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1.
Eur J Dev Res ; : 1-23, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309487

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on households' food security in Burkina Faso. For this purpose, we have made use of a single country's computable general equilibrium model and formulated two alternative scenarios (optimistic and pessimistic). While the baseline already shows a worrying food situation, our results suggest that the pandemic of Covid-19 contributes to a worsening of food security. First, the food deficit of poor rural and urban households worsens. Second, even if their food consumption decreases, the urban non-poor households seem to be resilient to the Covid-19 pandemic. The severity of food insecurity is increasing among poor households in rural and urban areas, whereas the non-poor rural households are likely to fall into the category of vulnerable people. Third, the negative impacts on food security can be explained by the combination of several factors such as a rise in food prices, a decrease in households' incomes and remittances. Finally, the negative impact on food security seems permanent, as the deviation from the baseline persists over 10 years (2020-2030).

2.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 1(2): e80-e88, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284648

ABSTRACT

Background: Housing characteristics and neighbourhood context are considered risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate how individual-level housing and neighbourhood characteristics are associated with COVID-19 mortality in older adults. Methods: For this population-based, observational study, we used data from the cause-of-death register held by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to identify recorded COVID-19 mortality and mortality from other causes among individuals (aged ≥70 years) in Stockholm county, Sweden, between March 12 and May 8, 2020. This information was linked to population-register data from December, 2019, including socioeconomic, demographic, and residential characteristics. We ran Cox proportional hazards regressions for the risk of dying from COVID-19 and from all other causes. The independent variables were area (m2) per individual in the household, the age structure of the household, type of housing, confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the borough, and neighbourhood population density. All models were adjusted for individual age, sex, country of birth, income, and education. Findings: Of 279 961 individuals identified to be aged 70 years or older on March 12, 2020, and residing in Stockholm in December, 2019, 274 712 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the study population. Between March 12 and May 8, 2020, 3386 deaths occurred, of which 1301 were reported as COVID-19 deaths. In fully adjusted models, household and neighbourhood characteristics were independently associated with COVID-19 mortality among older adults. Compared with living in a household with individuals aged 66 years or older, living with someone of working age (<66 years) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality (hazard ratio 1·6; 95% CI 1·3-2·0). Living in a care home was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (4·1; 3·5-4·9) compared with living in independent housing. Living in neighbourhoods with the highest population density (≥5000 individuals per km2) was associated with higher COVID-19 mortality (1·7; 1·1-2·4) compared with living in the least densely populated neighbourhoods (0 to <150 individuals per km2). Interpretation: Close exposure to working-age household members and neighbours is associated with increased COVID-19 mortality among older adults. Similarly, living in a care home is associated with increased mortality, potentially through exposure to visitors and care workers, but also due to poor underlying health among care-home residents. These factors should be considered when developing strategies to protect this group. Funding: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE), Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243026, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177757

ABSTRACT

We describe a method to estimate individual risks of hospitalization and death attributable to non-household and household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 using available public data on confirmed-case incidence data along with estimates of the clinical fraction, timing of transmission, isolation adherence, secondary infection risks, contact rates, and case-hospitalization and case-fatality ratios. Using the method, we estimate that risks for a 90-day period at the median daily summertime U.S. county confirmed COVID-19 case incidence of 10.8 per 100,000 and pre-pandemic contact rates range from 0.4 to 8.9 per 100,000 for the four deciles of age between 20 and 60 years. The corresponding 90-day period risk of hospitalization ranges from 13.7 to 69.2 per 100,000. Assuming a non-household secondary infection risk of 4% and pre-pandemic contact rates, the share of transmissions attributable to household settings ranges from 73% to 78%. These estimates are sensitive to the parameter assumptions; nevertheless, they are comparable to the COVID-19 hospitalization and fatality rates observed over the time period. We conclude that individual risk of hospitalization and death from SARS-CoV-2 infection is calculable from publicly available data sources. Access to publicly reported infection incidence data by setting and other exposure characteristics along with setting specific estimates of secondary infection risk would allow for more precise individual risk estimation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Hospitalization/trends , Adult , Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2099-2108, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To illustrate the extent of transmission, identify affecting risk factors and estimate epidemiological modeling parameters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in household setting. METHODS: We enrolled 35 confirmed index cases and their 148 household contacts, January 2020-February 2020, in Zhuhai, China. All participants were interviewed and asked to complete questionnaires. Household contacts were then prospectively followed active symptom monitoring through the 21-day period and nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs were collected at 3-7 days intervals. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data (when available) were collected. RESULTS: Assuming that all these secondary cases were infected by their index cases, the second infection rate in household context is 32.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.4%-44.4%), with 10.4% of secondary cases being asymptomatic. Multivariate analysis showed that household contacts with underlying medical conditions, a history of direct exposure to Wuhan and its surrounding areas, and shared vehicle with an index patient were associated with higher susceptibility. Household members without protective measures after illness onset of the index patient seem to increase the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The median incubation period and serial interval within household were estimated to be 4.3 days (95% CI: 3.4-5.3 days) and 5.1 days (95% CI: 4.3-6.2 days), respectively. CONCLUSION: Early isolation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and prioritizing rapid contact investigation, followed by active symptom monitoring and periodic laboratory evaluation, should be initiated immediately after confirming patients to address the underlying determinants driving the continuing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Young Adult
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 021103, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106365

