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1.
Ann Med Psychol (Paris) ; 180(6): S23-S28, 2022 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899509

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study explored two related questions: (1) the incidence of peri-traumatic distress and dissociation in a general Algerian population during the initial stages of the COVID-19 epidemic; (2) sociodemographic predictors of peri-traumatic reaction. The objective is to better understand the peri-traumatic experience in order to identify vulnerable people to whom psychological care could be offered. Materials and methods: An online descriptive survey containing three questionnaires, a demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire for peri-traumatic distress and the questionnaire for peri-traumatic dissociation experiences, was conducted using the snowball sampling technique to select 1374 Algerians. Results: The results of this survey indicate that 32.7 % of the participants present a peri-traumatic distress and 61.8 % of the participants present a significant level of peri-traumatic dissociation during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to confinement, stress, female gender, the origin of a particularly affected department, the average economic situation and a history of psychological problems are predictors of peri-traumatic distress. Conclusion: This study provides the first empirical data on the incidence of peri-traumatic reactions (distress and dissociation), as well as their predictors in an Algerian population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 epidemic. The Algerian population has experienced levels of distress in the low range of what has been described in the literature, while the dissociation shows that the majority of the population is affected. This result demonstrates the importance of measuring the peri-traumatic reactions according to the two dimensions of distress and dissociation, and offering psychological care for the most vulnerable people, in order to prevent the risk of their possible chronicisation, and developing post-traumatic stress disorder in later periods.

2.
Ann Med Psychol (Paris) ; 180(6): 543-550, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899508

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19, a major "Public Health Emergencies of International Concern", had sought greater attention among researchers to study its pathogenesis, associated complications and management. However, there are only few studies that had studied its potential impact on mental health of general public, who are subjected to social distancing, community lockdown and restrictions in their routine activities. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and mental health needs among general public in Tamil Nadu subjected to lockdown, social distancing amidst COVID-19 crisis. Tamil Nadu is one of the worst affected states of southern India. Methods: A self-administered, web-based application study using "WHO-Self Reported Questionnaire-20", in bilingual version, both English and Tamil, is used to screen the public for the level of distress. The study is done while the state is under extended lockdown and restricted movement. Key findings: A total of 918 respondents participated in the survey and it is found that about more than one third of the respondents (∼35%) are under psychological distress. A significant association between younger age group, female gender, unmarried, people with children are found to be under distress. The lockdown had increased the frequency of smoking and quantity of cigarettes among smokers, also has increased the frequency of drinking among alcohol consumers. Of the SRQ-20 items recorded, stress related neurotic symptoms (> 70%) was observed more than the depressive mood. About 33% of those scored > 7, had suicidal tendency. The districts declared red zones had significantly reported a greater number of respondents under distress. Conclusion: Besides effectively mitigating the COVID-19 crisis, in terms of prevention, control and treatment strategies, it is prerogative to effectively manage fear, distress due to the COVID-19 and associated anxiety and depression among the public.


