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1.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(1): e00176, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898651

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity accompanied by excess ectopic fat storage has been postulated as a risk factor for severe disease in people with SARS-CoV-2 through the stimulation of inflammation, functional immunologic deficit and a pro-thrombotic disseminated intravascular coagulation with associated high rates of venous thromboembolism. Methods: Observational studies in COVID-19 patients reporting data on raised body mass index at admission and associated clinical outcomes were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library up to 16 May 2020. Mean differences and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effects models. Results: Eight retrospective cohort studies and one cohort prospective cohort study with data on of 4,920 patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Comparing BMI ≥ 25 vs <25 kg/m2, the RRs (95% CIs) of severe illness and mortality were 2.35 (1.43-3.86) and 3.52 (1.32-9.42), respectively. In a pooled analysis of three studies, the RR (95% CI) of severe illness comparing BMI > 35 vs <25 kg/m2 was 7.04 (2.72-18.20). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were partly explained by age; BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was associated with an increased risk of severe illness in older age groups (≥60 years), whereas the association was weaker in younger age groups (<60 years). Conclusions: Excess adiposity is a risk factor for severe disease and mortality in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This was particularly pronounced in people 60 and older. The increased risk of worse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with excess adiposity should be taken into account when considering individual and population risks and when deciding on which groups to target for public health messaging on prevention and detection measures. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 2020: CRD42020179783.

2.
Can J Psychiatry ; 66(7): 634-644, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in profound global impact, with older adults at greater risk of serious physical health outcomes. It is essential to also understand generational differences in psychosocial impacts to identify appropriate prevention and intervention targets. Across generational groups, this study examined: (1) rates of precautions and adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors, (2) differences in levels of anxiety, and (3) rates of COVID-related concerns during Wave 1 of COVID-19 in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data from 2 Canadian population-based data sets: the Canadian Perspective Survey Series: Impact of COVID-19 survey (N = 4,627; March 29 to April 3, 2020), and Crowdsourcing: Impacts of COVID-19 on Canadians-Your Mental Health (N = 45,989; April 24 to May 11, 2020). MEASURES: We categorized generational age group. Participants self-reported changes in behaviors and COVID-related concerns, and a validated measure assessed anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: There are generational differences in behavioral responses to the pandemic. Adaptive health habits (e.g., exercise) were comparable across groups, while changes in maladaptive health habits (e.g., substance use) were highest among younger age groups, particularly Millennials (15 to 34 years old). COVID-related precautions were also highest among the younger generations, with Generation X (35 to 54 years old) exhibiting the highest rate of precautionary behavior. Results also revealed that the highest rate of clinically significant anxiety is among Millennials (36.0%; severe anxiety = 15.7%), and the younger generations have the highest rates of COVID-related concerns. CONCLUSION: These early data are essential in understanding at-risk groups given the unpredictable nature of the pandemic and its potential long-term implications.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S67-S72, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726831

ABSTRACT

Children are not indifferent to the significant psychological impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. They experience fears, uncertainties, substantial changes to their routines, physical and social isolation alongside high level of parental stress. Understanding their emotions and responses is essential to properly address their needs during this pandemic. In this article, we highlight children's vulnerability, provide an overview of common symptoms of distress in different age groups, and summarize the interventions and resources available to promote child mental health and wellbeing during these challenging times. We advocate that prioritizing mental health including child & adolescent mental health is an essential component of any universal, community led response to COVID-19 Pandemic.