ABSTRACT

Background: To prevent the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), strict control of person-to-person transmission is essential. Family transmission is the most common route of transmission; however, family transmission patterns and outcomes are not well understood. Methods: We enrolled confirmed cases discharged from Wuhan Zhuankou Fangcang Shelter Hospital from February 17, 2020 to March 8, 2020 along with the family members they had contact with, to evaluate baseline characteristics, family transmission patterns and outcomes. The follow-up period lasted until May 8, 2020. Results: This study evaluated 369 participants, which included 100 patients admitted to the shelter hospital and the family members they had contact with. Family transmission occurred in 62% of household, with 190 cases confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were eight patterns of family transmission, and spousal transmission (44/83, 53.0%) was the most common pattern, especially in the middle-age generation group (35/83, 42.2%). The homes of the families in which all members were infected had a smaller per capita area than those of other families (29.1 ± 11.89 cm2 vs 41.0 ± 19.70 cm2, respectively, P = 0.037), and the per capita area was negatively associated with the number of infected family members (R = -0.097, P = 0.048). Of the 190 confirmed cases, the 113 mild or moderate cases were monitored in fangcang (including Wuhan Zhuankou Fangcang and other fangcang), and the 59 severe cases were treated at designated hospitals. By the end of follow-up, 185 patients recovered and returned home after completing at least 14 days of isolation at the community quarantine center, four died in hospitals, and one died at home before hospitalization. Interestingly, four patients had positive nucleic acid test results after previous negative results, though none of these patients were re-hospitalized, and none of their close contacts reported an infection. Conclusions: Our data found eight family transmission patterns, of which spousal transmission was the most common. Some patients were also found to have positive test results during follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 152-159, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068135

ABSTRACT

The determinants of the risk of becoming infected by SARS-CoV-2, contracting COVID-19, and being affected by the more serious forms of the disease have been generally explored in merely qualitative terms. It seems reasonable to argue that the risk patterns for COVID-19 have to be usefully studied in quantitative terms too, whenever possible applying the same approach to the relationship 'dose of the exposure vs pathological response' commonly used for chemicals and already followed for several biological agents to SARS-CoV-2, too. Such an approach is of particular relevance in the fields of both occupational epidemiology and occupational medicine, where the identification of the sources of a dangerous exposure and of the web of causation of a disease is often questionable and questioned: it is relevant when evaluating the population risk, too. Specific occupational scenarios, basically involving health workers, exhibit important proportions of both subjects simply infected by SARS-CoV-2 and of ill subjects with, respectively, mild, moderate, and severe disease. Similar patterns have been described referring to various circumstances of community exposure, e.g., standing in crowded public places, travelling on crowded means of transport, living in accommodation or care homes, living in the same household as a COVID-19 case. The hypothesis that these findings are a consequence not only of high probabilities of exposure, but also of high doses (as a product of both intensity and duration, with possible autonomous effects of peaks of exposure) deserves to be systematically tested, in order to reconstruct the web of causation of COVID-19 individual and clustered cases and to cope with situations at critical risk for SARS-CoV-2, needing to be identified, mapped, and dealt with at the right time. A limited but consistent set of papers supporting these assumptions has been traced in the literature. Under these premises, the creation of a structured inventory of both values of viral concentrations in the air (in case and if possible, of surface contaminations too) and of viral loads in biological matrixes is proposed, with the subsequent construction of a scenario-exposure matrix. A scenario-exposure matrix for SARS-CoV-2 may represent a useful tool for research and practical risk management purposes, helping to understand the possibly critical circumstances for which no direct exposure measure is available (this is an especially frequent case, in contexts of low socio-economic level) and providing guidance to determine evidence-based public health strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Environmental Exposure , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Viremia/virology , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Crowding , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Environmental Monitoring , Family Characteristics , Fomites/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Institutionalization , Occupational Exposure , Risk , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , Transportation
7.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(4): 513-518, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID pandemic and subsequent lockdown has disrupted food supplies across large parts of India, where even prior to the pandemic, food insecurity and malnutrition were widely prevalent. Tribal populations in southern Rajasthan, India, live in extreme scarcity, rely mainly on outward migration for sustenance, and have been significantly affected by the pandemic. In this study, we assess the availability of foodstuffs at the household level and community experiences about satiety and hunger during lockdown. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a rapid assessment of food security in rural southern Rajasthan, India, using a structured questionnaire. Trained interviewers conducted telephonic interviews using KoBoToolbox, an open-source tool. A total of 211 respondents including community volunteers, family members of tuberculosis patients and malnourished children, pregnant women, and influential members in the villages participated in the study. RESULTS: A cereal was reported to be present by 97% of the respondents, two-thirds had pulses, and nearly half had milk. The amount of cereals available was adequate for about 5 months and that of pulses, oil/ ghee, and sugar for about 1 to 2 weeks. Two-thirds of the respondents reported that food in their households was sometimes not sufficient for the amount they wanted to eat, and 97% of these mentioned not having money to buy food as the reason for not having sufficient food. CONCLUSION: This study highlights widespread food insecurity among tribal communities in southern Rajasthan, and the scenario is likely to be similar in other tribal migration dependent areas of the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Population Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Child , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
QJM ; 113(12): 841-850, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066397

