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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 482-490, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to know the effect of the Corona pandemic on mental health among Al Ain University students and its relationship to some demographic variables (gender, academic level age, college, and marital status). SUBJECT AND METHOD: The sample of the study consisted of (258) male and female students from Al Ain University students from humanities and scientific colleges. The modified Mental Health Scale: R S CL-90 Symptoms Check List was used, which was developed by Derogatis, Lipman, and Linocovi, it included (74) items divided into seven dimensions: physical symptoms, obsessive-compulsive disorder, reactive sensitivity, depression, anxiety, enmity, and fear anxiety, after modifying it for the purposes of the study. RESULTS: The results showed that the level of mental health of the sample as a whole was very high. The results also showed that the level of mental health was low for females when compared to males. The second-year students were less in the level of mental health compared to the rest of the levels. For students who were less than twenty years old, the level of mental health was low compared to those over twenty years old. No differences were found in the level of mental health among students of scientific and human colleges. As for the social situation, the level of mental health among single students was low compared to married people. CONCLUSION: The results of the study indicate that the higher the average mental problems (the dimensions of the mental health level), the lower of the mental health problems. Although the level of mental health was varied according to the demographic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Demography , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Syrian crisis has entered its ninth year with many being affected by the war. This is the largest-scale study that aims to evaluate the psychological profile of secondary school students in Syria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in schools in Damascus, Syria. The surveys assessed working habits, smoking, war exposure, grades, socioeconomic status (SES), social support, health-related quality of life (HRQL), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), problematic anger, and other parameters. RESULTS: This study included 1369 students of which 53% suffered from PTSD and 62% from problematic anger. Around 46% declared a fair or worse general health and 61% had moderate or severe mental health. Only 9.3% did not report exposure to any war-related variable. War exposure had an impact on PTSD, anger, and HRQL, but not on students' grades. Smoking, having consanguineous parents, and working did not have a clear association with grades or anger. Social support weakly reduced PTSD and anger scores. Interestingly, working was associatedwith lowerPTSD scores but was associated with a worse physical component of HRQL. CONCLUSION: This is the largest study on school students in Syria that reports the psychological ramifications of war. Although the direct effects of war could not be precisely described, the high burden of PTSD and anger distress was a strong reflection of the chronic mental distress.

3.
Ecol Evol ; 11(8): 3459-3463, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905836

ABSTRACT

Inquiry-based learning allows students to actively engage in and appreciate the process of science. As college courses transition to online instruction in response to COVID-19, incorporating inquiry-based learning is all the more essential for student engagement. However, with the cancelation of in-person laboratory courses, implementing inquiry can prove challenging for instructors. Here, I describe a case that exemplifies a strategy for inquiry-based learning and can be adapted for use in various course modalities, from traditional face-to-face laboratory courses to asynchronous and synchronous online courses. I detail an assignment where students explore the developmental basis of morphological evolution. Flowers offer an excellent example to address this concept and are easy for students to access and describe. Students research local flowering plants, collect and dissect flower specimens to determine their whorl patterns, and generate hypotheses to explain the developmental genetic basis of the patterns identified. This task allows students to apply their scientific thinking skills, conduct guided exploration in nature, and connect their understanding of the developmental basis of evolutionary change to everyday life. Incorporating inquiry using readily available, tangible, tractable real-world examples represents a pragmatic and effective model that can be applied in a variety of disciplines during and beyond COVID-19.

4.
Ecol Evol ; 10(22): 12499-12507, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898643

ABSTRACT

Education in ecology and evolution often utilizes field instruction to teach key learning outcomes. Remote teaching of learning outcomes that have been traditionally taught in the field, necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, presents unique challenges for students, instructors, and institutions. A survey of 117 faculty conducted during spring 2020 revealed substantial reduction of learning outcomes typically taught in the field, and frequent substitutions of less active and more instructor-centered remote activities for field activities. The survey revealed generally negative instructor views on many remote teaching substitutions, yet also showed several approaches that instructors regarded as more effective, despite potential challenges with equitably teaching them. I suggest several models of remote substitutions for traditional field teaching of identification, field techniques, data collection, and study design in the context of the results of this survey.