4.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 681-688, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In mid-March 2020, the Norwegian government implemented measures to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and hospitals prepared to handle an unpredictable inflow of patients with COVID-19. AIM: The study was performed to describe the changes in hospital admissions during the first phase of the pandemic. METHODS: The Norwegian Institute of Public Health established a national preparedness register with daily updates on COVID-19 cases and the use of health services. We used individual-level information on inpatients from the electronic journal systems for all hospitals in Norway to estimate daily hospital admissions. RESULTS: Before the onset of the pandemic in March, there was an average of 2400 inpatient admissions per day in Norway, which decreased to approximately 1500 in the first few days after lockdown measures were implemented. The relative magnitudes of the decreases were similar in men and women and across all age groups. The decreases were substantial for both elective (54%) and emergency (29%) inpatient care. The admission rate gradually increased and reached pre-pandemic levels in June. However, the reductions in admissions for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease seemed to persist. CONCLUSIONS: The elective and emergency inpatient admission rates were substantially reduced a few days after the pandemic response measures were implemented. The ways in which the lack or postponement of care may have affected the health and well-being of patients is an important issue to be addressed in future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 196-205, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a global health concern as outbreaks continue to occur. Since 1999, several countries have introduced universal vaccination (UV) of children against HAV according to approved two-dose schedules. Other countries have implemented one-dose UV programs since 2005; the long-term impact of this schedule is not yet known. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in four electronic databases for data published between January 2000 and July 2019 to assess evidence for one-dose and two-dose UV of children with non-live HAV vaccines and describe their global impact on incidence, mortality, and severity of hepatitis A, vaccine effectiveness, vaccine efficacy, and antibody persistence. RESULTS: Of 3739 records screened, 33 peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract were included. Rapid declines in incidence of hepatitis A and related outcomes were observed in all age groups post-introduction of UV programs, which persisted for at least 14 years for two-dose and six years for one-dose programs according to respective study durations. Vaccine effectiveness was ≥95% over 3-5 years for two-dose programs. Vaccine efficacy was >98% over 0.1-7.5 years for one-dose vaccination. Antibody persistence in vaccinated individuals was documented for up to 15 years (≥90%) and ten years (≥74%) for two-dose and one-dose schedules, respectively. CONCLUSION: Experience with two-dose UV of children against HAV is extensive, demonstrating an impact on the incidence of hepatitis A and antibody persistence for at least 15 years in many countries globally. Because evidence is more limited for one-dose UV, we were unable to draw conclusions on immune response persistence beyond ten years or the need for booster doses later in life. Ongoing epidemiological monitoring is essential in countries implementing one-dose UV against HAV. Based on current evidence, two doses of non-live HAV vaccines are needed to ensure long-term protection.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A , Adolescent , Child , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Humans , Vaccination
6.
Br J Nutr ; 127(1): 123-132, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603433

ABSTRACT

Only a few studies have investigated the association between psychological stress and the healthfulness of plant-based diets while accounting for variances in age groups and regions. In light of this, this study aimed to identify the food groups that contribute the most to the relationship between the healthfulness of plant-based diets and psychological stress in female students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study, which included 401 female college students aged 19-35 years, collected data on blood, anthropometric indices, the perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10) and diet using the Saudi food frequency questionnaire. An overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy PDI, and an unhealthy PDI (uPDI) were defined. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between PSS-10 and PDI and hPDI and uPDI. No associations between the PSS-10 score and the overall PDI or uPDI scores were found; however, a six-point higher hPDI score was associated with a 0·16-point lower PSS-10 score (95 % CI, -0·24, -0·08) after controlling for lifestyle factors. Moreover, adjustments for healthy food groups, including vegetables and fruits, attenuated the association between the hPDI and PSS-10. In conclusion, healthy plant-based diets are associated with lower psychological stress in young Saudi women. This finding highlights the importance, especially for female students, of following diets that are not only plant-based but are also healthy and rich in fruits and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Diet, Vegetarian , Diet , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Students , Vegetables
