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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 626785, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573571

ABSTRACT

Deltacoronavirus (DCoV)-the only coronavirus that can infect multiple species of mammals and birds-was initially identified in several avian and mammalian species, including pigs, in China in 2009-2011. Porcine DCoV has since spread worldwide and is associated with multiple outbreaks of diarrheal disease of variable severity in farmed pigs. In contrast, avian DCoV is being reported in wild birds in different countries without any evidence of disease. The DCoV transboundary nature and the recent discovery of its remarkably broad reactivity with its cellular receptor-aminopeptidase N (APN)-from different species emphasize its epidemiological relevance and necessitate additional research. Further, the ability of porcine DCoV to infect and cause disease in chicks and turkey poults and gnotobiotic calves is suggestive of its increased potential for interspecies transmission or of its avian origin. Whether, porcine DCoVs were initially acquired by one or several mammalian species from birds and whether avian and porcine DCoVs continue co-evolving with frequent spillover events remain to be major unanswered questions. In this review, we will discuss the current information on the prevalence, genetic diversity, and pathogenic potential of porcine and avian DCoVs. We will also analyze the existing evidence of the ongoing interspecies transmission of DCoVs that may provide novel insights into their complex evolution.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coccidia/classification , Coccidia/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coccidia/physiology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/parasitology
3.
Perfusion ; 36(8): 798-802, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455838

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with cardiogenic shock or ARDS, for example, in COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2, may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). An ECLS/ECMO model simulating challenging vascular anatomy is desirable for cannula insertion training purposes. We assessed the ability of various 3D-printable materials to mimic the penetration properties of human tissue by using porcine aortae. METHODS: A test bench for needle penetration and piercing in sampled porcine aorta and preselected 3D-printable polymers was assembled. The 3D-printable materials had Shore A hardness of 10, 20, and 50. 17G Vygon 1.0 × 1.4 mm × 70 mm needles were used for penetration tests. RESULTS: For the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, penetration forces of 0.9036 N, 0.9725 N, 1.0386 N, and 1.254 N were needed, respectively. For piercing through the porcine tissue and Shore A 10, Shore A 20, and Shore A 50 polymers, forces of 0.8399 N, 1.244 N, 1.475 N, and 1.482 N were needed, respectively. ANOVA showed different variances among the groups, and pairwise two-tailed t-tests showed significantly different needle penetration and piercing forces, except for penetration of Shore A 10 and 20 polymers (p = 0.234 and p = 0.0857). Significantly higher forces were required for all other materials. CONCLUSION: Shore A 10 and 20 polymers have similar needle penetration properties compared to the porcine tissue. Significantly more force is needed to pierce through the material fully. The most similar tested material to porcine aorta for needle penetration and piercing in ECMO-implantation is the silicon Shore A 10 polymer. This silicon could be a 3D-printable material in surgical training for ECMO-implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Animals , Aorta , Humans , Needles , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic , Swine
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2020 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452989

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Obesity is characterized by elevated pleural pressure (PPL) and worsening atelectasis during mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objectives: To determine the effects of lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) in the presence of elevated PPL on hemodynamics, left and right ventricular pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. We hypothesized that elevated PPL protects the cardiovascular system against high airway pressures and prevents lung overdistension. Methods: First, an interventional crossover trial in adult subjects with ARDS and BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (n=21) was performed to explore the hemodynamic consequences of LRM. Second, cardiovascular function was studied during low/high PEEPs in a model of swine with ARDS and high PPL (n=9) versus healthy swine with normal PPL (n=6). Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with ARDS and obesity (BMI=57±12 kg/m2), following LRM, required an increase in PEEP of 8[7, 10] cmH2O above traditional ARDSnet settings to improve lung function, oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching, without impairment of hemodynamics or right heart function. ARDS swine with high PPL demonstrated unchanged transmural left ventricle pressure and systemic blood pressure after LRM protocol. Pulmonary artery hypertension decreased 8[13, 4] mmHg, as did vascular resistance 1.5[2.2, 0.9] WU, and transmural right ventricle pressure 10[15, 6] mmHg during exhalation. LRM and PEEP decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and normalized ventilation/perfusion ratio. Conclusions: High airway pressure is required to recruit lung atelectasis in patients with ARDS and class III obesity but causes minimal overdistension. Additionally, patients with ARDS and class III obesity tolerate hemodynamically LRM with high airway pressure.