5.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
6.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(10): e19876, 2020 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak was first reported to the World Health Organization on December 31, 2019, and it was officially declared a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. The COVID-19 outbreak and the safety measures taken to control it caused many psychological issues in populations worldwide, such as depression, anxiety, and stress. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to assess the psychological effects of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 outbreak on university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to investigate the students' awareness of mobile mental health care apps as well as their attitudes toward the use of these apps. METHODS: A two-part self-administered web-based questionnaire was delivered to students at United Arab Emirates University. The first part of the questionnaire assessed the mental state of the participants using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), while the second part contained questions investigating the participants' awareness of and attitudes toward mental health care apps. Students were invited to fill out the web-based questionnaire via social media and mailing lists. RESULTS: A total of 154 students participated in the survey, and the majority were female. The results of the GHQ-12 analysis showed that the students were experiencing psychological issues related to depression and anxiety as well as social dysfunction. The results also revealed a lack of awareness of mental health care apps and uncertainty regarding the use of such apps. Approximately one-third of the participants (44/154, 28.6%) suggested preferred functionalities and characteristics of mobile mental health care apps, such as affordable price, simple design, ease of use, web-based therapy, communication with others experiencing the same issues, and tracking of mental status. CONCLUSIONS: Like many groups of people worldwide, university students in the UAE were psychologically affected by the lockdown due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Although apps can be useful tools for mental health care delivery, especially in circumstances such as those produced by the outbreak, the students in this study showed a lack of awareness of these apps and mixed attitudes toward them. Improving the digital health literacy of university students in the UAE by increasing their awareness of mental health care apps and the treatment methods and benefits of the apps, as well as involving students in the app creation process, may encourage students to use these tools for mental health care.

7.
J Community Psychol ; 50(1): 285-301, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797868

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, universities were forced to adopt a remote learning model, which introduced a number of stressors into college students' everyday life and study habits. The current study investigates if students' study-related stress increased after the pandemic's onset and how individual and contextual factors moderate this potential stress increase. Longitudinal survey data about students' stress levels and self-efficacy in self-regulation were collected before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic at a public university (N = 274). Regression analysis results show an overall increase in study-related stress levels after the onset of the pandemic. Students with self-efficacy in self-regulation reported lower stress increases; students with higher mental health impairment and limited time for coursework reported larger stress increases. To address students' stress levels and strengthen coping resources, universities should consider providing students with resources to improve their self-regulation and time-management skills.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
8.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2111-2118, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) not only caused physical abnormalities, but also caused psychological distress, especially for undergraduate students who are facing the pressure of academic study and work. We aimed to explore the prevalence rate of probable anxiety and probable insomnia and to find the risk factors among a longitudinal study of undergraduate students using the approach of machine learning. METHODS: The baseline data (T1) were collected from freshmen who underwent psychological evaluation at two months after entering the university. At T2 stage (February 10th to 13th, 2020), we used a convenience cluster sampling to assess psychological state (probable anxiety was assessed by general anxiety disorder-7 and probable insomnia was assessed by insomnia severity index-7) based on a web survey. We integrated information attained at T1 stage to predict probable anxiety and probable insomnia at T2 stage using a machine learning algorithm (XGBoost). RESULTS: Finally, we included 2009 students (response rate: 80.36%). The prevalence rate of probable anxiety and probable insomnia was 12.49% and 16.87%, respectively. The XGBoost algorithm predicted 1954 out of 2009 students (translated into 97.3% accuracy) and 1932 out of 2009 students (translated into 96.2% accuracy) who suffered anxiety and insomnia symptoms, respectively. The most relevant variables in predicting probable anxiety included romantic relationship, suicidal ideation, sleep symptoms, and a history of anxiety symptoms. The most relevant variables in predicting probable insomnia included aggression, psychotic experiences, suicidal ideation, and romantic relationship. CONCLUSION: Risks for probable anxiety and probable insomnia among undergraduate students can be identified at an individual level by baseline data. Thus, timely psychological intervention for anxiety and insomnia symptoms among undergraduate students is needed considering the above factors.

