We additionally recommend that traffic restriction be combined with other controlling measures.

3.
J Community Psychol ; 50(1): 502-514, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797867

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented disruption to everyday life, including widespread social distancing and self-quarantining aimed at reducing the virus spread. The Mental Health Checklist (MHCL) is a measure developed to assess psychological health during extended periods of isolation and confinement, and has shown strong psychometric properties in community samples and during Antarctic missions. This study validated the MHCL in a sample of 359 U.S. and U.K adults during the peak of the COVID-19 lockdown. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tested model fit, and convergent validity analyses were conducted to compare the MHCL with validated measures of depression, anxiety and stress, as well as insomnia. The MHCL exhibited good model fit for most CFA indices, and showed strong convergent validity with other measures of psychological well-being. Findings suggest that the MHCL is useful for assessing mental health in a variety of environments and conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Checklist , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0144, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection to which there is no community immunity. Patients admitted to ICUs have high mortality, with only supportive therapies available. Our aim was to profile plasma inflammatory analytes to help understand the host response to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Daily blood inflammation profiling with immunoassays. SETTING: Tertiary care ICU and academic laboratory. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted to the ICU suspected of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, using standardized hospital screening methodologies, had daily blood samples collected until either testing was confirmed negative on ICU day 3 (coronavirus disease 2019 negative), or until ICU day 7 if the patient was positive (coronavirus disease 2019 positive). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Age- and sex-matched healthy controls and ICU patients that were either coronavirus disease 2019 positive or coronavirus disease 2019 negative were enrolled. Cohorts were well-balanced with the exception that coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients were more likely than coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients to suffer bilateral pneumonia. Mortality rate for coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients was 40%. We measured 57 inflammatory analytes and then analyzed with both conventional statistics and machine learning. Twenty inflammatory analytes were different between coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients and healthy controls (p < 0.01). Compared with coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients, coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients had 17 elevated inflammatory analytes on one or more of their ICU days 1-3 (p < 0.01), with feature classification identifying the top six analytes between cohorts as tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10, and elastase 2. While tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, and interleukin-18 were elevated for all seven ICU days, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 transiently elevated on ICU days 2 and 3 and elastase 2 increased over ICU days 2-7. Inflammation profiling predicted coronavirus disease 2019 status with 98% accuracy, whereas elevated heat shock protein 70 was strongly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: While many inflammatory analytes were elevated in coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients, relative to healthy controls, the top six analytes distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients from coronavirus disease 2019 negative ICU patients were tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10, and elastase 2.

5.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 631-640, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic is a World Health Organization day-to-day work and has a significant crisis on the physical and mental health of humans. However, little is known about the mental health crisis of the pandemic in Sub-Saharan countries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological problems and associated factors among communities living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 10 to 30, 2020. Data were collected from 420 respondents selected using a consecutive sampling technique. An online self-administered and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) survey during the initial phase of the pandemic was conducted to assess the presence of psychological problems for the last two weeks in response to the infection. RESULTS: The magnitude of the psychological problem from moderate to severe levels was 66.4%. The predictor variables of the outcome were female gender, above the secondary level of education, monthly income below 3000 ETB, and more than three family size at 95% CI, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: At the time of the initial COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia, nearly two-thirds of the respondents reported moderate to severe levels of psychological problems. Therefore, working on those identified factors would be vital to promote the mental resilience of a community towards the pandemic.

6.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S40-S44, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792227

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) has usurped human peace and mobility. The confinement of the population and the rising epidemic has disrupted the routine care for non-COVID-19 patients. Telehealth is a growing field, and its application in palliative care is seen as a solution to serve the population in this difficult crisis. METHODOLOGY: A exploratory survey was designed to assess the changes in the hospital-based practice of palliative care in the COVID-19 pandemic and patient/caregiver's perception about the provision of telehealth services to palliative care patients of a tertiary care cancer hospital of eastern India. RESULTS: There was a dramatic reduction in the outpatient clinic footfalls by 51% with teleconsultation. Although there was no change in the number of emergency visits, the inpatient admissions reduced by 44%. Nearly 82% of patient/caregivers gave a positive feedback about telemedicine care provided by the department and mentioned that the service provided them with support and connectedness. Almost 64% of the patients and caregivers reported that the service helped allay the fear and reassured them that there was a someone to support them. As high as 76% of the participants felt that they would prefer teleconsultation in future and were ready to pay for teleconsultations if charges were to be applied in the future. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is an important tool and an essential service to care for palliative care patients in the community especially when the patient and health-care professionals are separated by a pandemic or natural disaster.