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2265-2275, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Benefits of school reopening must be weighed against the morbidity and mortality risks and the impact of enhancing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the effects of school reopening and easing of social-distancing restrictions on dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Israel between March and July 2020. METHODS: We examined the nationwide age-wise weekly incidence, prevalence, SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests, their positivity, COVID-19 hospitalizations, and associated mortality. Temporal differences in these parameters following school reopening, school ending, and following easing of restrictions such as permission of large-scale gatherings were examined. RESULTS: Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections gradually increased following school reopening in all age groups, with a significantly higher increase in adults than children. Higher rate ratios (RRs) of sample positivity rates 21-27 days following school reopening relative to positivity rates prior to openings were found for the age groups 40-59 (RR, 4.72; 95% CI, 3.26-6.83) and 20-39 (RR, 3.37 [2.51-4.53]) years, but not for children aged 0-9 (RR, 1.46 [.85-2.51]) and 10-19 (RR, .93 [.65-1.34]) years. No increase was observed in COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths following school reopening. In contrast, permission of large-scale gatherings was accompanied by increases in incidence and positivity rates of samples for all age groups, and increased hospitalizations and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis does not support a major role of school reopening in the resurgence of COVID-19 in Israel. Easing restrictions on large-scale gatherings was the major influence on this resurgence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Schools
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4113-e4123, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(5): 530-540, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute infection affecting all age groups; however, elderly patients are at an increased risk. We aim to describe the clinical characteristics and the circulation of influenza virus types in elderly patients admitted for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to a tertiary care hospital in Bucharest, Romania, part of the I-MOVE+ hospital network. METHODS: We conducted an active surveillance study at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr Matei Balș," Bucharest, Romania, during three consecutive influenza seasons: 2015/16, 2016/17, and 2017/18. All patients aged 65 and older admitted to our hospital for SARI were tested for influenza by PCR. RESULTS: A total of 349 eligible patients were tested during the study period, and 149 (42.7%) were confirmed with influenza. Most patients, 321 (92.5%) presented at least one underlying condition at the time of hospital admission, the most frequent being cardiovascular disease, 270 (78.3%). The main influenza viral subtype circulating in 2015/16 was A(H1N1)pdm09, followed by A(H3N2) in 2016/17 and B influenza in 2017/18. Case fatality was highest in the 2015/16 season (3.7%), 0% in 2016/17, and 1.0% in 2017/18. Vaccination coverage in elderly patients with SARI from our study population was 22 (6.3%) over the three seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted a high burden of comorbidities in elderly patients presenting with SARI during winter season in Romania. The influenza vaccine coverage rate needs to be substantially increased in the elderly population, through targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Male , Romania/epidemiology , Seasons , Tertiary Healthcare
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(10): 4179-4189, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a new clinical condition characterized by signs of inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction due to cytokine storm associated with SARS-CoV-2. The clinical spectrum of MIS-C ranges from mild to severe, and even to mortal multisystem involvement. To guide clinicians, we evaluated detailed demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory findings, and outcomes of MIS-C cases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with MIS-C who were managed in the Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease in the Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. MIS-C patients were divided into three clinical severity groups (mild, moderate, and severe) and separated into three age groups (< 5 years, 5-10 years, > 10 years). We compared the characteristics of MIS-C cases according to the severity of the disease and by age groups. RESULT: Thirty-six children with MIS-C were evaluated (52.8% male, median age of 7.8 years). A clinical spectrum overlapping with Kawasaki disease (KD) was the most common presentation (69.4%) in all age groups. The most common clinical symptoms were fever (100%), mucocutaneous rash (69.4%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (66.6%). There was no statistically significant difference in echocardiographic abnormality between KD-like and the other clinical spectra (p > 0.05). All life-threatening rhythm disturbances were observed in severe cases. No patients died. CONCLUSION: It is important to increase the awareness of physicians about the MIS-C disease, which can present with different combinations of different systemic findings, so that patients can be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. Key Points • A single tertiary centre study shows that children with MIS-C can present with different clinic spectra other than Kawasaki diseases. • Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation is important in early diagnosis of children with MIS-C. • Pro-BNP can be used as a screening test in the emergency room for children with prolonged and unexplained fever for determine early cardiac involvement of MIS-C. • The lack of require biological agents and favourable outcomes in children with MIS-C may be related with administration of steroid therapy with IVIG in early stage of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
J Infect Dis ; 223(3): 399-402, 2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387901