9.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 871-881, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge for medical students' learning and has become a potential stressor, with a profound influence on their psychological well-being. We aimed to determine the effect of the current pandemic on undergraduate medical students' learning. We also explored the association of their stress level with coping strategies, educational, and psychological variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional design study, and participants were the 1st to 5th year medical students. A self-administered questionnaire (18 items) and a well-known Kessler 10 Psychological Distress questionnaire (10 items) were used to collect the data related to perceived stress with an association of educational, psychological, and coping variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall stress was significantly higher (χ 2= 16.3; P=0.000) in female medical students, ie, (40%) as compared to the male students (16.6%), and was highest (48.8%) during the 3rd medical year. It was also noted that the most effective strategy, embraced by students to cope with the severe stress, was "indulging in religious activities" (OR= 1.08; P=0.81). Furthermore, 22.3% of students had perceived severe stress as they did not prefer online learning. Similarly, those students who have not believed or refused the online learning or disagree in "there is pleasure in the study due to COVID" they have significantly higher stress (χ 2=39.7; P=0.000) 21.5% mild, 17.8% of moderate, and 21.2% severe. CONCLUSION: We found that the COVID-19 pandemic has induced stress and changes in medical students' educational attitudes and strategies. The results exhibited that the predominance of stress is higher in females than males, and also more stress was perceived by the students during their transitional year, ie, 3rd medical year (from pre-clinical to clinical) and also the respondents who regularly did religious meditation were at lower levels of stress. COVID-19's influence on medical education and students' well-being will be felt at an extended level, which necessitates an appropriate plan for preparedness.

10.
Front Psychol ; 11: 570435, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the psychological status of medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak and civil war in Libya. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students from 15 medical schools between April 20 and May 1, 2020. The demographic characteristics, generalized anxiety disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) results were collected. RESULTS: Of the 3,500 students, 2,430 completed the survey. The mean (± SD) score of anxiety symptoms determined by the GAD-7 was 7.2 (5.1). A total of 268 (11%) students had a GAD-7 score of ≥15, which is indicative of moderate to severe anxiety. A total of 1,568 (64.5%) students showed different degrees of anxiety: mild, 910 (37.5%); moderate, 390 (16%); and severe, 268 (11%). Anxiety was significantly associated with living status and internal displacement (P < 0.05). The mean (+ SD) score of depressive symptoms determined by the PHQ-9 was 9.7 (6.3). A total of 525 (21.6%) students had a PHQ-9 score of ≥15, which is indicative of moderate to severe depression. A total of 1,896 (88%) students were diagnosed with mild (PHQ ≥ 5) depression. Suicidal ideation was present in 552 patients (22.7%). Depression was only statistically associated with the year of study (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: These data highlight that medical students in Libya are at risk for depression, especially under the current stressful environment of the civil war and the COVID-19 outbreak.

11.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 57(2): 695-701, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate nursing students' views on the COVID-19 pandemic and their perceived stress levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to carry out this study. The research was conducted between April and May 2020 with 662 nursing students. Data were collected by an information form developed for the study and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). FINDINGS: The average score on the PSS was 31.69 ± 6.91, indicating that the students had a moderate level of stress. Significant differences in PSS score were found in terms of age and sex (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Results of this study indicated that age, sex, and some variables related to the pandemic process affect perceived stress levels of nursing students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Psychol ; 41(2): 1033-1042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748412

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 health crisis has reached pandemic scale spreading globally. The present study examines the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on psychological and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among university students in Turkey. A cross-sectional survey design was used for data collection. From May 11th to May 15th 2020, the study utilized snowball sampling techniques to gather data through an online survey. The pandemic's psychological effects on participants were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey assess related HRQOL were used to make mental health assessments. 1120 university students were contacted to complete the survey. Of these, a total of 1095 completed the survey, translating to a participation rate of 97.7%. Overall, 64.6%, 48.6% and 45.2%, and 34.5% of all participants self-reported symptomatic signs of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. Female gender and poor family relationships were identified as risk factors for probably PTSD, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as well. The mean scores of Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) were 66.99 ± 2.14 and 40.76 ± 2.31, respectively. Students suspected of a history with PTSD had considerably lower total scores for PCS-12 and MCS-12, when cross checked for similarity to those without such a history. The findings of this research suggest that evidence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and stress is commonly apparent among university students during the period of the COVID-19 crisis. Prevention and intervention approaches to attenuate the psychosocial impact should be an integral component of crisis response during pandemic conditions.

