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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(9): 107637, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has taken the world by storm. Alongside COVID-19, diabetes is a long-standing global epidemic. The diabetes population has been reported to suffer adverse outcomes if infected by COVID-19. The aim was to summarise information and resources available on diabetes and COVID-19, highlighting special measures that individuals with diabetes need to follow. METHODS: A search using keywords "COVID-19" and "Diabetes" was performed using different sources, including PubMed and World Health Organization. RESULTS: COVID-19 may enhance complications in individuals with diabetes through an imbalance in angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation pathways leading to an inflammatory response. ACE2 imbalance in the pancreas causes acute ß-cell dysfunction and a resultant hyperglycemic state. These individuals may be prone to worsened COVID-19 complications including vasculopathy, coagulopathy as well as psychological stress. Apart from general preventive measures, remaining hydrated, monitoring blood glucose regularly and monitoring ketone bodies in urine if on insulin is essential. All this while concurrently maintaining physical activity and a healthy diet. Different supporting entities are being set up to help this population. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is a top priority. It is important to remember that a substantial proportion of the world's population is affected by other co-morbidities such as diabetes. These require special attention during this pandemic to avoid adding on to the burden of countries' healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Can J Psychiatry ; 67(5): 371-379, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the scope of common mental health problems and perceived impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among direct service providers working with people experiencing homelessness in Canada. METHOD: This cross-sectional study used an online survey that was disseminated to homeless service, supportive housing, and harm reduction organizations and networks. Data were collected on depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress, compassion satisfaction and fatigue, and substance use problems as well as pandemic-related changes in mental health and wellness. A total of 701 service providers completed the survey and were included in data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the primary research questions, with hierarchical multiple regression models also being fit to explore mental health and wellness differences by occupational service setting. RESULTS: Most direct service providers (79.5%) working with people experiencing homelessness reported a decline in their mental health during the pandemic. There were high rates of common mental health problems within the sample that are largely consistent with those found among health-care workers during the pandemic. Occupational service settings were not associated with the severity of mental health problems, indicating pervasive issues across the workforce, though providers who were younger and spent more time in direct service roles were at greater risk. CONCLUSIONS: The common mental health problems and negative impacts of the pandemic among service providers working with people experiencing homelessness highlight a highly vulnerable workforce that could benefit from improved access to supports. Given the similarities between our findings and other studies examining essential workforces, it is recommended that initiatives that provide accessible mental health care to the health-care workforce during the pandemic be expanded to include homeless and social service providers.

4.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(4): 589-597, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816369

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-pandemic has facilitated the implementation of telemedicine in both clinical practice and research. We highlight recent developments in three promising areas of telemedicine: teleconsultation, telemonitoring, and teletreatment. We illustrate this using Parkinson's disease as a model for other chronic neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Teleconsultations can reliably administer parts of the neurological examination remotely, but are typically not useful for establishing a reliable diagnosis. For follow-ups, teleconsultations can provide enhanced comfort and convenience to patients, and provide opportunities for blended and proactive care models. Barriers include technological challenges, limited clinician confidence, and a suboptimal clinician-patient relationship. Telemonitoring using wearable sensors and smartphone-based apps can support clinical decision-making, but we lack large-scale randomized controlled trials to prove effectiveness on clinical outcomes. Increasingly many trials are now incorporating telemonitoring as an exploratory outcome, but more work remains needed to demonstrate its clinical meaningfulness. Finding a balance between benefits and burdens for individual patients remains vital. Recent work emphasised the promise of various teletreatment solutions, such as remotely adjustable deep brain stimulation parameters, virtual reality enhanced exercise programs, and telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy. Personal contact remains essential to ascertain adherence to teletreatment. SUMMARY: The availability of different telemedicine tools for remote consultation, monitoring, and treatment is increasing. Future research should establish whether telemedicine improves outcomes in routine clinical care, and further underpin its merits both as intervention and outcome in research settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e14, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1812002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Compare the diagnostic properties of five case definitions of suspected COVID-19 that were used or proposed in Chile during the first eight months of the pandemic. METHODS: An analysis was done of the diagnostic properties (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of three case definitions of suspected COVID-19 used in Chile between March and October 2020, as well as two alternative proposed definitions. The sample was 2,019 people with known results for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop criterion 5, optimizing sensitivity and specificity values. Multifactor logistic regression was used to explore the association between demographic variables, symptoms and signs, and PCR positivity. Different positivity scenarios were analyzed and ROC curves were compared. RESULTS: The presence of anosmia (OR = 8.00; CI95%: 5.34-11.99), fever (OR = 2.15; CI95%: 1.28-3.59), and having been in close contact with a person sick with COVID-19 (OR = 2.89; CI95%: 2.16-3.87) were associated with a positive PCR result. According to the analysis of the ROC curve, criterion 5 had the highest capacity for discrimination, although there were no significant differences with the other four criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Criterion 5-based on anosmia, close contact with people with COVID-19, and fever as sufficient unique elements-was the most sensitive in identifying suspected cases of COVID-19, a key aspect in controlling the spread of the pandemic.