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel virus with continuously evolving transmission trends. Contact tracing and quarantining of positive cases are chief strategies of disease control that has been accepted globally, though scientific knowledge regarding household transmission of the COVID-19 through contact of positive case is sparse. Current systematic review was planned to assess global statistics and characteristics of household secondary attack rate (SAR) of COVID-19. Eligible articles were retrieved through search of-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and EMBASE for the period December 2019 to 15 June 2020. Search terms were developed to identify articles reporting household SARs in various countries. After initial screening of 326 articles, 13 eligible studies were included in the final evidence synthesis. We found that SAR varies widely across countries with lowest reported rate as 4.6% and highest as 49.56%. The rates were unaffected by confounders such as population of the country, lockdown status and geographic location. Review suggested greater vulnerability of spouse and elderly population for secondary transmission than other household members. It was also observed that quarantining and isolation are most effective strategies for prevention of the secondary transmission of the disease. Symptomatic status of the index case emerged to be a critical factor, with very low transmission probability during asymptomatic phase. Present review findings recommend that adequate measures should be provided to protect the vulnerable population as only case tracing and quarantining might be insufficient. It should be combined with advisory for limiting household contacts and active surveillance for symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020195, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058721

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at the identification of the settings linked to SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the analysis of clusters and small outbreaks detected by the Lombardy Region surveillance system during the second epidemic wave. Comparing the data before and after the introduction of restrictive measures (night curfew, partial closure of schools and businesses, smaart working), we observed a significant decrease of infections in workplaces, social gatherings, coffee shops, restaurants, and sports centers; contagion in schools decreased from 9.2% to 3.4%, in hospitals environments and nursing homes from 5% to 2%; domestic infections increased instead from 73.5% to 92.7%. These results suggest that containment measures have been effective in controlling virus circulation in the community but not at the household level and might inform future interventions, including the establishment of structures (Covid Hotels) for the isolation infected people. At the same time, they raise awareness on the risk of transmission among family members and during households social gatherings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Italy
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 582701, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052494

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the preparedness regarding the preventive practices toward the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the adult population in Bangladesh. Data were collected through an online survey with a sample size of 1,056. We constructed four variables (individual, household, economic, and community and social distancing) related to preparedness based on the principal component analysis of eight items. We employed descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that the accuracy rate of the overall preparedness scale was 68.9%. The preparedness level related to economic, individual, household, and community and social distancing was 64.9, 77.1, 50.4, and 83.2%, respectively. However, the economic preparedness significantly varied by sex, education, occupation, attitude, and worries related to COVID-19. Individual preparedness was significantly associated with education, residence, and attitudes. The household preparedness significantly varied by education, residence, and worries, while the respondent's community and social distancing-related preparedness significantly varied by sex, region, residence, and attitude. This study implies the necessity of the coverage of financial schemes for the vulnerable group. Increased coverage of health education regarding personal hygiene targeting the less educated and rural population should be ensured.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Population Health , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Education , Humans , Internet , Male , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(1)2020 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027284