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2722-2732, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411004

ABSTRACT

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes disease in pigs, commonly characterized by acute haemorrhagic fever. Prior to August 2018, African Swine Fever (ASF) had not been reported in Asia, but has since spread throughout China, Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea. Using data collated from reports of confirmed cases, we applied spatio-temporal analysis to describe ASFV spread throughout Asia during its early phase-from 1 August 2018 (reported start date) to 31 December 2019-to provide an overview and comparative analysis. Analysis revealed a propagating epidemic of ASFV throughout Asia, with peaks corresponding to increased reports from China, Vietnam and Laos. Two clusters of reported outbreaks were found. During the epidemic, ASFV primarily spread from the North-East to the South-East: A larger, secondary cluster in the North-East represented earlier reports, while the smaller, primary cluster in the South-East was characterized by later reports. Significant differences in country-specific epidemics, morbidity, mortality and unit types were discovered. The initial number of outbreaks and enterprise size are likely predictors of the speed of spread and the effectiveness of ASFV stamping out procedures. Biosecurity methods, wild boar populations and the transportation of pigs and movement of infected fomites are discussed as likely risk factors for facilitating ASFV spread across Asia.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , Swine Diseases , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Hong Kong , Sus scrofa , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
6.
ACS Omega ; 6(10): 7181-7185, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387156

ABSTRACT

Serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE), protease 3 (PR3), cathepsin G (CatG), and neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) are released by activated neutrophils swarming around the place of pathogen invasion to provoke an immune response. However, uncontrolled proteolytic activity of proteases results in various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, thrombosis, and autoimmunity. In addition, proteases can be hijacked by several viruses to prime virus-derived surface proteins and evade immune detection by entering into the host cell. Indeed, porcine elastase increases the suitability of host cells to be infected by SARS-CoV-1. We compared the cleavage sites of human NE, PR3, and CatG as well as porcine-derived trypsin within the amino acid sequence of the proteolytic sensitive activation loop at the interface of S1/S2 of the spike protein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-1 as well as SARS-CoV-2. As a result, NE and PR3, but not CatG, hydrolyze the scissile peptide bond adjacent to the polybasic amino acid sequence of the S1/S2 interface of SARS-CoV-2, which is distinctive from SARS-CoV-1. These findings suggest that neutrophil-derived NE and PR3 participate in priming of the S1/S2 interface during an immune response.

7.
Bull Acad Natl Med ; 205(7): 719-725, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321283

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are RNA viruses classified into Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Their name comes from their conformation with the observation of spicules forming a sort of crown. Coronaviruses seem to come from bats, and more particularly Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses (the genus where zoonoses are observed), while birds are the source of Gammacoronaviruses and Deltacoronaviruses. The first coronavirus identified was that of avian infectious bronchitis in 1931 in the United States, while the first coronaviruses were described in humans only in the 1960s. This is why coronaviruses were mainly known in the veterinary community. Most Alphacoronaviruses are species specific. They can be responsible for serious diseases such as the cat coronavirus, responsible for feline infectious peritonitis, transmissible gastroenteritis (GET) in piglets and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Finally, a deltacoronavirus can be found in both pigs (PD CoV UKU15) and birds.