But: Le COVID-19, une importante « Urgence de santé publique de portée internationale ¼, a demandé une plus grande attention des chercheurs pour étudier sa pathogenèse, les complications associées et la prise en charge. Cependant, rares sont les études qui ont étudié son impact potentiel sur la santé de la population, qui est soumise à l'éloignement social, au confinement communautaire et à des restrictions dans ses activités courantes. Objectifs: Le but de cette étude est d'évaluer la prévalence de la détresse psychologique et des besoins de santé mentale dans la population du Tamil Nadu soumise au confinement, à la distanciation sociale au milieu de la crise du COVID-19. Le Tamil Nadu est l'un des États les plus touchés du sud de l'Inde. Méthodes: Une étude d'application auto-administrée en ligne utilisant le « WHO-Self Reported Questionnaire-20 ¼, en version bilingue, en anglais et en tamoul, est utilisée pour dépister le niveau de détresse. L'étude est effectuée alors que l'État est sous confinement prolongé et mouvements restreints. Principales conclusions: Sur les 918 répondants qui ont participé à l'enquête, on constate qu'environ plus d'un tiers des répondants (∼35%) sont en détresse psychologique. Les plus jeunes, les femmes, les célibataires, les personnes avec enfants se trouvent en situation de détresse de façon significative. Le confinement a augmenté la fréquence du tabagisme et la quantité de cigarettes chez les fumeurs, a également augmenté la fréquence de consommation d'alcool chez les consommateurs d'alcool. Parmi les items SRQ-20 enregistrés, les symptômes névrotiques liés au stress (> 70 %) ont été plus observés que l'humeur dépressive. Environ 33 % des sujets, ayant obtenu un score supérieur à 7, avaient une tendance suicidaire. Les districts déclarés zone rouge avaient notablement signalé un plus grand nombre de répondants en détresse. Conclusion: En plus d'atténuer efficacement la pandémie du COVID-19, en termes de stratégies de prévention, de contrôle et de traitement, il est capital de gérer efficacement la peur, la détresse due au COVID-19, l'anxiété et la dépression associées et d'étendre le soutien psychosocial au public.

3.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; 20(3): 1537-1545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899276

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 and its consequences has led to fears, worries, and anxiety among individuals worldwide. The present study developed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) to complement the clinical efforts in preventing the spread and treating of COVID-19 cases. Methods: The sample comprised 717 Iranian participants. The items of the FCV-19S were constructed based on extensive review of existing scales on fears, expert evaluations, and participant interviews. Several psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain its reliability and validity properties. Results: After panel review and corrected item-total correlation testing, seven items with acceptable corrected item-total correlation (0.47 to 0.56) were retained and further confirmed by significant and strong factor loadings (0.66 to 0.74). Also, other properties evaluated using both classical test theory and Rasch model were satisfactory on the seven-item scale. More specifically, reliability values such as internal consistency (α = .82) and test-retest reliability (ICC = .72) were acceptable. Concurrent validity was supported by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (with depression, r = 0.425 and anxiety, r = 0.511) and the Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Scale (with perceived infectability, r = 0.483 and germ aversion, r = 0.459). Conclusion: The Fear of COVID-19 Scale, a seven-item scale, has robust psychometric properties. It is reliable and valid in assessing fear of COVID-19 among the general population and will also be useful in allaying COVID-19 fears among individuals.

4.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S48-S52, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792229

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown has affected the health system. Many health-care facilities are prioritizing their services, and hence, those suffering from life-limiting conditions will have difficulty in accessing health services. AIMS: The aim of the study was to perform a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis of the palliative care (PC) services provided by the Institute of Palliative Medicine (IPM), Kozhikode, amid COVID-19 pandemic. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A SWOT analysis of PC services provided by IPM. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data for SWOT analysis was collected by brainstorming and review of records and registers. RESULTS: Good prioritization and documentation system and routinely adhering to infection control practices are notable strengths. Lack of funding and interrupted supply of personal protective equipment are notable weaknesses. Availability of established communication channels with active community participation are a few opportunities available to improve the services. Working with high-risk groups, return of Non-residential Indians (NRI), lack of transparency and stigma among the general public are the threats that can affect the service delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Having good prioritization and documentation system, reinforcing infection control practices, already established emergency homecare system, presence of a well-developed network of community-based PC services, and a vast network of community volunteers and awareness and cooperation of families had helped IPM to quickly reorganize its services and transition smoothly to continue to provide PC for those suffering from life-limiting illnesses in this pandemic situation.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725657