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major stressor for the psychological health of people worldwide. In the UK, the COVID19-Psychological Research Consortium Study (C19PRC) launched to evaluate the psychological impact of COVID-19 in the general population and its implications. The project was then extended to Italy and several other countries. This article provides an overview of the Italian C19PRC study and its replication of two specific findings from the UK C19PRC. In the first part, the relationship between anxiety and somatic symptomatology is examined. In the second part, we analyze the association between several factors and psychological health outcomes: depression/anxiety, traumatic stress, COVID-19 anxiety. In line with the study conducted in the UK, an online survey was administered to the adult Italian general population. The sample included 1038 respondents (age, mean = 49.94, SD = 16.14, 51.15% females) taken from four regions: Lombardia, Veneto, Lazio, and Campania. The relationship between predictors and outcomes was evaluated by means of logistic regression models. Somatic indices showed a positive association with anxiety, worse somatic symptoms were associated with mourning a loss of a beloved one due to COVID-19 and with precarious health conditions. Females showed a higher incidence of psychological issues. No differences in anxiety, depression, and traumatic stress were found across regions but the Campania region showed the most severe somatic symptomatology. In the second analysis, the factors associated with more severe psychological outcomes (i.e., anxiety and/or depression, traumatic stress, and COVID-19 related anxiety) were younger age, the presence of minors in the household, traumatic stressors, and precarious health conditions. No differences across regions emerged. The Italian results correspond to the UK findings for anxiety, depression, and traumatic stress. Both in the UK and Italy, the factors associated with worse psychological health were gender (female), younger age, having children, pre-existing health issues (both for oneself or someone close), and the moderate/high perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 within one month. In Italy, unlike the UK, lower household income and having (had) COVID-19 were not associated with poorer mental health. The psychological impact of COVID-19 can last for months; future research should explore all aspects of the psychological burden of COVID-19 in order to implement psychological interventions and promote psychological health.

12.
Health Psychol ; 39(12): 1026-1036, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined patterns and psychosocial correlates of coronavirus guideline adherence in a U.S. sample (N = 500) during the initial 15-day period advocated by the White House Coronavirus Task Force. METHOD: Descriptive and correlational analyses were used to examine the frequency of past 7-day adherence to each of 10 guidelines, as well as overall adherence. Guided by a disposition-belief-motivation model of health behavior, path analyses tested associations of personality traits and demographic factors to overall adherence via perceived norms, perceived control, attitudes, and self-efficacy related to guideline adherence, as well as perceived exposure risk and perceived health consequence if exposed. RESULTS: Adherence ranged from 94.4% reporting always avoiding eating/drinking inside bars/restaurants/food courts to 13.6% reporting always avoiding touching one's face. Modeling showed total associations with overall adherence for greater conscientiousness (ß = .191, p < .001), openness (ß = .098, p < .05), perceptions of social endorsement (ß = .202, p < .001), positive attitudes (ß = .105, p < .05), self-efficacy (ß = .234, p < .001), and the presence versus absence or uncertainty of a shelter-in-place order (ß = .102, p < .01). Age, self-rated health, sex, education, income, children in the household, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, perceived exposure risk, and perceived health consequence showed null-to-negligible associations with overall adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The results clarify adherence frequency, highlight characteristics associated with greater adherence, and suggest the need to strengthen the social contract between government and citizenry by clearly communicating adherence benefits, costs, and timelines. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Guideline Adherence , Health Behavior , Personality , Social Cognition , Adult , Age Factors , Attitude , Attitude to Health , Educational Status , Extraversion, Psychological , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Marital Status , Middle Aged , Motivation , Neuroticism , Personality Inventory , Self Efficacy , Sex Factors
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1848-1852, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024815

ABSTRACT

In light of the disproportionate risk of hospitalization and death attributable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among racial and ethnic minority groups, parental attitudes and concerns regarding school reopening were assessed by race and ethnicity using data from three online CARAVAN omnibus surveys conducted during July 8-12, 2020, by ENGINE Insights.* Survey participants included 858 parents who had children and adolescents in kindergarten through grade 12 (school-aged children) living in their household. Overall, 56.5% of parents strongly or somewhat agreed that school should reopen this fall, with some differences by race/ethnicity: compared with 62.3% of non-Hispanic White (White) parents, 46.0% of non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) parents (p = 0.007) and 50.2% of Hispanic parents (p = 0.014) agreed that school should reopen this fall. Fewer White parents (62.5%) than Hispanic (79.5%, p = 0.026) and non-Hispanic parents of other racial/ethnic groups (66.9%, p = 0.041) were supportive of a mask mandate for students and staff members. Understanding parental attitudes and concerns is critical to informing communication and messaging around COVID-19 mitigation. Families' concerns also highlight the need for flexible education plans and equitable resource provision so that youth education is not compromised.