ABSTRACT

Social distancing (SD) measures aimed at curbing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 remain an important public health intervention. Little is known about the collateral impact of reduced mobility on the risk of other communicable diseases. We used differences in dengue case counts pre- and post implementation of SD measures and exploited heterogeneity in SD treatment effects among different age groups in Singapore to identify the spillover effects of SD measures. SD policy caused an increase of over 37.2% in dengue cases from baseline. Additional measures to preemptively mitigate the risk of other communicable diseases must be considered before the implementation/reimplementation of SARS-CoV-2 SD measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Dengue/transmission , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Singapore/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 781-784, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387931

ABSTRACT

We describe an 8-week-old infant with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, significant hypoalbuminemia, and mild carditis following asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infant's symptoms, including their temporal appearance, were consistent with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). A unique finding on colonic histology which may shed light on the pathogenesis of MIS-C was identified. The patient improved significantly following several anti-inflammatory treatments. The lag between the presentation of MIS-C and initial SARS-CoV-2 exposure, which may often be asymptomatic, together with the young age of our patient, makes this a challenging diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of this entity, even in the neonatal and infantile age groups, to facilitate timely identification and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Colon/pathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 888-894, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278793

ABSTRACT

Beginning in March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and response, which included physical distancing and stay-at-home orders, disrupted daily life in the United States. Compared with the rate in 2019, a 31% increase in the proportion of mental health-related emergency department (ED) visits occurred among adolescents aged 12-17 years in 2020 (1). In June 2020, 25% of surveyed adults aged 18-24 years reported experiencing suicidal ideation related to the pandemic in the past 30 days (2). More recent patterns of ED visits for suspected suicide attempts among these age groups are unclear. Using data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP),* CDC examined trends in ED visits for suspected suicide attempts† during January 1, 2019-May 15, 2021, among persons aged 12-25 years, by sex, and at three distinct phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with the corresponding period in 2019, persons aged 12-25 years made fewer ED visits for suspected suicide attempts during March 29-April 25, 2020. However, by early May 2020, ED visit counts for suspected suicide attempts began increasing among adolescents aged 12-17 years, especially among girls. During July 26-August 22, 2020, the mean weekly number of ED visits for suspected suicide attempts among girls aged 12-17 years was 26.2% higher than during the same period a year earlier; during February 21-March 20, 2021, mean weekly ED visit counts for suspected suicide attempts were 50.6% higher among girls aged 12-17 years compared with the same period in 2019. Suicide prevention measures focused on young persons call for a comprehensive approach, that is adapted during times of infrastructure disruption, involving multisectoral partnerships (e.g., public health, mental health, schools, and families) and implementation of evidence-based strategies (3) that address the range of factors influencing suicide risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Vaccine ; 39(33): 4716-4722, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High uptake of Covid-19 vaccination is required to reach herd immunity. METHODS: A representative sample of 2,060 Belgians were surveyed in October 2020. Regression analyses identified the predictors associated with willingness to get vaccinated against Covid-19, and attitudes toward vaccination in general. RESULTS: 34% of the participants reported that they will definitely get vaccinated against Covid-19 and 39% that they would "probably". Intended uptake was strongly associated with age, opinion on the government's dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic, medical risk, spoken language, gender, and to a lesser extent with having known someone who was hospitalised because of Covid-19. Similar predictors were identified for attitudes to vaccination in general. Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy was more marked in age groups below 54 years old. We further analysed a sample of 17% (N = 349) found favourable to vaccination in general but not willing to be vaccinated against Covid-19. They were mainly female, young, French speaking, slightly less educated, working, and did not belong to a Covid-19 risk group. They were very dissatisfied with the government's dealing with the pandemic, and did not know someone who was hospitalised because of Covid-19. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine hesitancy was higher for Covid-19 vaccines than for other vaccines. The part of the population being convinced of the utility of vaccination in general but hesitant about the Covid-19 vaccine is a primary interest group for tailored communication campaigns in order to reach the vaccine coverage needed for herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 560, 2021 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed with the intention of comparing the clinical, laboratory, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between severe and non-severe patients as well as between different age groups composed of pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. METHOD: This study was carried out on a total of 53 confirmed COVID-19 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in Namazi and Ali Asghar Hospitals, Shiraz, Iran. The patients were divided into two severe (n = 27) and non-severe (n = 28) groups as well as into other three groups in terms of their age: aged less than two years, aged 3-12 years and 13-17 years. It should be noted that CT scans, laboratory, and clinical features were taken from all patients at the admission time. Abnormal chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia was found to show one of the following findings: ground-glass opacities (GGO), bilateral involvement, peripheral and diffuse distribution. RESULT: Fever (79.2%) and dry cough (75.5%) were the most common clinical symptoms. Severe COVID-19 patients showed lymphocytosis, while the non-severe ones did not (P = 0.03). C-reactive protein (CRP) was shown to be significantly lower in patients aged less than two years than those aged 3-12 and 13-17 years (P = 0.01). It was shown also that O2 saturation experienced a significant increase as did patients' age (P = 0.01). Severe patients had significantly higher CT abnormalities than non-severe patients (48.0% compared to 17.9%, respectively) (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Lymphocytosis and abnormal CT findings are among the factors most associated with COVID-19 severity. It was, moreover, showed that the severity of COVID-19, O2 saturation, and respiratory distress were improved as the age of confirmed COVID-19 pediatric patients increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(23): 851-857, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264714

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occur in older adults, but severe disease that requires hospitalization occurs in all age groups, including adolescents aged 12-17 years (1). On May 10, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration expanded the Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include persons aged 12-15 years, and CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended it for this age group on May 12, 2021.* Before that time, COVID-19 vaccines had been available only to persons aged ≥16 years. Understanding and describing the epidemiology of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in adolescents and comparing it with adolescent hospitalizations associated with other vaccine-preventable respiratory viruses, such as influenza, offers evidence of the benefits of expanding the recommended age range for vaccination and provides a baseline and context from which to assess vaccination impact. Using the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), CDC examined COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among adolescents aged 12-17 years, including demographic and clinical characteristics of adolescents admitted during January 1-March 31, 2021, and hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) among adolescents during March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021. Among 204 adolescents who were likely hospitalized primarily for COVID-19 during January 1-March 31, 2021, 31.4% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 4.9% required invasive mechanical ventilation; there were no associated deaths. During March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021, weekly adolescent hospitalization rates peaked at 2.1 per 100,000 in early January 2021, declined to 0.6 in mid-March, and then rose to 1.3 in April. Cumulative COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates during October 1, 2020-April 24, 2021, were 2.5-3.0 times higher than were influenza-associated hospitalization rates from three recent influenza seasons (2017-18, 2018-19, and 2019-20) obtained from the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET). Recent increased COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates in March and April 2021 and the potential for severe disease in adolescents reinforce the importance of continued COVID-19 prevention measures, including vaccination and correct and consistent wearing of masks by persons not yet fully vaccinated or when required by laws, rules, or regulations.†.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11787, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258589