OBJETIVO: Comparar as características diagnósticas de cinco critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados ou propostos no Chile nos oito primeiros meses de pandemia. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas as características diagnósticas (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivo e negativo) de três critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados no Chile entre março e outubro de 2020 e de duas alternativas propostas para definição de caso. A amostra do estudo consistiu 2 019 pessoas com resultados conhecidos no exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar o critério 5, uma regressão logística com método stepwise foi realizada otimizando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. A associação entre variáveis demográficas, sintomas e sinais e resultado positivo no exame de PCR foi testada em um modelo de regressão logística multifatorial. Situações diferentes de resultado positivo foram testadas com uma análise comparativa das curvas ROC. RESULTADOS: Presença de anosmia (OR 8,00; IC95% 5,34­11,99), febre (OR 2,15; IC95% 1,28­3,59) e contato próximo anterior com uma pessoa com COVID-19 (OR 2,89; IC95% 2,16­3,87) foram associados a um resultado positivo no exame de PCR. De acordo com a análise das curvas ROC, o critério 5 demonstrou maior capacidade discriminatória, apesar de não existir diferença significativa com os outros quatro critérios. CONCLUSÃO: O critério 5 ­ presença de anosmia, febre e contato próximo com uma pessoa com COVID-19 como elementos únicos e suficientes ­ demonstrou maior sensibilidade para identificar casos suspeitos de COVID-19, o que é fundamental para controlar a disseminação da pandemia.

6.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2113-2119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808755

ABSTRACT

AIM: The global impact of COVID-19 on mental health increases from time to time. Several studies show that depression is highly prevalent among quarantined individuals. COVID-19 is a pandemic with a rapidly increasing incidence of infections and deaths. People are depressed and psychologically overwhelmed by the illness and possible loss of their friends and loved ones. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals in Tigrai treatment center, Tigrai, Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS: A multicenter Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among individuals in the Tigrai quarantine centers. A simple random sampling technique was used between April and October 2020 until an adequate sample size was reached. Depression was assessed by using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS). Epi data manager version 4.4 was used to enter data and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was carried out and an odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was computed to identify factors associated with depression. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and the strength of the association was presented by an odds ratio of 95% CI. RESULTS: The finding of the present study on the prevalence of depression among quarantined individuals was 18.1 with 95% CI (14.8-22.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed and factors such as being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic was 18.1%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. So, clinicians, mental health professionals, and policymakers should work together to address the problem.

7.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(1): 318-323, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805675

ABSTRACT

Purpose In this article, we draw a parallel between the experience of social isolation that occurred throughout the world during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic and similar experiences occurring in everyday life for people with communication disorders living in long-term care (LTC) facilities. We propose that speech-language pathologists can use the widespread experience of social isolation as a learning catalyst in the effort to shift the LTC culture to one that more highly values a communicative environment that is accessible to all, thereby reducing risk of social isolation for those with communication disorders. Conclusions Many training paradigms for promoting an accessible communicative environment are available in the speech-language pathology literature, yet institutional barriers exist for their widespread implementation. Overcoming these barriers is a challenge that requires awareness and learning on the part of staff and administration regarding the impact of an unfriendly communicative environment on social isolation, and the resulting psychosocial consequences. Learning theory indicates that new learning in adults is motivated by connections between personal experiences and the material to be learned. Explicitly infusing established training programs with the experience of social isolation brought on by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic may be the key needed for changing the communicative environment in LTC.