Subject(s)
Attitude/ethnology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Return to School , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
14.
QJM ; 113(12): 839, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010638
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(12): 1361-1367, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The secondary attack rate (SAR) measures the transmissibility of an infectious agent. The reported SAR of COVID-19 varied in a broad range, and between different contact settings. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a meta-analysis on the SAR of COVID-19 with adherence to the PRISMA guideline. We searched published literatures and preprints in international databases of PubMed and medRxiv, and in five major Chinese databases as of 20 April 2020, using the following search terms: ("COVID-19" and "secondary attack rate") or ("COVID-19" and "close contact"). The random effect model was chosen for pooled analyses, using R (version 3.6.3). RESULTS: A total of 1,136 references were retrieved and 18 of them remained after screening. The pooled SAR of COVID-19 was 0.07 (95%: 0.03-0.12) in general. It differed significantly between contact settings, peaking in households (0.20, 95%: 0.15-0.28), followed by in social gatherings (0.06, 95%: 0.03-0.10). The point estimates of the pooled SARs in health facilities, transports, and work/study settings were all as low as 0.01. Among all the secondary cases, the proportion of asymptomatic infections was estimated to be 0.17 (95% CI: 0.09 - 0.34). The proportion was higher in households (0.26, 95% CI: 0.12-0.56), than in other contact settings. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 is much higher in households than in other scenarios. Identification of asymptomatic secondary infections should be enhanced in households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Family Characteristics , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Factual , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000258

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the willingness, anxiety and concerns of Italian people on undergoing dental appointments. An anonymous survey was posted online on social media on 11 May 2020 and was completed by 1003 respondents in one week. Multiple correspondence analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between socio-demographic characteristics, dental care access, contagion fear of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), trust in dentists regarding sanitization procedures and perception of the impact of the risk of contagion on dental care. Subjects with a high level of education, attending public dental offices and that are used to go to dental offices for urgent care would not feel comfortable in undergoing a dental appointment and would prefer to postpone or cancel dental visits, waiting for a decrease in the number of the contagions. Moreover, the risk of canceling or postponing the appointment at the dentist was 1.59 times greater in those who claimed to be strongly influenced by SARS-CoV-2. Fear of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), new cases decrease and the not urgent nature of dental visits influenced more than the lowered income household on upcoming or resuming dental appointments. In the next months, despite the forecasted economic crisis caused by coronavirus pandemic, fear and anxiety generated by the spread of the virus will impact more than the lowered familiar income with regards to access to dental care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Appl Res Qual Life ; : 1-26, 2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986654

ABSTRACT

The UK government has decided to implement lockdown measures at the end of March 2020 as a response to the outbreak and spread of the Covid-19 pandemic. As a consequence, households have experienced job losses and a significant drop in their finances. During these unprecedented and difficult times, people provide financial assistance to those who are in need and have to cope with falls in their living standards. In this study we are interested to investigate the subjective well-being, which is expressed by mental health and components of general happiness, of the givers rather than of receivers. We apply a difference-in-differences framework to investigate the impact of altruism on the givers' SWB in the UK. Altruism is denoted by transfers made to adult children, parents, siblings, and friends. Using the DiD estimator and the estimated coefficient of the household income we calculate the implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for altruism. We perform various regressions by gender and racial-ethnic background using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). The analysis shows that altruistic behaviours impact different domains of SWB between men and women, as well as, among people with different racial-ethnic background.

18.
Health Rep ; 31(12): 3-11, 2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity has been linked to adverse mental health outcomes. This study assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-perceived mental health status and anxiety symptoms among Canadians in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA AND METHODS: The Canadian Perspectives Survey Series 2 collected cross-sectional data from May 4 to 10, 2020, on Canadians aged 15 years or older residing in the ten provinces. The brief six-item Household Food Security Survey Module was used to measure participants' households as food secure or marginally, moderately or severely food insecure within the previous 30 days. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between food security status and self-perceived fair or poor mental health and moderate or severe anxiety symptoms, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. RESULTS: Approximately one in seven Canadians (14.6%) lived in a household that experienced some level of food insecurity. Of these individuals, 9.3% reported recently accessing free food from a community organization. About one in five Canadians self-perceived their mental health as fair or poor (22.0%), or self-reported moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (18.2%). With covariate adjustment, individuals in households with moderate food insecurity had nearly three times higher odds of reporting fair or poor mental health, and moderate or severe anxiety symptoms, compared with individuals in food-secure households. Among those with severe food insecurity, adjusted odds ratios were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0 to 7.9) for fair or poor mental health, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.9 to 14.7) for moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. DISCUSSION: In the early period of the COVID-19 epidemic in Canada, household food insecurity was independently associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Monitoring both food insecurity and mental health will be important as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2031756, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973285