ABSTRACT

Iran has faced one of the worst COVID-19 outbreaks in the world, and no studies to date have examined COVID-19-related stress in the general Iranian population. In this first population-based study, a web-based survey was conducted during the peak of the outbreak to assess stress and its correlates in the Iranian population. A 54-item, valid, and reliable questionnaire, including items on demographic characteristics and past medical history, stress levels, awareness about signs and symptoms of COVID-19, knowledge about at-risk groups and prevention methods, knowledge about transmission methods, trust in sources of information, and availability of facemasks and sanitizers, was deployed via social and mass media networks. A total of 3787 Iranians participated in the study where the majority of the participants were females (67.4%), employed (56.1%), from developed provinces (81.6%), without chronic diseases (66.6%), and with ≥13 years of formal education (87.9%). The mean age of study participants was 34.9 years (range = 12-73), and the average stress score was 3.33 (SD = ±1.02). Stress score was significantly higher for females, those who were 30-39 years old, housewives, those with chronic diseases, individuals who were aware that there is no vaccine to prevent COVID-19, those who could not get facemasks or sanitizers, and individuals with higher knowledge about at-risk groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation of stress scores with knowledge about prevention methods for COVID-19 (r = 0.21, p = 0.01) and trust in sources of information about COVID-19 (r = -0.18, p = 0.01). All of the predictors, except knowledge of two important at-risk groups and education, had a significant effect on stress scores based on a multivariate regression model. The COVID-19 outbreak could increase stress among all population groups, with certain groups at higher risk. In the high-risk groups and based on experience with previous pandemics, interventions are needed to prevent long-term psychological effects. Professional support and family-centered programs should be a part of pandemic mitigation-related policymaking and public health practices.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(9)2020 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725598

ABSTRACT

The uncontrolled spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has called for unprecedented measures, to the extent that the Italian government has imposed a quarantine on the entire country. Quarantine has a huge impact and can cause considerable psychological strain. The present study aims to establish the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and identify risk and protective factors for psychological distress in the general population. An online survey was administered from 18-22 March 2020 to 2766 participants. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were constructed to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables; personality traits; depression, anxiety, and stress. Female gender, negative affect, and detachment were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Having an acquaintance infected was associated with increased levels of both depression and stress, whereas a history of stressful situations and medical problems was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Finally, those with a family member infected and young person who had to work outside their domicile presented higher levels of anxiety and stress, respectively. This epidemiological picture is an important benchmark for identifying persons at greater risk of suffering from psychological distress and the results are useful for tailoring psychological interventions targeting the post-traumatic nature of the distress.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
7.
Work ; 67(2): 269-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period of growth and enrichment along with many physiological and psychological challenges. These changes can lead to complications if compounded by external stress and anxiety. COVID-19 has emerged as a chief stressor among the general population and is a serious threat among vulnerable populations. Therefore, there is a need for stress management tools, such as Yoga and physical exercises, both at home and at work. These can be adopted during the pandemic with proper maintenance of social distancing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compile literature that has reported the health outcomes of Yoga intervention on pregnancy at the workplace and analyzes both the restrictions as well as advantages of its beneficial effects in comparison to physical exercises. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used for the search include "Yoga", "work", "complications", "physical exercise", "drugs" and "COVID" indifferent permutations and combinations with "pregnancy". We compiled the literature with respect to pregnancy complications and the effects of drugs, physical activity and Yoga for preventing these complications. RESULTS: We noted that pregnancy-related complications are becoming more prevalent because of a sedentary lifestyle, restricted physical activity and growing stress. In such situations, a home or workplace Yoga protocol can combine both exercise and mindfulness-based alleviation of anxiety for both working and non-working women. CONCLUSION: Yoga can be effective for combating stress and anxiety besides boosting immunity in pregnant working women confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Women, Working/psychology , Yoga/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Mindfulness , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 8-9, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to high levels of psychological distress in the general public, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. Such distress is associated with alterations in immune function, including an elevated risk of viral respiratory tract infections. In this light, the possible effects of Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine promoted by the Indian government as an "immune booster", are examined from the point of view of psychoneuroimmune mechanisms as well as the "meaning response" described by Moerman. It was found that many of the measures advocated in their guidelines could positively influence immunity either by direct effects on symptoms of depression or anxiety, or through their symbolic significance. Therefore, it is possible that such traditional practices could be beneficial both in terms of psychological quality of life, and in terms of moderating the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/immunology , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychoneuroimmunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coriandrum , Cuminum , Curcuma , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Garlic , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Plant Preparations , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Spices , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Teas, Herbal , Yoga
9.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 797-803, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631163