8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1721-1725, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319349

ABSTRACT

Conventional piglets were inoculated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through different routes, including intranasal, intratracheal, intramuscular and intravenous ones. Although piglets were not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and lacked lesions or viral RNA in tissues/swabs, seroconversion was observed in pigs inoculated parenterally (intramuscularly or intravenously).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
9.
J Pineal Res ; 71(2): e12754, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276748

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), highlights major gaps in our knowledge on the prevention control and cross-species transmission mechanisms of animal coronaviruses. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV) are three common swine coronaviruses and have similar clinical features. In the absence of effective treatments, they have led to significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. We reported that indoles exerted potent activity against swine coronaviruses, the molecules used included melatonin, indole, tryptamine, and L-tryptophan. Herein, we did further systematic studies with melatonin, a ubiquitous and versatile molecule, and found it inhibited TGEV, PEDV, and PDCoV infection in PK-15, Vero, or LLC-PK1 cells by reducing viral entry and replication, respectively. Collectively, we provide the molecular basis for the development of new treatments based on the ability of indoles to control TGEV, PEDV, and PDCoV infection and spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 457-468, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264088

ABSTRACT

Every day, thousands of samples from diverse populations of animals are submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) for testing. Each VDL has its own laboratory information management system (LIMS), with processes and procedures to capture submission information, perform laboratory tests, define the boundaries of test results (i.e., positive or negative), and report results, in addition to internal business and accounting applications. Enormous quantities of data are accumulated and stored within VDL LIMSs. There is a need for platforms that allow VDLs to exchange and share portions of laboratory data using standardized, reliable, and sustainable information technology processes. Here we report concepts and applications for standardization and aggregation of data from swine submissions to multiple VDLs to detect and monitor porcine enteric coronaviruses by RT-PCR. Oral fluids, feces, and fecal swabs were the specimens submitted most frequently for enteric coronavirus testing. Statistical algorithms were used successfully to scan and monitor the overall and state-specific percentage of positive submissions. Major findings revealed a consistently recurrent seasonal pattern, with the highest percentage of positive submissions detected during December-February for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine deltacoronavirus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). After 2014, very few submissions tested positive for TGEV. Monitoring VDL data proactively has the potential to signal and alert stakeholders early of significant changes from expected detection. We demonstrate the importance of, and applications for, data organized and aggregated by using LOINC and SNOMED CTs, as well as the use of customized messaging to allow inter-VDL exchange of information.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Laboratories/standards , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19 Testing/veterinary , Coronaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Feces/virology , Reference Standards , Seasons , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
11.
PeerJ ; 9: e11065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Irisin (a glycosylated protein) is cleaved from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is expressed mainly in animal muscle tissues and has multiple metabolic regulatory activities. However, their roles in controlling myofiber types in skeletal muscle remain unclear. METHODOLOGY: Two different commercial hybridized pigs, LJH (a crossed pig containing Chinese native pig genotypes) and DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected to analyze FNDC5 mRNA expression and the mRNA composition of four adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms (IIIaIIxIIb) in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to investigate the effects of FNDC5 on the four MyHCs mRNA expressive levels, using small interfering RNA for depletion and a eukaryotic expression vector carrying FNDC5 for overexpression. ZLN005 (a small molecule activator of FNDC5's upstream control gene PGC1α) or recombinant human irisin protein were also used. RESULTS: In LD muscle, LJH pigs had the higher FNDC5 mRNA level, and MyHC I or IIa proportion than DLY pigs (P <  0.05). For C2C12 cells in vitro, small interfering RNA (si-592) silencing of FNDC5 expression markedly reduced MyHC IIa mRNA levels (P <  0.05), while FNDC5 overexpression significantly increased MyHC IIa mRNA levels (P <  0.05). Exogenous irisin increased the mRNA levels of PGC1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha), FNDC5, MyHCI, MyHCIIa, NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), and TFAM (mitochondrial transcription factor A,) (P <  0.05), and the enzyme activities of SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase), and MDH (malate dehydrogenase) in C2C12 myotubes (P <  0.05). These results showed that FNDC5 mRNA expression had a significant association with the characteristics of myofiber types in porcine muscle, and participated in regulating MyHCs mRNA expression of C2C12 myogenic differentiation cells in vitro. FNDC5 could be an important factor to control muscle fiber types, which provides a new direction to investigate pork quality via muscle fiber characteristics.