7.
Telemed J E Health ; 28(2): 227-232, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778873

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) struck Pakistan with a magnitude that required micro- and macro-level adjustments at national and provincial levels. Access to medical consultation became a challenge; hospitals were flooded with cases beyond their capacity and transport was halted due to lockdown. Global Health Directorate of The Indus Health Network supported the provincial government by rolling out several walk-in community-based testing initiatives across Karachi. Results were conveyed to the patients through each district government. With a disproportionate rise in cases, an increasing delay in reporting results was observed. Methods: To help the district government bridge this gap, two physicians were engaged to convey timely results to patients who tested positive, through a helpline. Subsequently, proactive teleconsultation was initiated. We present a retrospective review of data collected during teleconsultation for COVID-19 cases identified through community-based testing between April 5 and June 10, 2020. Results: A total of 4,279 tests were conducted, revealing a 28% positivity rate (1,196 cases). Out of these, 752 (62.9%) baseline positive patients were contactable. Most patients identified either a close contact (46.8%) or a household contact (30.1%) as the source of infection. 41.8% patients were asymptomatic, 52.9% had mild to moderate illness, and 1.1% needed referral to the emergency department. 82.7% patients reported no comorbidities. Conclusion: The rapid surge of cases could not be handled by a small team and an institutional strategy of integration into an existing call center service was adopted. We share our insights to help develop evidence-based policies to effectively tackle current or future threats in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S104-S107, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726826

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) group of viruses. To date, April 25, 2020, more than 2.4 million humans are infected and more than a hundred thousand deaths have been reported from more than 200 countries from COVID-19. There is no evidence-based treatment for the infection and prevention of transmission using social distancing, isolation and hygiene measures is widely recommended. Tobacco smoking is rampant in communities around the globe and the addiction to tobacco results in deaths of more than 8 million individuals each year. As COVID-19 transmits through salivary droplets and causes severe lung pneumonia, tobacco smokers are also at high risk of severe COVID-19 infection due to poor lung function, cross-infection and susceptible hygiene habits. Smoking tobacco (cigarette, e-cigarettes or waterpipe) produces exhaled smoke, coughing or sneezing, aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 in the surroundings and contaminating surfaces. Therefore, smoking tobacco is a possible mode of transmission for the virus for both active and passive smokers. Smoking should be considered a risk factor for the disease transmission until further availability of evidence and measures to limit its direct and indirect effects should be implemented within the community.

11.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046814, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723698

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the onset of a dengue vaccine controversy in late 2017, vaccine confidence has plummeted in the Philippines, leading to measles and polio outbreaks in early 2019. This protocol outlines a human-centered design (HCD) approach to co-create and test an intervention that addresses vaccine hesitancy (VH) via narrative and empathy with and among families and healthcare workers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'Salubong' is a Filipino term that means to welcome someone back into one's life, reinforcing notions of family ties and friendships. We apply this sentiment to vaccines. Following the phases of HCD, guided by a theoretical framework, and drawing from locally held understandings of faith and acceptance, we will conduct in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in rural and urban Filipino communities that witnessed dramatic increases in measles cases in recent years. During qualitative engagements with caretakers, providers, and policymakers, we will collect narratives about family and community perceptions of childhood vaccinations, public health systems and opportunities to restore faith. IDIs and FGDs will continuously inform the development of (and delivery mechanisms for) story-based interventions. Once developed, we will test our co-created interventions among 800 caretakers and administer a VH questionnaire prior to and immediately following the intervention encounter. We will use the feedback gained through the survey and Kano-style questionnaires to further refine the intervention. Considering the data collection challenges posed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we have developed workarounds to conduct data collection primarily online. We will use systematic online debriefings to facilitate comprehensive participation of the full research team. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by the Institutional Review Board of the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (number 2019-44) and Ethical Commission of Heidelberg University, Faculty of Medicine (S-833/2019). Study findings will be disseminated in scientific conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , Philippines , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Athl Train ; 57(2): 136-139, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To define and discuss the role of population health as a framework to improve care and clinical decision making in athletic training practice. BACKGROUND: Athletic trainers (ATs) are allied health professionals who are uniquely suited to provide preventive and educational health and wellness programs to improve health outcomes across a physically active population. Athletic trainers are often the first contacts for high school athletes seeking health and wellness education, which may allow ATs to be the first intervention or prevention point for reducing or eliminating negative health behaviors and outcomes among their patients. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating a population-health framework into the athletic training setting prepares ATs to address complex health concerns in communities that result from factors that influence determinants of health. The field of athletic training could benefit from a population-health approach to care by broadening consideration of the factors that affect the health of homogeneous populations that are served by ATs.


