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1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e70-e75, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, stigmatization of older persons increased in traditional and social media. It was unknown whether this negative messaging could be detrimental to the mental health of older individuals, and whether the relatively uncommon positive messaging about older individuals could benefit their mental health. METHOD: To address these gaps, we designed age-stereotype interventions based on actual news stories that appeared during the pandemic, and divided them into negative and positive versions of what we term personified (i.e., individual-based) and enumerative (i.e., number-based) age-stereotype messaging. The negative versions of the 2 types of messaging reflected the age stereotype of decline, whereas the positive versions of the 2 types of messaging reflected the age stereotype of resilience. RESULTS: As expected, the exposure of older individuals to the negative-age-stereotype-messaging interventions led to significantly worse mental health (i.e., more anxiety and less peacefulness), compared to a neutral condition; in contrast, the positive-age-stereotype-messaging interventions led to significantly better mental health (i.e., less anxiety and more peacefulness), compared to a neutral condition. The findings were equally strong for the personified and enumerative conditions. Also as expected, the interventions, which were self-irrelevant to the younger participants, did not significantly impact their mental health. DISCUSSION: This is the first-known study to experimentally demonstrate that institutional ageism, and statistics that reflect stereotypes about older individuals, can impact mental health. The results demonstrate the need for media messaging aimed at empowering older individuals during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageism/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stereotyping
2.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 109: 103658, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing literature frequently emphasises the benefits of person-centred approaches for healthcare quality and safety. OBJECTIVE: This umbrella review aimed to synthesise the combined evidence from systematic reviews assessing the impact of person-centred care interventions on patient safety. DESIGN: A three-step review process included a preliminary review of literature, a comprehensive search, and manual searching of reference lists and forward citations of selected reviews. The review protocol was registered with Prospero (CRD42018090048). DATA SOURCES: Reviewers searched 10 databases for systematic reviews published in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2019: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, JBI Database, Medline, ProQuest Health & Medicine, PROSPERO Register, PubMed and Scopus. REVIEW METHODS: Covidence software was used to manage screening and eligibility. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full texts of articles for eligibility, and appraised the quality of reviews using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses. RESULTS: From an initial total of 3412 potential titles, 16 reviews met the inclusion criteria. The selected reviews examined the impact of person-centred care for diverse groups of patients (children, adults and older people) in varied settings. Most systematic reviews assessed experimental studies, generally comparing person-centred interventions with 'usual care', often demonstrating limited evidence of impact on safety. Reviews addressed several patient safety outcomes relevant to nursing, including falls, infections, medication use and misuse, and mortality rates. The systematic reviews were generally well conducted, although several included studies of poor or fair quality. Given the heterogeneity of the interventions, outcomes and research designs of studies included in the selected reviews, we were unable to draw unequivocal conclusions about the implications of person-centred care for patient safety in this umbrella review. However, there was some encouraging evidence that person-centred care initiatives may result in reduced rates of falls (in acute care and residential aged care settings). The review also highlighted reductions in agitation for people with dementia and some improvement in anti-psychotic medication use in older people with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Although abundant evidence exists demonstrating the positive effects of person-centred care on healthcare quality and on patient (and provider) wellbeing, there is little research focussing specifically on the impact of person-centred care on patient safety. Thus, there is scope for further high-quality nursing research into how person-centred interventions improve specific patient safety outcomes in order to inform more widespread adoption of person-centred practice.


Subject(s)
Nursing Research , Adult , Aged , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Patient Safety , Patient-Centered Care , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(8): 755-756, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343864
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048503, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand and report on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the everyday lives of frail older persons living in nursing homes by exploring their experiences of how the pandemic-related restrictions had influenced them and in what way. DESIGN: Empirical qualitative interview study. SETTING: A publicly run nursing home in an urban area in Sweden in June 2020. The nursing home had visitor restrictions, cancelled activities and physical distancing requirements since March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 persons, 85-100 years, living in a Swedish nursing home during the COVID-19 pandemic, were recruited through nursing home management and interviewed in June 2020 using medically approved visors and physical distancing. ANALYSIS: Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, which involves familiarisation, coding and definition of themes. Transcripts were coded into data-driven categories before being organised into categories that described and explained the data. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in the main theme 'It is like living in a bubble', that describes everyday life in the nursing home during the pandemic as a world of its own in which the older persons felt both protected and isolated. This is described in four subthemes: living 1 day at a time, without fear of the virus; feeling taken care of; having limited freedom and missing out on the little extras. CONCLUSIONS: Contributing to the growing area of COVID-19-related research, our findings provide novel insights into how pandemic-related restrictions in nursing homes represent a risk of isolating older people from the outside world and diminishing their freedom. Put in relation to the previous research, these findings could be applied beyond the pandemic, to develop research and practice that puts focus on how to support older people to decide for themselves how to spend the rest of their lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Nursing Homes , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046799, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276961