12.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1111-1121, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243446

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses and influenza viruses are circulating in humans and animals all over the world. Co-infection with these two viruses may aggravate clinical signs. However, the molecular mechanisms of co-infections by these two viruses are incompletely understood. In this study, we applied air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated porcine tracheal epithelial cells (PTECs) to analyze the co-infection by a swine influenza virus (SIV, H3N2 subtype) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) at different time intervals. Our results revealed that in short-term intervals, prior infection by influenza virus caused complete inhibition of coronavirus infection, while in long-term intervals, some coronavirus replication was detectable. The influenza virus infection resulted in (i) an upregulation of porcine aminopeptidase N, the cellular receptor for PRCoV and (ii) in the induction of an innate immune response which was responsible for the inhibition of PRCoV replication. By contrast, prior infection by coronavirus only caused a slight inhibition of influenza virus replication. Taken together, the timing and the order of virus infection are important determinants in co-infections. This study is the first to show the impact of SIV and PRCoV co- and super-infection on the cellular level. Our results have implications also for human viruses, including potential co-infections by SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/virology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/physiology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/physiology , Viral Interference , Animals , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Swine , Trachea/cytology , Virus Replication
13.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236470

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a man in his early 70s with idiopathic acquired haemophilia A and persistent high-titre type II inhibitors on immunosuppressive treatment to eradicate the inhibitor. As complications, he had a nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which caused severe pneumonia and an explosive inflammatory reaction that required tocilizumab and remdesivir treatment, and a high-risk retroperitoneal haematoma. Recombinant porcine factor VIII, susoctocog alfa, was requested from the Pharmacy Service in view of the extreme risk of thromboembolism resulting from the concomitant inflammatory storm caused by SARS-CoV-2. Improvement in the SARS-CoV-2 infection made it possible to complete the immunosuppressive treatment with rituximab. The patient was discharged with mycophenolate mofetil as immunosuppressive treatment after 89 days in hospital and 22 days of treatment with susoctocog alfa. His SARS-CoV-2 infection resolved and the haematoma evolved favourably.