Subject(s)
Communication Barriers , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Long-Term Care/psychology , Physical Distancing , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Inservice Training , Professional-Patient Relations , Social Environment , Social Isolation
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100527, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, is a new dangerous childhood disease that is temporally associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the typical presentation and outcomes of children diagnosed with this hyperinflammatory condition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to communicate the clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging results, and outcomes of individuals with MIS-C. We searched four medical databases to encompass studies characterizing MIS-C from January 1st, 2020 to July 25th, 2020. Two independent authors screened articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. This review was registered with PROSPERO CRD42020191515. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 39 observational studies (n = 662 patients). While 71·0% of children (n = 470) were admitted to the intensive care unit, only 11 deaths (1·7%) were reported. Average length of hospital stay was 7·9 ± 0·6 days. Fever (100%, n = 662), abdominal pain or diarrhea (73·7%, n = 488), and vomiting (68·3%, n = 452) were the most common clinical presentation. Serum inflammatory, coagulative, and cardiac markers were considerably abnormal. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were necessary in 22·2% (n = 147) and 4·4% (n = 29) of patients, respectively. An abnormal echocardiograph was observed in 314 of 581 individuals (54·0%) with depressed ejection fraction (45·1%, n = 262 of 581) comprising the most common aberrancy. INTERPRETATION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a new pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is dangerous and potentially lethal. With prompt recognition and medical attention, most children will survive but the long-term outcomes from this condition are presently unknown. FUNDING: Parker B. Francis and pilot grant from 2R25-HL126140. Funding agencies had no involvement in the study.

9.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 1639-1647, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The contact-tracing COVID-19 technology allows for tracing people that come in contact to individuals with COVID-19 wherever they are located. The number of tracing COVID-19 infection technology and devices is rapidly increasing. This has prompted many researchers to study the acceptability and ethical issues related to the implementation of such technology. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of COVID-19 contact-tracing technology and ethical issues of use. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was used. The target population was Jordanian adults (>18 years). The survey was distributed to a convenience sample of 2000 general public in Jordan. RESULTS: The results found that the number of people who accept to use COVID-19 contact-tracing technology was 71.6%. However, the percentage of people who were using this technology was 37.8. The main ethical concerns for many of participants were privacy, voluntariness, and beneficence of the data. Only income and living area were predictors for acceptability and use of tracing technology (p≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: The majority of Jordanians accept the implementation of contact-tracing technology for COVID-19 infection. Among ethical concerns of the implementation of such technology were privacy, beneficence and voluntariness. IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study would help in improving the state of science regarding acceptability to use contact-tracing technology for health purposes. Moreover, the present findings provide evidence of predictors of acceptance and ethical concerns among Jordanian population about COVID-19 contact-tracing technology.

10.
Front Psychol ; 11: 2255, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In times of economic crisis, the literature shows that young people have always been in the high-risk category. The COVID-19 outbreak and the consequence on the economic level have increased the sense of uncertainty and precariousness experienced by young people. The current scenario has forced young people at the school-to-work transition point to re-think their career plans. Although the difficulties of the school-to-work transition already lead to distress and mental health problems in young people, the slowdown imposed by the coronavirus could add up to these difficulties. The present study aimed to explore the process of career development and career planning in the coronavirus era. Twenty Italian university graduates were involved. METHODS: A quantitative measure was used to evaluate the affective (positive/negative) experience. A narrative prompt was used to understand the individual dimensions of career planning. Cluster analysis was carried out by an unsupervised ascendant hierarchical method to explore the themes of the narration. RESULTS: Italian young adults have tended to experience negative affects in the recent weeks of quarantine. The themes highlighted in the narratives showed that Italian young adults experience feelings of fear, uncertainty, and anxiety about the post-pandemic future. CONCLUSION: The results appear as a starting point to re-think possible interventions for this group post-lockdown and post-pandemic.

11.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(Suppl 3): S395-S403, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792175