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to idenfy treatments for COVID-19 that reduce illness duration and hospital admission in those at higher risk of a longer illness course and complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Platform Randomised trial of INterventions against COVID-19 In older peoPLE trial is an open-label, multiarm, prospective, adaptive platform, randomised clinical trial to evaluate potential treatments for COVID-19 in the community. A master protocol governs the addition of new interventions as they become available, as well as the inclusion and cessation of existing intervention arms via frequent interim analyses. The first three interventions are hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and doxycycline. Eligible participants must be symptomatic in the community with possible or confirmed COVID-19 that started in the preceding 14 days and either (1) aged 65 years and over or (2) aged 50-64 years with comorbidities. Recruitment is through general practice, health service helplines, COVID-19 'hot hubs' and directly through the trial website. Participants are randomised to receive either usual care or a study drug plus usual care, and outcomes are collected via daily online symptom diary for 28 days from randomisation. The research team contacts participants and/or their study partner following days 7, 14 and 28 if the online diary is not completed. The trial has two coprimary endpoints: time to first self-report of feeling recovered from possible COVID-19 and hospital admission or death from possible COVID-19 infection, both within 28 days from randomisation. Prespecified interim analyses assess efficacy or futility of interventions and to modify randomisation probabilities that allocate more participants to interventions with better outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval Ref: 20/SC/0158 South Central - Berkshire Research Ethics Committee; IRAS Project ID: 281958; EudraCT Number: 2020-001209-22. Results will be presented to policymakers and at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN86534580.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Sci Immunol ; 6(60)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276879

ABSTRACT

The nutrient-sensing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is integral to cell fate decisions after T cell activation. Sustained mTORC1 activity favors the generation of terminally differentiated effector T cells instead of follicular helper and memory T cells. This is particularly pertinent for T cell responses of older adults who have sustained mTORC1 activation despite dysfunctional lysosomes. Here, we show that lysosome-deficient T cells rely on late endosomes rather than lysosomes as an mTORC1 activation platform, where mTORC1 is activated by sensing cytosolic amino acids. T cells from older adults have an increased expression of the plasma membrane leucine transporter SLC7A5 to provide a cytosolic amino acid source. Hence, SLC7A5 and VPS39 deficiency (a member of the HOPS complex promoting early to late endosome conversion) substantially reduced mTORC1 activities in T cells from older but not young individuals. Late endosomal mTORC1 is independent of the negative-feedback loop involving mTORC1-induced inactivation of the transcription factor TFEB that controls expression of lysosomal genes. The resulting sustained mTORC1 activation impaired lysosome function and prevented lysosomal degradation of PD-1 in CD4+ T cells from older adults, thereby inhibiting their proliferative responses. VPS39 silencing of human T cells improved their expansion to pertussis and to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in vitro. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD4+ Vps39-deficient LCMV-specific SMARTA cells improved germinal center responses, CD8+ memory T cell generation, and recall responses to infection. Thus, curtailing late endosomal mTORC1 activity is a promising strategy to enhance T cell immunity.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Endosomes/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Adoptive Transfer/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Autophagy-Related Proteins/deficiency , Autophagy-Related Proteins/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Forkhead Box Protein O1/deficiency , Forkhead Box Protein O1/genetics , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transfection , Vesicular Transport Proteins/deficiency , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
7.
Exp Gerontol ; 150: 111361, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272416