14.
J Virol ; 94(16)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214962

ABSTRACT

The 5' cap methylation of viral RNA plays important roles in RNA stability, efficient translation, and immune evasion. Thus, RNA cap methylation is an attractive target for antiviral discovery and development of new live attenuated vaccines. For coronaviruses, RNA cap structure is first methylated at the guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) position by nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14), which facilitates and precedes the subsequent ribose 2'-O methylation by the nsp16-nsp10 complex. Using porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus, as a model, we showed that G-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) of PEDV nsp14 methylated RNA substrates in a sequence-unspecific manner. PEDV nsp14 can efficiently methylate RNA substrates with various lengths in both neutral and alkaline pH environments and can methylate cap analogs (GpppA and GpppG) and single-nucleotide GTP but not ATP, CTP, or UTP. Mutations to the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif in the nsp14 abolished the G-N-7 MTase activity and were lethal to PEDV. However, recombinant rPEDV-D350A with a single mutation (D350A) in nsp14, which retained 29.0% of G-N-7 MTase activity, was viable. Recombinant rPEDV-D350A formed a significantly smaller plaque and had significant defects in viral protein synthesis and viral replication in Vero CCL-81 cells and intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-DQ). Notably, rPEDV-D350A induced significantly higher expression of both type I and III interferons in IPEC-DQ cells than the parental rPEDV. Collectively, our results demonstrate that G-N-7 MTase activity of PEDV modulates viral replication, gene expression, and innate immune responses.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) include a wide range of important human and animal pathogens. Examples of human CoVs include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the most recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. Examples of pig CoVs include porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV). There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs for most of these viruses. All known CoVs encode a bifunctional nsp14 protein which possesses ExoN and guanine-N-7 methyltransferase (G-N-7 MTase) activities, responsible for replication fidelity and RNA cap G-N-7 methylation, respectively. Here, we biochemically characterized G-N-7 MTase of PEDV nsp14 and found that G-N-7 MTase-deficient PEDV was defective in replication and induced greater responses of type I and III interferons. These findings highlight that CoV G-N-7 MTase may be a novel target for rational design of live attenuated vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferons/biosynthesis , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA Caps/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Gene Expression , Guanine/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Methylation , Mutation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/enzymology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Swine , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0245423, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In order to identify an inexpensive yet highly stable SARS-CoV-2 collection device as an alternative to foam swabs stored in transport media, both contrived ("surrogate") CoV-positive and patient-collected spun polyester swabs stored in dry tubes were evaluated for time- and temperature-stability using qPCR. METHODS: Surrogate specimens were prepared by combining multiple, residual SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical specimens and diluting to near-LOD levels in either porcine or human mucus ("matrix"), inoculating foam or polyester nasal swabs, and sealing in dry tubes. Swabs were then subjected to one of three temperature excursions: (1) 4°C for up to 72 hours; (2) 40°C for 12 hours, followed by 32°C for up to 60 hours; or (3) multiple freeze-thaw cycles (-20°C). The stability of extracted SARS-CoV-2 RNA for each condition was evaluated by qPCR. Separate usability studies for the dry polyester swab-based HealthPulse@home COVID-19 Specimen Collection Kit were later conducted in both adult and pediatric populations. RESULTS: Polyester swabs stored dry demonstrated equivalent performance to foam swabs for detection of low and moderate SARS-CoV-2 viral loads. Mimicking warm- and cold- climate shipment, surrogate specimens were stable following either 72 hours of a high-temperature excursion or two freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, usability studies comprised of self-collected patient specimens yielded sufficient material for molecular testing, as demonstrated by RNase P detection. CONCLUSIONS: Polyester nasal swabs stored in dry collection tubes offer a robust and inexpensive self-collection method for SARS-CoV-2 viral load testing, as viral RNA remains stable under conditions required for home collection and shipment to the laboratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Animals , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nasopharynx/virology , Polyesters , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Swine
16.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025055

ABSTRACT

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Swine , Animals , Biodiversity , Chiroptera/virology , DNA Viruses/classification , DNA Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
17.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 21, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171946

ABSTRACT

The origin and intermediate host for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is yet to be determined. Coronaviruses found to be closely related to SARS-CoV-2 include RaTG13 derived from bat and two clusters (PCoV-GD and PCoV-GX) of coronaviruses identified in pangolin. Here, we studied the infectivity and antigenicity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 and the three related coronaviruses. Compared with the other three viruses, RaTG13 showed almost no infectivity to a variety of cell lines. The two pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 showed similar infectious activity. However, in SARS-CoV-2-susceptible cell lines, the pangolin coronaviruses presented even higher infectivity. The striking difference between the SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin coronaviruses is that the latter can infect porcine cells, which could be partially attributed to an amino acid difference at the position of 498 of the spike protein. The infection by SARS-CoV-2 was mainly mediated by Furin and TMPRSS2, while PCoV-GD and PCoV-GX mainly depend on Cathepsin L. Extensive cross-neutralization was found between SARS-CoV-2 and PCoV-GD. However, almost no cross-neutralization was observed between PCoV-GX and SARS-CoV-2 or PCoV-GD. More attention should be paid to pangolin coronaviruses and to investigate the possibility of these coronaviruses spreading across species to become zoonoses among pigs or humans.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 591535, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158349