ABSTRACT

Importance: Crowded indoor environments, such as households, are high-risk settings for the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objectives: To examine evidence for household transmission of SARS-CoV-2, disaggregated by several covariates, and to compare it with other coronaviruses. Data Source: PubMed, searched through October 19, 2020. Search terms included SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 with secondary attack rate, household, close contacts, contact transmission, contact attack rate, or family transmission. Study Selection: All articles with original data for estimating household secondary attack rate were included. Case reports focusing on individual households and studies of close contacts that did not report secondary attack rates for household members were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Meta-analyses were done using a restricted maximum-likelihood estimator model to yield a point estimate and 95% CI for secondary attack rate for each subgroup analyzed, with a random effect for each study. To make comparisons across exposure types, study was treated as a random effect, and exposure type was a fixed moderator. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Secondary attack rate for SARS-CoV-2, disaggregated by covariates (ie, household or family contact, index case symptom status, adult or child contacts, contact sex, relationship to index case, adult or child index cases, index case sex, number of contacts in household) and for other coronaviruses. Results: A total of 54 relevant studies with 77 758 participants reporting household secondary transmission were identified. Estimated household secondary attack rate was 16.6% (95% CI, 14.0%-19.3%), higher than secondary attack rates for SARS-CoV (7.5%; 95% CI, 4.8%-10.7%) and MERS-CoV (4.7%; 95% CI, 0.9%-10.7%). Household secondary attack rates were increased from symptomatic index cases (18.0%; 95% CI, 14.2%-22.1%) than from asymptomatic index cases (0.7%; 95% CI, 0%-4.9%), to adult contacts (28.3%; 95% CI, 20.2%-37.1%) than to child contacts (16.8%; 95% CI, 12.3%-21.7%), to spouses (37.8%; 95% CI, 25.8%-50.5%) than to other family contacts (17.8%; 95% CI, 11.7%-24.8%), and in households with 1 contact (41.5%; 95% CI, 31.7%-51.7%) than in households with 3 or more contacts (22.8%; 95% CI, 13.6%-33.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that given that individuals with suspected or confirmed infections are being referred to isolate at home, households will continue to be a significant venue for transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Family , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e043365, 2020 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975705

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent and to identify the determinants of food insecurity and coping strategies in urban and rural households of Bangladesh during the month-long, COVID-19 lockdown period. SETTING: Selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: 106 urban and 106 rural households. OUTCOME VARIABLES AND METHOD: Household food insecurity status and the types of coping strategies were the outcome variables for the analyses. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were done to identify the determinants. RESULTS: We found that around 90% of the households were suffering from different grades of food insecurity. Severe food insecurity was higher in urban (42%) than rural (15%) households. The rural households with mild/moderate food insecurity adopted either financial (27%) or both financial and food compromised (32%) coping strategies, but 61% of urban mild/moderate food insecure households applied both forms of coping strategies. Similarly, nearly 90% of severely food insecure households implemented both types of coping strategies. Living in poorest households was significantly associated (p value <0.05) with mild/moderate (regression coefficient, ß: 15.13, 95% CI 14.43 to 15.82), and severe food insecurity (ß: 16.28, 95% CI 15.58 to 16.97). The statistically significant (p <0.05) determinants of both food compromised and financial coping strategies were living in urban areas (ß: 1.8, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.09), living in poorest (ß: 2.7, 95% CI 1 to 4.45), poorer (ß: 2.6, 95% CI 0.75 to 4.4) and even in the richer (ß: 1.6, 95% CI 0.2 to 2.9) households and age of the respondent (ß: 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.21). CONCLUSION: Both urban and rural households suffered from moderate to severe food insecurity during the month-long lockdown period in Bangladesh. But, poorest, poorer and even the richer households adopted different coping strategies that might result in long-term economic and nutritional consequences.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Physical Distancing , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
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