ABSTRACT

RT-qPCR is the most reliable molecular method for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we analyzed results of RT-qPCR obtained for 3044 patients diagnosed as SARS-CoV-2-positive using four different molecular tests utilizing five RNA sequences. The analysis showed that patients' age inversely correlates with threshold cycle (Ct) values for RdRP gene (LightMix® Modular Wuhan CoV RdRP-gene by Roche Diagnostics) and RdRP+S genes (MutaPLEX® Coronavirus RT-PCR kit by Immundiagnostic). At the same time, there was no correlation between age and Ct values for E, N, and ORF1ab genes. When patients were grouped by age, mean Ct values for RdRP gene in older patients were significantly lower compared with younger individuals. Collectively, our report indicates that older SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals exhibit higher viremia at diagnosis than younger patients, which may reflect impaired functioning of their immune response and predispose to more severe disease and worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aging/genetics , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(13): e018086, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270912

ABSTRACT

Background Despite its clinical significance, the risk of severe infection requiring hospitalization among outpatients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who receive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) remains uncertain. Methods and Results In a propensity score-matched outpatient cohort (January-May 2020) of 2263 Medicare Advantage and commercially insured individuals with hypertension and a positive outpatient SARS-CoV-2, we determined the association of ACE inhibitors and ARBs with COVID-19 hospitalization. In a concurrent inpatient cohort of 7933 hospitalized with COVID-19, we tested their association with in-hospital mortality. The robustness of the observations was assessed in a contemporary cohort (May-August). In the outpatient study, neither ACE inhibitors (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 0.53-1.13, P=0.18) nor ARBs (HR, 0.88; 0.61-1.26, P=0.48) were associated with hospitalization risk. ACE inhibitors were associated with lower hospitalization risk in the older Medicare group (HR, 0.61; 0.41-0.93, P=0.02), but not the younger commercially insured group (HR, 2.14; 0.82-5.60, P=0.12; P-interaction 0.09). Neither ACE inhibitors nor ARBs were associated with lower hospitalization risk in either population in the validation cohort. In the primary inpatient study cohort, neither ACE inhibitors (HR, 0.97; 0.81-1.16; P=0.74) nor ARBs (HR, 1.15; 0.95-1.38, P=0.15) were associated with in-hospital mortality. These observations were consistent in the validation cohort. Conclusions ACE inhibitors and ARBs were not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization or mortality. Despite early evidence for a potential association between ACE inhibitors and severe COVID-19 prevention in older individuals, the inconsistency of this observation in recent data argues against a role for prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Young Adult
9.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(5): 730-737, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A curfew for elderly people was announced in Turkey to protect the geriatric population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this may have the beneficial effect of preventing infection, psychological distress may also increase with prolongation of the pandemic. METHODS: Geriatric patients were interviewed by telephone due to the ongoing curfew. Demographical characteristics, comorbidities, personal risk perception of COVID-19, common concerns related to COVID-19, and experiences of delayed hospital admission due to the pandemic were recorded. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: Participants (n = 136; 82 females, 60.3%) had a mean age of 73.4 ± 5.9 years. The most common comorbidity was hypertension (75%). Approximately 80% of the participants reported a decrease in physical activity during the curfew period. The HADS scores indicated rates of anxiety as 25.7% and depression as 16.9%. Anxiety was significantly more common in females than males (P = 0.002). Sleep problems (P = 0.000), fatigue (P = 0.000), and hopelessness (P = 0.000) were more common in participants with depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses showed an association between a delay in hospital admission and the presence of depression (P = 0.0029, R2  = 0.146). Personal risk perception of COVID-19 was statistically significantly higher among patients with anxiety (P = 0.0027, R2  = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Decreased adaptation to external and internal factors among older individuals may facilitate unfavourable outcomes of the pandemic. These results indicate that the geriatric population was mentally and physically affected by the restrictions and isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 13(3): e12473, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide among older adults is a multifactorial problem with several interrelated factors involved that vary with age, gender and culture. The number of suicides is highest in those aged 70 years or older in almost all regions of the world. With the increase in life expectancy, and the decrease in mortality due to other causes of death, we could expect the absolute number of older adults' suicide continue increasing. METHODS: Review of the literature on suicide protective factors of suicide among older adults. RESULTS: Improvements on social determinants of health and the timely detection and early treatment of affective disorders are key interventions. Prevention based on community actions and training of gatekeepers may have positive impact. Community programs that promote a sense of usefulness, belonging and that contribute to preserve social integration should be encouraged. Governments should develop the improvement of retirement programs and the development of support systems. The access to general health and mental health services should be facilitated and Primary Care professionals should receive proper training to detect and manage older persons at risk. Actively promoting a culture of coping to different stages of life and to the changes imposed by the advancing of age should form the essential part of a process bringing to better successful aging avenues. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide prevention in older adults should broaden its focus and pay attention to the many socio-environmental conditions that may be relevant in older age, especially social isolation, financial security and physical health.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/psychology , Preventive Health Services , Aged , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data
11.