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with more than 111 million reported cases and 2,500,000 deaths worldwide (mortality rate currently estimated at 2.2%), is a stark reminder that coronaviruses (CoV)-induced diseases remain a major threat to humanity. COVID-19 is only the latest case of betacoronavirus (ß-CoV) epidemics/pandemics. In the last 20 years, two deadly CoV epidemics, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS; fatality rate 9.6%) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS; fatality rate 34.7%), plus the emergence of HCoV-HKU1 which causes the winter common cold (fatality rate 0.5%), were already a source of public health concern. Betacoronaviruses can also be a threat for livestock, as evidenced by the Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome (SADS) epizootic in pigs. These repeated outbreaks of ß-CoV-induced diseases raise the question of the dynamic of propagation of this group of viruses in wildlife and human ecosystems. SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and HCoV-HKU1 emerged in Asia, strongly suggesting the existence of a regional hot spot for emergence. However, there might be other regional hot spots, as seen with MERS-CoV, which emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. ß-CoVs responsible for human respiratory infections are closely related to bat-borne viruses. Bats are present worldwide and their level of infection with CoVs is very high on all continents. However, there is as yet no evidence of direct bat-to-human coronavirus infection. Transmission of ß-CoV to humans is considered to occur accidentally through contact with susceptible intermediate animal species. This zoonotic emergence is a complex process involving not only bats, wildlife and natural ecosystems, but also many anthropogenic and societal aspects. Here, we try to understand why only few hot spots of ß-CoV emergence have been identified despite worldwide bats and bat-borne ß-CoV distribution. In this work, we analyze and compare the natural and anthropogenic environments associated with the emergence of ß-CoV and outline conserved features likely to create favorable conditions for a new epidemic. We suggest monitoring South and East Africa as well as South America as these regions bring together many of the conditions that could make them future hot spots.

19.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153652

ABSTRACT

Members of family Coronaviridae cause a variety of diseases in birds and mammals. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a lesser-researched coronavirus, can infect naive pigs of any age, but clinical disease is observed in pigs ≤4 weeks of age. No commercial PHEV vaccines are available, and neonatal protection from PHEV-associated disease is presumably dependent on lactogenic immunity. Although subclinical PHEV infections are thought to be common, PHEV ecology in commercial swine herds is unknown. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, a serum IgG antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the S1 protein was developed and evaluated on known-status samples and then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds. Assessment of the diagnostic performance of the PHEV S1 ELISA using serum samples (n = 924) collected from 7-week-old pigs (n = 84; 12 pigs per group) inoculated with PHEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, or porcine deltacoronavirus showed that a sample-to-positive cutoff value of ≥0.6 was both sensitive and specific, i.e., all PHEV-inoculated pigs were seropositive from days postinoculation 10 to 42, and no cross-reactivity was observed in samples from other groups. The PHEV S1 ELISA was then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds (19 states) using 2,756 serum samples from breeding females (>28 weeks old) on commercial farms (n = 104) with no history of PHEV-associated disease. The overall seroprevalence was 53.35% (confidence interval [CI], ±1.86%) and herd seroprevalence was 96.15% (CI, ±3.70%).IMPORTANCE There is a paucity of information concerning the ecology of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) in commercial swine herds. This study provided evidence that PHEV infection is endemic and highly prevalent in U.S. swine herds. These results raised questions for future studies regarding the impact of endemic PHEV on swine health and the mechanisms by which this virus circulates in endemically infected populations. Regardless, the availability of the validated PHEV S1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides the means for swine producers to detect and monitor PHEV infections, confirm prior exposure to the virus, and to evaluate the immune status of breeding herds.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus 1/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus 1/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 553: 25-29, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147359

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A sex-bias has been observed, with increased susceptibility and mortality in male compared to female patients. The gene for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is located on the X chromosome. We previously generated TP53 mutant pigs that exhibit a sex-specific patho-phenotype due to altered regulation of numerous X chromosome genes. In this study, we explored the effect of p53 deficiency on ACE2 expression in pigs. First, we identified the p53 binding site in the ACE2 promoter and could show its regulatory effect on ACE2 expression by luciferase assay in porcine primary kidney fibroblast cells. Later, quantitative PCR and western blot showed tissue- and gender-specific expression changes of ACE2 and its truncated isoform in p53-deficient pigs. We believe these findings will broaden the knowledge on ACE2 regulation and COVID-19 susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Organ Specificity , Sex Characteristics , Sus scrofa/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fibroblasts , Gene Deletion , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/deficiency , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , X Chromosome/genetics
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