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the coronavirus (COVID19) outbreak has impacted everyone's daily lives globally, especially those experiencing mental health issues. The well-being and mental healthcare of patients, families, and health-care professionals who have been directly or indirectly affected by this pandemic has not been well addressed. Governments have asked their citizens to take actions, some of which include making sacrifices that may result in dignity violations and moral injury, a term originating in the military to describe the psychological distress that results from actions, or the lack of them, which violate a person's moral or ethical code. Health professionals, individuals, and communities have changed their way of life and working to decrease coronavirus infectivity, causing additional stress and increasing potential for moral injury. It is important to hear the first-hand experience of people affected to understand the new psychosocial stressors that they face in their day to day lives and what they found helpful in managing these. This global survey carried out by the World Dignity Project in collaboration with the Global Mental Health Peer Network is to ensure that the voices of people with lived experience of mental health, their families, and professionals that work with them are heard. AIMS: To understand the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on mental health, well-being, and dignity, what has helped and what lessons can be learned to support coping in future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online qualitative and quantitative survey (April 15-June 15, 2020)Participants gave narrative responses to several questions, posting photos or images. ANALYSIS: Narrative responses were analyzed using the Gioia approach, a systematic inductive approach to develop concepts that help make sense of socially constructed worlds. Visual ethnographic data was used to give insight into the participant's socio-cultural context.

12.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 64(2): 107-113, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Immediately before the state of emergency was declared, there was an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among special training participants with severe physical stress. For promoting the optimization of infection prevention measures by identifying acts and situations with high risk of infection, we conducted a survey and analysis to understand the detailed process of infection spread in these cases. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted for the special training participants on their health status, changes in symptoms, training methods, and behavior history in their private lives. Additionally, a patrol of the training facility was carried out to understand the training environment, and antibody tests were conducted on the close contacts for more accurately grasping the spread of infection, by identifying subclinical infected persons. RESULTS: Within 10 days of COVID-19 onset in the first patient, 15 of the 19 original training participants developed symptoms, and 14 patients tested positive for RT-PCR. PCR tests were also performed on four patients who did not develop the disease - two were positive and negative, each. The two negatives turned positive on a later antibody test, suggesting that there was an asymptomatic infection. In addition, all five patients who participated in the training for only a day developed symptoms and tested positive for PCR in a few days. Of the 64 people who underwent testing for antibodies as close contacts, all but one who was living together with a patient were negative on antibody testing. CONCLUSIONS: The onset of COVID-19 occurred after the start of practice-based training continuously; therefore, the practice-based training was thought to be the main cause of the transmission. We speculate that the main factors behind the rapid spread of infection are as follows: during practice-based training, increased ventilation made it difficult to wear a mask; repeated loud vocalizations at close range; and the training pair was not fixed. Physical training without shouting and desk work, however, did not possess the risk of COVID-19, and avoiding certain situations at high risk of respiratory infections may have significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission. If personnel become infected with SARS-CoV-2, emergency measures should be devised by identifying patients and close contacts and facilitating the investigation of their behavioral history. Furthermore, evaluating and improving the effectiveness of infection control measures is necessary by ascertaining potentially infected persons by performing PCR tests, antigen tests, antibody tests, etc. in combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Inservice Training , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753628

ABSTRACT

Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a fall of ≥20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a SBP of <90 mmHg after having been >100 mmHg before the meal within two hours after a meal. The prevalence of PPH among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement was performed in 158 persons with SCI, 109 men, median age was 59.1 years (min.:13.2; max.: 86.2). In total, 78 persons (49.4%) had PPH after 114 out of 449 meals (25.4%). The median change in SBP during PPH was -28 mmHg (min.: -87; max.: -15 mmHg) and 96% of the PPH episodes were asymptomatic. The occurrence of PPH was correlated to older age (p = 0.001), level of injury (p = 0.023), and complete SCI (p = 0.000), but not, gender or time since injury. Further studies are needed to elucidate if PPH contributes to the increased cardiovascular mortality in the SCI population.

14.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753562

ABSTRACT

There is increasing interest in the use of technology to support social health in dementia. The primary objective of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence of effectiveness of digital technologies used by people with dementia to improve self-management and social participation. Records published from 1 January 2007 to 9 April 2020 were identified from Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Controlled interventional studies evaluating interventions based on any digital technology were included if: primary users of the technology had dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and the study reported outcomes relevant to self-management or social participation. Studies were clustered by population, intervention, and outcomes, and narrative synthesis was undertaken. Of 1394 records identified, nine met the inclusion criteria: two were deemed to be of poor methodological quality, six of fair quality, and one of good quality. Three clusters of technologies were identified: virtual reality, wearables, and software applications. We identified weak evidence that digital technologies may provide less benefit to people with dementia than people with MCI. Future research should address the methodological limitations and narrow scope of existing work. In the absence of strong evidence, clinicians and caregivers must use their judgement to appraise available technologies on a case-by-case basis.