Gerontologist ; 61(6): 870-877, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: From the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, analysts warned that older populations, due to their age, chronic illnesses, and lack of technological facility, would suffer disproportionately from loneliness as they sheltered in place indefinitely. Several studies have recently been published on the impact of COVID-19-related loneliness among older populations, but little has been written about the experiences of already-lonely older individuals; those who had lived with persistent loneliness before the advent of COVID-19. This qualitative study sought to understand how already-lonely older individuals navigated and endured the social isolation of the pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve semistructured interviews were conducted with individuals aged 65 or older who scored a 6 or above on the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Risk screening tool. Interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Themes and understandings of loneliness that reoccurred within and across interviews were identified and collected. RESULTS: Already-isolated older interviewees did not necessarily experience the abject loneliness hypothesized by analysts. Most interviewees used longstanding arrangements, in place to mitigate loneliness and endure social isolation, to manage the social deprivation of COVID-19. As a result, their loneliness did not compound during long bouts of mandated social isolation. To the contrary, loneliness during the pandemic appeared to carry a new valence for interviewees, as COVID-19 imbued their isolation with new meaning, rendering their loneliness necessary and responsible. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Exploring individuals' subjective perceptions of loneliness can help provide a deeper understanding of what it means to be isolated and alone during COVID-19 and aid in designing strategies to mitigate loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1103, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are no pharmacological interventions currently available to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 or to treat COVID-19. The development of vaccines against COVID-19 is essential to contain the pandemic. we conducted a cross-sectional survey of Shanghai residents to understand residents' willingness to be vaccinated with any future COVID-19 vaccines and take measures to further improve vaccination coverage. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 1 July to 8 September 2020. The main outcome was willingness of participants, and any children or older individuals living with them, to receive future COVID-19 vaccines. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore potential factors associated with vaccination willingness. RESULTS: A total of 1071 participants were asked about their willingness to receive future COVID-19 vaccines, for themselves and at least 747 children and 375 older individuals (≥60 years old) living with them. The highest proportion of expected willingness to vaccinate was among participants (88.6%), followed by children (85.3%) and older individuals (84.0%). The main reasons for reluctance to vaccinate among 119 participants were doubts regarding vaccine safety (60.0%) and efficacy (28.8%). Participants with a self-reported history of influenza vaccination were more likely to accept COVID-19 vaccines for themselves [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.82], their children (adjusted OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.30-3.33), and older individuals in their household (adjusted OR = 2.12; 95%CI: 1.14-3.99). Participants with older individuals in their families were less willing to vaccinate themselves (adjusted OR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.40-0.87) and their children (adjusted OR = 0.58; 95%CI: 0.38-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Participants were more reluctant to accept COVID-19 vaccines for older individuals living with them. The presence of older individuals in the home also affected willingness of participants and their children to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Endocrine ; 73(2): 243-254, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) advances to affect every part of the globe and remains a challenge to the human race. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was shown to affect many organs and organ systems including the thyroid gland as these parts highly express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which functions as a receptor for initially entering the virus into the cells. Furthermore, some categories of the population including older people and persons with comorbidities are prone to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications. Recent reports showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause Graves' disease (autoimmune hyperthyroidism) in post-COVID-19 patients. Factors that may boost the mortality risk of COVID-19 patients are not completely known yet and a clear perception of the group of vulnerable people is also essential. This review briefly summarizes the features of Graves' disease such as symptoms, risk factors, including environmental, genetic, immunological, and other factors, associated disorders, and therapeutic options. It comprehensively describes the recent advances in SARS-CoV-2-induced Graves' disease and the pivotal role of autoimmune factors in inducing the disease. The review also discusses the possible risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 in people with hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, it explains thyroid disease and its association with the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Aged , Comorbidity , Graves Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Exp Gerontol ; 152: 111434, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions to improve mobility in older people include balance, strength and cognitive training. Digital technologies provide the opportunity to deliver tailored and progressive programs at home. However, it is unknown if they are effective in older people, especially in those with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a novel tablet-delivered cognitive-motor program on mobility in older people with cognitive impairment. METHODS: This was a 6-month single-blind randomised controlled trial of older people living in the community with subjective and/or objective cognitive impairment. Participants randomised to the intervention were asked to follow a 120 min per week balance, strength and cognitive training program delivered via an app on an iPad. Both the intervention and control group received monthly phone calls and health fact sheets. The primary outcome measure was gait speed. Secondary measures included dual-task gait speed, balance (step test, FISCIT-4), 5 sit to stand test, cognition (executive function, memory, attention), mood and balance confidence. Adherence, safety, usability and feedback were also measured. RESULTS: The planned sample size of 110 was not reached due to COVID-19 restrictions. A total of 93 (mean age 72.8 SD 7.0 years) participants were randomised to the two groups. Of these 77 participants returned to the follow-up clinic. In intention-to-treat analysis for gait speed, there was a non-significant improvement favouring the intervention group (ß 0.04 m/s 95% CI -0.01, 0.08). There were no significant findings for secondary outcomes. Adherence was excellent (84.5%), usability of the app high (76.7% SD 15.3) and no serious adverse events were reported. Feedback on the app was positive and included suggestions for future updates. CONCLUSION: Due to COVID-19 the trial was under powered to detect significant results. Despite this, there was a trend towards improvement in the primary outcome measure. The excellent adherence and positive feedback about the app suggest a fully powered trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Accidental Falls , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Tablets
15.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 49(1): 22-31, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258239