13.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S57-S61, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of students towards e-learning during the lock down. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry. MBBS and BDS students of all levels participated in the study with a sample size calculated as 377. A self-administered questionnaire was developed. After validation from the Medical Education Experts, pilot test was run on 30 participants before the administration of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was emailed to the participants for data collection. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined. Independent T-test was applied for determining the perceptions of students towards e-learning. Frequencies and percentages were also computed for demographics. RESULTS: Total 382 responses were received.137 males and 245 females participated in the study. 0.851 was calculated as Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire. Overall, 77% students have negative perceptions towards e-learning. 76% of the students use mobile device for their e-learning. CONCLUSION: Students did not prefer e-teaching over face-to-face teaching during the lock down situation. Administration and faculty members should take necessary measures for improving e-teaching for better learning during lock down.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(10)2020 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725621

ABSTRACT

Background: On February 2020, the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic began in Italy. In order to contain the spread of the virus, the Italian government adopted emergency measures nationwide, including closure of schools and universities, workplaces and subsequently lockdown. This survey was carried out among Italian undergraduates to explore their level of knowledge about the epidemic and the behaviors they adopted during the lockdown. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was administered to the students attending three Italian universities. Results: A good level of knowledge about the epidemic and its control was registered in the sample, mainly among students attending life sciences degree courses. The majority of the students did not modify their diet and smoking habits, while a great part of the sample reported a decrease in physical activity (PA). Conclusions: Students from life sciences courses showed a higher awareness regarding the infection and the control measures. The lockdown caused an important reduction of PA. Preventive interventions should transform the restrictive measures also as an opportunity to improve lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 719-722, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701896

ABSTRACT

We assess protection from previous SARS-CoV-2 infection in 16,101 university students. Among 2,021 students previously infected in Fall 2020, risk of re-infection during the Spring 2021 semester was 2.2%; estimated protection from previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was 84% (95% CI: 78%-88%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , Students , Universities
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 319-326, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To inform prevention strategies, we assessed the extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and settings in which transmission occurred in a Georgia public school district. METHODS: During 1 December 2020-22 January 2021, SARS-CoV-2-infected index cases and their close contacts in schools were identified by school and public health officials. For in-school contacts, we assessed symptoms and offered SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing; performed epidemiologic investigations and whole-genome sequencing to identify in-school transmission; and calculated secondary attack rate (SAR) by school setting (eg, sports, elementary school classroom), index case role (ie, staff, student), and index case symptomatic status. RESULTS: We identified 86 index cases and 1119 contacts, 688 (61.5%) of whom received testing. Fifty-nine of 679 (8.7%) contacts tested positive; 15 of 86 (17.4%) index cases resulted in ≥2 positive contacts. Among 55 persons testing positive with available symptom data, 31 (56.4%) were asymptomatic. Highest SARs were in indoor, high-contact sports settings (23.8% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 12.7%-33.3%]), staff meetings/lunches (18.2% [95% CI, 4.5%-31.8%]), and elementary school classrooms (9.5% [95% CI, 6.5%-12.5%]). The SAR was higher for staff (13.1% [95% CI, 9.0%-17.2%]) vs student index cases (5.8% [95% CI, 3.6%-8.0%]) and for symptomatic (10.9% [95% CI, 8.1%-13.9%]) vs asymptomatic index cases (3.0% [95% CI, 1.0%-5.5%]). CONCLUSIONS: Indoor sports may pose a risk to the safe operation of in-person learning. Preventing infection in staff members, through measures that include coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, is critical to reducing in-school transmission. Because many positive contacts were asymptomatic, contact tracing should be paired with testing, regardless of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Students
17.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 741-749, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633693