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to explore experiences of awaiting a test result for COVID-19 among individuals from the general population. METHODS: Fifteen participants were recruited from COVID-19 testing tents in the Capital Region of Denmark in March and April 2020. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation was used. RESULTS: The analysis revealed five themes. (1) The participants' experiences of awaiting a COVID-19 test result illuminated concerns related to infecting others rather than their own health. Experiences of guilt for not taking all possible precautions to avoid the spread of COVID-19 were described and thoughts of potentially having exposed others bothered the participants. (2) The test result would guide their precautions and therefore regulate behaviour at home and in society. (3) Even though the participants did not take all possible precautions they made some changes in their everyday lives. (4) Leaving the individual with the responsibility for taking precautions based on their subjective experiences created feelings of insecurity and uncertainty. (5) Being met by health professionals was an experience that meant for the particpants that behaviour towards limiting the infection became very clear. The seriousness experienced around the test situation facilitated this attitude and behaviour in the participants. Conclusion: This study illuminated how testing for COVID-19 regulates behavior in the general population. The testing was both important for the individual's cautious behavior towards other people, work and in getting around in society but also a way to regulate behavior from a societal perspective to quicken suppression and avoid transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(1): e38-e46, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who were attending the emergency department (ED), before hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with UGB in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, case group) during the first 2 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. We formed 2 control groups: COVID-19 patients without UGB (control group A) and non-COVID-19 patients with UGB (control group B). Fifty-three independent variables and 4 outcomes were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS: We identified 83 UGB in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 who were attending EDs (1.11%, 95% CI=0.88-1.38). This incidence was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients [2474/1,388,879, 1.78%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.71-1.85; odds ratio (OR)=0.62; 95% CI=0.50-0.77]. Clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 patients presenting with UGB were abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, dyspnea, expectoration, melena, fever, cough, chest pain, and dysgeusia. Compared with non-COVID-19 patients with UGB, COVID-19 patients with UGB more frequently had fever, cough, expectoration, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, interstitial lung infiltrates, and ground-glass lung opacities. They underwent fewer endoscopies in the ED (although diagnoses did not differ between cases and control group B) and less endoscopic treatment. After adjustment for age and sex, cases showed a higher in-hospital all-cause mortality than control group B (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.09-3.86) but not control group A (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.59-2.19) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of UGB in COVID-19 patients attending EDs was lower compared with non-COVID-19 patients. Digestive symptoms predominated over respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 patients with UGB underwent fewer gastroscopies and endoscopic treatments than the general population with UGB. In-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with UGB was increased compared with non-COVID patients with UGB, but not compared with the remaining COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 4813-4822, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575872

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and isolation measures urgently adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic might potentially have negative psychological and social effects. We conducted this cross-sectional, nationwide study to ascertain the psychological effect of quarantine and identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among population quarantined to further inform interventions of mitigating mental health risk especially for vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions. Sociodemographic data, attitudes toward the COVID-19, and mental health measurements of 56,679 participants from 34 provinces in China were collected by an online survey from February 28 to March 11, 2020. Of the 56,679 participants included in the study (mean [SD] age, 36.0 [8.2] years), 27,149 (47.9%) were male and 16,454 (29.0%) ever experienced home confinement or centralized quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak. Compared those without quarantine and adjusted for potential confounders, quarantine measures were associated with increased risk of total psychological outcomes (prevalence, 34.1% vs 27.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.28-1.39; P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that vulnerable groups of the quarantined population included those with pre-existing mental disorders or chronic physical diseases, frontline workers, those in the most severely affected areas during outbreak, infected or suspected patients, and those who are less financially well-off. Complying with quarantine, being able to take part in usual work, and having adequate understanding of information related to the outbreak were associated with less mental health issues. These results suggest that quarantine measures during COVID-19 pandemic are associated with increased risk of experiencing mental health burden, especially for vulnerable groups. Further study is needed to establish interventions to reduce mental health consequences of quarantine and empower wellbeing especially in vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Curr Psychol ; 40(12): 6324-6332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525630