ABSTRACT

Governments continue to update social intervention strategies to contain COVID-19 infections. However, investigation of COVID-19 severity indicators across the population might help to design more precise strategies, balancing the need to keep people safe and to reduce the socio-economic burden of generalized restriction precedures. Here, we propose a method for age-sex population-adjusted analysis of disease severity in epidemics that has the advantage to use simple and repeatable variables, which are daily or weekly available. This allows to monitor the effect of public health policies in short term, and to repeat these calculations over time to surveille epidemic dynamics and impact. Our method can help to define a risk-categorization of likeliness to develop a severe COVID-19 disease which requires intensive care or is indicative of a higher risk of dying. Indeed, analysis of suitable open-access COVID-19 data in three European countries indicates that individuals in the 0-40 age interval and females under 60 are significantly less likely to develop a severe condition and die, whereas males equal or above 60 are more likely at risk of severe disease and death. Hence, a combination of age-adaptive and sex-balanced guidelines for social interventions could represent key public health management tools for policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Health Policy , Public Policy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e19544, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Classic compartmental models such as the susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) model all have the weakness of assuming a homogenous population, where everyone has an equal chance of getting infected and dying. Since it was identified in Hubei, China, in December 2019, COVID-19 has rapidly spread around the world and been declared a pandemic. Based on data from Hubei, infection and death distributions vary with age. To control the spread of the disease, various preventive and control measures such as community quarantine and social distancing have been widely used. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to develop a model where age is a factor, considering the study area's age stratification. Additionally, we want to account for the effects of quarantine on the SEIR model. METHODS: We use the age-stratified COVID-19 infection and death distributions from Hubei, China (more than 44,672 infections as of February 11, 2020) as an estimate or proxy for a study area's infection and mortality probabilities for each age group. We then apply these probabilities to the actual age-stratified population of Quezon City, Philippines, to predict infectious individuals and deaths at peak. Testing with different countries shows the predicted number of infectious individuals skewing with the country's median age and age stratification, as expected. We added a Q parameter to the SEIR model to include the effects of quarantine (Q-SEIR). RESULTS: The projections from the age-stratified probabilities give much lower predicted incidences of infection than the Q-SEIR model. As expected, quarantine tends to delay the peaks for both the exposed and infectious groups, and to "flatten" the curve or lower the predicted values for each compartment. These two estimates were used as a range to inform the local government's planning and response to the COVID-19 threat. CONCLUSIONS: Age stratification combined with a quarantine-modified model has good qualitative agreement with observations on infections and death rates. That younger populations will have lower death rates due to COVID-19 is a fair expectation for a disease where most fatalities are among older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Needs Assessment , Probability , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2021-2033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: No previous investigations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have estimated medical expenses, length of stay, or factors influencing them using administrative datasets. This study aims to fill this research gap for the Republic of Korea, which has over 10,000 confirmed COVID-19 cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the nationwide health insurance claims data of 7590 confirmed COVID-19 patients, we estimated average medical expenses and inpatient days per patient, and performed multivariate negative binomial, and gamma regressions to determine influencing factors for higher outcomes. RESULTS: According to the results, COVID-19 patients with history of ICU admission, chest CT imaging, lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine use stayed longer in the hospital and spent more on medical expenses, and anti-hypertensive drugs were insignificantly associated with the outcomes. Female patients stayed longer in the hospital in the over 65 age group but spent less in medical expenses that the 20-39 group. In the 40-69 age group, patients with health insurance stayed longer in the hospital and spent more on medical expenses than those aged over 65 years. Comorbidities did not affect outcomes in most age groups. CONCLUSION: In summary, contrary to popular beliefs, medical expenses and length of hospitalization were mostly influenced by age, and not by comorbidities, anti-viral, or anti-hypertensive drugs. Thus, responses should focus on infection prevention and control rather than clinical countermeasures.

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