ABSTRACT

Analysis of health care workers' stress levels during the COVID-19 virus pandemic, and whether there is a relationship between health care workers' stress levels and mental health in the context of coping with stress. One hundred and seventy professionally active health care workers took part in the study: doctors (n=41), nurses (n=114) and paramedics (n = 15). On average, study subjects were 37 years old and had 14 years of work experience. The following were used in this questionnaire-based study: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Mini-COPE - Coping Inventory. The research group experienced high levels of stress. Nurses experienced the most acute stress. Increasing stress levels are accompanied by an intensification of psychopathological symptoms (insomnia and depression). Older individuals and those with more years worked at work experienced less psychopathological symptoms. Non-adaptive stress coping methods (e.g. use of psychoactive substances) resulted in deteriorating mental health within the research group. Habitual use of non-adaptive strategies may bring relief in the short term in the form of reduced negative consequences of stress transactions and facilitate mobilisation or just sufficient performance at work. However, in the longer term, it may lead to deteriorating health. The obtained data shows that positive reinterpretation, age and length of work track record constitute protective factors against deteriorating health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Alzheimers Dis Rep ; 4(1): 537-551, 2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256348

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-triggered mortality is significantly higher in older than in younger populations worldwide. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to aging and was recently reported to be among the major risk factors for COVID-19 mortality in older people. The symptomatology of COVID-19 indicates that lethal outcomes of infection rely on neurogenic mechanisms. The present review compiles the available knowledge pointing to the convergence of COVID-19 complications with the mechanisms of autonomic dysfunctions in AD and aging. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is prone to neuroinvasion from the lung along the vagus nerve up to the brainstem autonomic nervous centers involved in the coupling of cardiovascular and respiratory rhythms. The brainstem autonomic network allows SARS-CoV-2 to trigger a neurogenic switch to hypertension and hypoventilation, which may act in synergy with aging- and AD-induced dysautonomias, along with an inflammatory "storm". The lethal outcomes of COVID-19, like in AD and unhealthy aging, likely rely on a critical hypoactivity of the efferent vagus nerve cholinergic pathway, which is involved in lowering cardiovascular pressure and systemic inflammation tone. We further discuss the emerging evidence supporting the use of 1) the non-invasive stimulation of vagus nerve as an additional therapeutic approach for severe COVID-19, and 2) the demonstrated vagal tone index, i.e., heart rate variability, via smartphone-based applications as a non-serological low-cost diagnostic of COVID-19. These two well-known medical approaches are already available and now deserve large-scale testing on human cohorts in the context of both AD and COVID-19.