Subject(s)
Population Health , Sports , Athletes , Humans , Schools
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707669

ABSTRACT

A research initiative was launched during the initial coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak by 3 New York metropolitan area institutions. Collaborators recruited community members and patients from previous research studies to examine COVID-19 experiences and mental health symptoms through self-report surveys. The current report descriptively presents findings from the initial survey characterized by both community and clinical cohorts, and discusses challenges encountered with rapid implementation. The clinical cohort exhibited higher rates of symptoms of mental health difficulties (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) as compared to the community cohort. COVID-19 positivity rates were similar among both groups and lower than the national average. While both groups reported low rates of job loss, community members reported higher rates of financial difficulty resulting from the pandemic. Findings indicate the need for further collaborative research on the mental health impact of COVID-19.

15.
Chron Respir Dis ; 18: 14799731211013120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705357
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3098-e3101, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702354

ABSTRACT

Among 3302 persons tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by BinaxNOWTM and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in a community setting, rapid assay sensitivity was 100%/98.5%/89% using RT-PCR cycle thresholds of 30, 35, and no threshold. The specificity was 99.9%. Performance was high across ages and those with and without symptoms. Rapid resulting permitted immediate public health action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 128-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV in the UK are an ethnically diverse group with significant psychosocial challenges. Increasing numbers are reaching older age. We describe psychological and socioeconomic factors among women with HIV in England aged 45-60 and explore associations with ethnicity. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data on 724 women recruited to the PRIME Study. Psychological symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 and social isolation with a modified Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Black African (BA) women were more likely than Black Caribbean or White British (WB) women to have a university education (48.3%, 27.0%, 25.7%, respectively, p<0.001), but were not more likely to be employed (68.4%, 61.4%, 65.2%, p=0.56) and were less likely to have enough money to meet their basic needs (56.4%, 63.0%, 82.9%, p<0.001). BA women were less likely to report being diagnosed with depression than WB women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.40, p<0.001) but more likely to report current psychological distress (aOR 3.34, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We report high levels of poverty, psychological distress and social isolation in this ethnically diverse group of midlife women with HIV, especially among those who were BA. Despite being more likely to experience psychological distress, BA women were less likely to have been diagnosed with depression suggesting a possible inequity in access to mental health services. Holistic HIV care requires awareness of the psychosocial needs of older women living with HIV, which may be more pronounced in racially minoritised communities, and prompt referral for support including psychology, peer support and advice about benefits.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/psychology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Age Factors , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Asian Bioeth Rev ; 12(2): 243-251, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682451

ABSTRACT

The infection rates of COVID-19 have been exponential in some countries despite the imposition of infectious disease control measures such as lockdowns and physical distancing, which form one of the basic principles of public health and infectious disease control. There have been significant problems with leaders and citizenry deliberately ignoring and not complying with such measures and which have directly resulted in sudden rises in infection numbers. Here, I show the nature and extent of the widespread problem and argue that the problem is in large part due to our modern society characterised by liberal individualism. I apply the philosophy proposed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntrye to show that one key underlying cause of the non-compliant behaviour of citizenry is due to modern liberal individualism that has deprived the modern nation state of the opportunities and authority for it to teach or to dictate what is the common good of the society as a whole to individuals in its community. This is the first time MacIntyre's philosophy has been applied to public health, and this paper demonstrates the need for ethics education to counter-balance liberal individualism in order to contain and to prevent another pandemic and public health crisis in modern society.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 529-531, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684549

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends N95 respirators for all providers who see patients with possible or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We suggest that N95 respirators may be just as important for the care of patients without suspected COVID-19 when community incidence rates are high. This is because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is most contagious before symptom onset. Ironically, by the time patients are sick enough to be admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, they tend to be less contagious. The greatest threat of transmission in healthcare facilities may therefore be patients and healthcare workers with early occult infection. N95 respirators' superior fit and filtration provide superior exposure protection for healthcare providers seeing patients with early undiagnosed infection and superior source control to protect patients from healthcare workers with early undiagnosed infection. The probability of occult infection in patients and healthcare workers is greatest when community incidence rates are high. Universal use of N95 respirators may help decrease nosocomial transmission at such times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Masks , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 13(1): e12144, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680306

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to validate telephone versions of widely used general cognitive measures, such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (T-MoCA), for remote assessments. METHODS: In the Einstein Aging Study, a diverse community cohort (n = 428; mean age = 78.1; 66% female; 54% non-White), equivalence testing was used to examine concordance between the T-MoCA and the corresponding in-person MoCA assessment. Receiver operating characteristic analyses examined the diagnostic ability to discriminate between mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition. Conversion methods from T-MoCA to the MoCA are presented. RESULTS: Education, race/ethnicity, gender, age, self-reported cognitive concerns, and telephone administration difficulties were associated with both modes of administration; however, when examining the difference between modalities, these factors were not significant. Sensitivity and specificity for the T-MoCA (using Youden's index optimal cut) were 72% and 59%, respectively. DISCUSSION: The T-MoCA demonstrated sufficient psychometric properties to be useful for screening of MCI, especially when clinic visits are not feasible.

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