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of COVID-19 disease continues to be a significant psychosocial status among health care workers (HCWs) and the general population worldwide. This cross sectional study aimed to compare the psychosocial status between healthcare workers and general population during the prevalence of COVID-19 disease in southeast Iran. Totally 415 health care workers of a medical service center for COVID-19 patients and 1023 people of general population participated in the study. An online socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ -28), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) were utilized to evaluate psychosocial status. According to GHQ, the psychological disorders of the HCWs were significantly higher than that of the general population (P < 0.001). According to GAD-7, no significant difference was found between general population and HCWs. Multivariate logistic analysis showed no difference between general population and HCWs in the psychological disorder. Although HCWs suffered from psychological disorders more than general population, nearly one third to half of the participants in both groups had psychosocial disorders.

15.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 84-86, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526067

ABSTRACT

Aim This systematic review sought to assess and scrutinise the validity and practicality of published and preprint reports of prediction models for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with suspected infection, for prognosis of patients with COVID-19, and for identifying individuals in the general population at increased risk of infection with COVID-19 or being hospitalised with the illness.Data sources A systematic, online search was conducted in PubMed and Embase. In order to do so, the authors used Ovid as the host platform for these two databases and also investigated bioRxiv, medRxiv and arXiv as repositories for the preprints of studies. A public living systematic review list of COVID-19-related studies was used as the baseline searching platform (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine's repository for living evidence on COVID-19).Study selection Studies which developed or validated a multivariable prediction model related to COVID-19 patients' data (individual level data) were included. The authors did not put any restrictions on the models included in their study regarding the model setting, prediction horizon or outcomes.Data extraction and synthesis Checklists of critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies (CHARMS) and prediction model risk of bias assessment tool (PROBAST) were used to guide developing of a standardised data extraction form. Each model's predictive performance was extracted by using any summaries of discrimination and calibration. All these steps were done according to the aspects of the transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD) and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA).Results One hundred and forty-five prediction models (107 studies) were selected for data extraction and critical appraisal. The most common predictors of diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 were age, body temperature, lymphocyte count and lung imaging characteristics. Influenza-like symptoms and neutrophil count were regularly predictive in diagnostic models, while comorbidities, sex, C-reactive protein and creatinine were common prognostic items. C-indices (a measure of discrimination for models) ranged from 0.73 to 0.81 in prediction models for the general population, from 0.65 to more than 0.99 in diagnostic models, and from 0.68 to 0.99 in the prognostic models. All the included studies were reported to have high risks of bias.Conclusions Overall, this study did not recommend applying any of the predictive models in clinical practice yet. High risk of bias, reporting problems and (probably) optimistic reported performances are all among the reasons for the previous conclusion. Prompt actions regarding accurate data sharing and international collaborations are required to achieve more rigorous prediction models for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1571, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global public health challenge. This study aimed to investigate on how people perceive the COVID-19 outbreak using the components of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) and to find out how this might contribute to possible behavioral responses to the prevention and control of the disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran during March and April 2020. Participants were recruited via online applications using a number of platforms such as Telegram, WhatsApp, and Instagram asking people to take part in the study. To collect data an electronic self-designed questionnaire based on the EPPM was used in order to measure the risk perception (efficacy, defensive responses, perceived treat) related to the COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), were used to explore the data. RESULTS: A total of 3727 individuals with a mean age (SD) of 37.0 (11.1) years participated in the study. The results revealed significant differences in efficacy, defensive responses and perceived treat among different population groups particularly among those aged 60 and over. Women had significantly higher scores than men on some aspects such as self-efficacy, reactance, and avoidance but men had higher perceived susceptibility scores compared to women. Overall 56.4% of participants were engaged in danger control (preventive behavior) while the remaining 43.6% were engaged in fear control (non-preventive behavior) process. CONCLUSION: More than half of all participants motivated by danger control. This indicated that more than half of participants had high perceived efficacy (i.e., self-efficacy and response efficacy). Self-efficacy scores were significantly higher among participants who were older, female, single, lived in rural areas, and had good economic status. The results suggest that socioeconomic and demographic factors are the main determinants of the COVID-19 risk perception. Indeed, targeted interventions are essential for controlling the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 448-458, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the association between PM2.5 and risk of CKD remains under-recognized, especially in regions with high levels of PM2.5, such as China. METHODS: To explore the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and CKD prevalence in China, we used data from the China National Survey of CKD, which included a representative sample of 47,204 adults. We estimated annual exposure to PM2.5 before the survey date at each participant's address, using a validated, satellite-based, spatiotemporal model with a 10 km×10 km resolution. Participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albuminuria were defined as having CKD. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the association and analyzed the influence of potential modifiers. RESULTS: The 2-year mean PM2.5 concentration was 57.4 µg/m3, with a range from 31.3 to 87.5 µg/m3. An increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was positively associated with CKD prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 1.35) and albuminuria (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.47). Effect modification indicated these associations were significantly stronger in urban areas compared with rural areas, in males compared with females, in participants aged <65 years compared with participants aged ≥65 years, and in participants without comorbid diseases compared with those with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings regarding the relationship between long-term exposure to high ambient PM2.5 levels and CKD in the general Chinese population provide important evidence for policy makers and public health practices to reduce the CKD risk posed by this pollutant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , China , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
18.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
20.
Rev Rhum Ed Fr ; 88(5): 377-381, 2021 Oct.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIF: Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence du coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SARS-CoV-2) 2019 (COVID-19) chez des patients adultes traités par biothérapies ou inhibiteurs des JAK pour des rhumatismes inflammatoires chroniques, en particulier des arthrites inflammatoires chroniques. MÉTHODES: Pour cela, une étude basée sur la population, dans la province d'Udine (466 700 habitants d'âge > 15 ans, région du Frioul-Vénétie-Julienne, Italie) a été planifiée. Le critère principal de jugement était la prévalence du COVID-19 durant les deux premiers mois de l'épidémie. Tous les patients de notre province atteints de maladies rhumatismales et traités par biothérapies ou inhibiteurs des JAK au cours des 6 mois précédents ont été inclus (n = 1051). RÉSULTATS: Du 29 février au 25 avril 2020, 4 patients adultes (4/1051, 3,8/1000, IC 95 % 1,5-9,7/1000) ont été testés positifs au COVID-19 par RT-PCR et écouvillon. Au total, 47/1051 patients (4,5 %) ont été soumis au test COVID-19 par RT-PCR durant la même période, en raison de symptômes compatibles avec le COVID-19 pour 15 d'entre eux. Dans la population générale, la prévalence était de 937 cas/466700 (2/1000, IC 95 % 1,9-2,1/1000, valeur p = 0,33, test du Chi2), et 20 179/466 700 (4,3 %) prélèvements COVID-19 sur écouvillon ont été effectués. CONCLUSION: Le risque de COVID-19 chez les patients atteints de maladies rhumatismales et traités par biothérapies ou inhibiteurs des JAK n'apparaît pas différent de celui observé dans la population générale. Les patients doivent être encouragés à poursuivre en toute sécurité leur traitement et à respecter les mesures de prévention et de protection contre le COVID-19.

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