17.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4535-4563, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252224

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a devastating viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The incidence and mortality of COVID-19 patients have been increasing at an alarming rate. The mortality is much higher in older individuals, especially the ones suffering from respiratory distress, cardiac abnormalities, renal diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Existing evidence demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 makes its entry into human cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) followed by the uptake of virions through cathepsin L or transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). SARS-CoV-2-mediated abnormalities in particular cardiovascular and neurological ones and the damaged coagulation systems require extensive research to develop better therapeutic modalities. As SARS-CoV-2 uses its S-protein to enter into the host cells of several organs, the S-protein of the virus is considered as the ideal target to develop a potential vaccine. In this review, we have attempted to highlight the landmark discoveries that lead to the development of various vaccines that are currently under different stages of clinical progression. Besides, a brief account of various drug candidates that are being tested to mitigate the burden of COVID-19 was also covered. Further, in a dedicated section, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on neuronal inflammation and neuronal disorders was discussed. In summary, it is expected that the content covered in this article help to understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the impact on neuronal complications induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection while providing an update on the vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cell Line , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Hormesis , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mice , Models, Neurological , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Nervous System/virology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Organ Specificity , Organoids , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(11)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249494

ABSTRACT

With increasing age, individuals are more vulnerable to viral infections such as with influenza or the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One age-associated defect in human T cells is the reduced expression of miR-181a. miR-181ab1 deficiency in peripheral murine T cells causes delayed viral clearance after infection, resembling human immune aging. Here we show that naive T cells from older individuals as well as miR-181ab1-deficient murine T cells develop excessive replication stress after activation, due to reduced histone expression and delayed S-phase cell cycle progression. Reduced histone expression was caused by the miR-181a target SIRT1 that directly repressed transcription of histone genes by binding to their promoters and reducing histone acetylation. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity or SIRT1 silencing increased histone expression, restored cell cycle progression, diminished the replication-stress response, and reduced the production of inflammatory mediators in replicating T cells from old individuals. Correspondingly, treatment with SIRT1 inhibitors improved viral clearance in mice with miR-181a-deficient T cells after LCMV infection. In conclusion, SIRT1 inhibition may be beneficial to treat systemic viral infection in older individuals by targeting antigen-specific T cells that develop replication stress due to miR-181a deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Senescence/immunology , Histones/deficiency , MicroRNAs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Female , Histones/immunology , Humans , Male , Mice, Knockout , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sirtuin 1/immunology
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 694-698, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247800

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has globally introduced a new crisis with severe consequences and led to a series of pandemic-related containment measures, including social distancing and self-isolation may cause significant impact on mental health. This study describes a social care initiative that was actualized during the Covid-19 outbreak with regard to the potential benefits in older adults' quality of life through the use of the Integrated Healthcare System Long Lasting Memories Care (LLM Care), and specifically the web-based cognitive training software. Online questionnaires, assessing various psychosocial and mental health domains, were distributed to 28 older adults before and after the interaction with the software aiming at evaluating the potential positive effect and usability of cognitive training software. Overall, the study demonstrates that the interaction with the web-based cognitive training software during the pandemic plays a significant role in maintaining mental health among older people, through improvements in well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
20.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1091-1094, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245803

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze factors associated with mortality at 3 months and readmissions, functional and cognitive decline, anorexia and affective disorders in patients aged > 70 years surviving after hospital admission for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Patients aged > 70 years, discharged after hospitalization with COVID-19. OUTCOME VARIABLES: mortality, readmissions, functional and cognitive impairment, anorexia and mood disorder. RESULTS: 165 cases at 3 months after hospital discharge, 8.5% died and 20% required at least one hospital readmission. The presence of severe dependence at discharge (BI < 40) was associated at 3 months with a higher risk of mortality (OR 5.08; 95% CI 1.53-16.91) and readmissions (OR 4.53; 95% CI 1.96-10.49). The post-hospitalization functional deterioration was associated with persistence of deterioration at 3 months (OR 24.57; 95% CI 9.24-65.39), cognitive deterioration (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.03-5.25) and affective (OR 4.40; 95% CI 1.84-10.55) CONCLUSIONS: Loss function in older people after hospitalization by COVID-19 may contribute to identify patients with a higher risk of sequelae in the short term that require closer follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Health Status , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
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