15.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(3): 178-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747156

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - has resulted in a global pandemic. The associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a high number of death worldwide. Observational studies and case reports have provided insights that older age and the presence of chronic diseases is frequently associated with a higher COVID-19 severity. These individuals also seem to have a higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19. In this review we provide insights into the impact chronic diseases associated with the cardiovascular system, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease might have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Additionally we review recommendations and guidance's of international scientific associations and discuss which key learnings might be of importance for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Heart , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(8): 1610-1618, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747012

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 started in December 2019 as an outbreak of unexplained pneumonias in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province of China. This illness emerged as an epidemic in China and later spread to almost all countries over the globe except Antarctica. This is caused by a beta Corona virus, which is genetically similar to SARS virus. The predominant mode of transmission is via droplet spread, when the infected person coughs, sneezes or talks the virus is released in the respiratory secretions. As there are only a few cases of COVID 19 in neonates, there is no convincing evidence to support the possibility of vertical transmission. Clinical presentation in neonates is nonspecific, commonly observed are temperature instability, respiratory distress, poor feeding, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory examinations may be nonspecific. Definitive test for 2019-nCoV is the detection of viral nucleic acid by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Suspected and confirmed COVID positive mothers should be delivered in separate delivery rooms and operation theaters. Since there is no approved treatment or drug for this disease, prevention of infection and breaking the chain of transmission plays a crucial role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5310-5322, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733920

ABSTRACT

The most consequential challenge raised by coinfection is perhaps the inappropriate generation of recombinant viruses through the exchange of genetic material among different strains. These genetically similar viruses can interfere with the replication process of each other and even compete for the metabolites required for the maintenance of the replication cycle. Due to the similarity in clinical symptoms of most viral respiratory tract infections, and their coincidence with COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is recommended to develop a comprehensive diagnostic panel for detection of respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses through the evaluation of patient samples. Given the resulting changes in blood markers, such as coagulation factors and white blood cell count following virus infection, these markers can be of diagnostic value in the detection of mixed infection in individuals already diagnosed with a certain viral illness. In this review, we seek to investigate the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses to provide novel insights into the development of highly sensitive diagnostics and effective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Humans
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(12)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731387

ABSTRACT

The characterization of the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection may define current and future clinical practice. To determine the effect of the 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination schedule in individuals who recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19-recovered subjects) compared with naive subjects, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific T and B cell responses, as well as specific IgA, IgG, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies titers in 22 individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 11 of whom had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evaluations were performed before vaccination and then weekly until 7 days after second injection. Data obtained clearly showed that one vaccine dose is sufficient to increase both cellular and humoral immune response in COVID-19-recovered subjects without any additional improvement after the second dose. On the contrary, the second dose proved mandatory in naive subjects to further enhance the immune response. These findings were further confirmed at the serological level in a larger cohort of naive (n = 68) and COVID-19-recovered (n = 29) subjects, tested up to 50 days after vaccination. These results question whether a second vaccine injection in COVID-19-recovered subjects is required, and indicate that millions of vaccine doses may be redirected to naive individuals, thus shortening the time to reach herd immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
20.
Iran J Pathol ; 15(3): 156-160, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most recent emerging viral disease. Defining the epidemiological aspects and factors influencing the susceptibility of the patients to COVID-19 has been an ongoing struggle. In the present study, we have investigated the connection between ABO histo-blood group phenotypes and the COVID-19. METHODS: This study was conducted on 397 patients with confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19 admitted to our center. Also, 500 individuals were selected to form the controls, all of whom had been disclosed to the same medical center in June 2019, before the onset of the outbreak. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated ABO histo-blood phenotypes are correlated with patients' susceptibility to the infection. A higher rate of infection was observed among patients with the AB histo-blood group, while patients with the O histo-blood group have shown a lower rate of infection. The Rh blood group phenotype was not statistically significant in determining a patient's vulnerability. CONCLUSION: Similar to several previous studies about other viral diseases' association with ABO histo-blood groups, we have concluded that an individual's ABO histo-blood group phenotype and his/her susceptibility to COVID-19 are indeed connected. So far, only one research has been conducted about this association. Interestingly, while we observed a decreased vulnerability to the disease among patients with an O histo-blood group, we have reached discordant results regarding the increased susceptibility among individuals with an AB histo-blood group, unlike A histo-blood group in the previous study.

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