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on societies and citizens worldwide, raising concerns about potential mental health impacts. We aimed to describe trajectories of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to before the outbreak, and to determine if trajectories were modified by pre-pandemic loneliness, poor sleep quality and mental health problems. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with 1836 Swedish university students entering the study before 13 March 2020, the onset of the pandemic, with follow-ups within three (FU1) and six months (FU2) of the outbreak. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate mean differences in symptom levels over time-periods, and to estimate potential effect modifications. RESULTS: We found small differences in mean levels of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) over time. Compared to before the pandemic, depression increased by 0.25 points of 21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.45) at FU1 and decreased by 0.75/21 (95% CI:-0.97 to -0.53) at FU2. Anxiety decreased from baseline to FU1 by 0.09/21 (95% CI: -0.24 to 0.07) and by 0.77/21 (95% CI: -0.93 to -0.61) to FU2. Stress decreased from baseline to FU1 by 0.30/21 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.09) and by 1.32/21 (95% CI: -1.55 to -1.09) to FU2. Students with pre-pandemic loneliness, poor sleep quality or pre-pandemic mental health problems did not have worse trajectories of mean mental health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom levels were relatively stable during the first three months of the pandemic, while there was a slight decrease during the summer months, probably due to seasonality effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweden/epidemiology , Universities
18.
Br J Nutr ; 127(1): 123-132, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603433

ABSTRACT

Only a few studies have investigated the association between psychological stress and the healthfulness of plant-based diets while accounting for variances in age groups and regions. In light of this, this study aimed to identify the food groups that contribute the most to the relationship between the healthfulness of plant-based diets and psychological stress in female students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study, which included 401 female college students aged 19-35 years, collected data on blood, anthropometric indices, the perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10) and diet using the Saudi food frequency questionnaire. An overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy PDI, and an unhealthy PDI (uPDI) were defined. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between PSS-10 and PDI and hPDI and uPDI. No associations between the PSS-10 score and the overall PDI or uPDI scores were found; however, a six-point higher hPDI score was associated with a 0·16-point lower PSS-10 score (95 % CI, -0·24, -0·08) after controlling for lifestyle factors. Moreover, adjustments for healthy food groups, including vegetables and fruits, attenuated the association between the hPDI and PSS-10. In conclusion, healthy plant-based diets are associated with lower psychological stress in young Saudi women. This finding highlights the importance, especially for female students, of following diets that are not only plant-based but are also healthy and rich in fruits and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Diet, Vegetarian , Diet , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Students , Vegetables
19.
Sch Psychol ; 36(3): 190-195, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592679

ABSTRACT

This research examines the cross-cultural differences on triarchic model of grit (TMG) dimensions (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) and the associations of grit with academic engagement in Math and Science among secondary school students in one secondary school in Hong Kong (n = 101; M age = 12.44; SD = .60), nine secondary schools in Philippines (n = 575; Mage = 14.66; SD = .83), and two secondary schools in mainland China (n = 710; Mage = 13.39; SD = .56). Result of structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation approach demonstrated that although all TMG dimensions were related to higher engagement in Math and Science, adaptability served as the strongest predictor of these outcomes even after controlling for the participants' cultural settings and conscientiousness. Consistency served as the weakest correlate of engagement outcomes. Conscientiousness, settings, and TMG dimensions explained 46% and 50% of the variance in Math and Science academic engagement respectively. These results provide additional evidence regarding the generalizability of TMG in non-Western societies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Adolescent , Child , China , Humans , Mathematics , Schools , Students
20.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 67(1): 217-225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575690

ABSTRACT

Graduate medical education (GME) in ophthalmology has faced and overcome many challenges over the past years, and 2020 has been a game-changer. Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic disrupted medical education globally, ophthalmic educators rapidly transformed their curricula to novel and effective virtual learning formats. Thus, while the COVID-19 outbreak has been one of the most significant challenges faced in the history of medical education, it has also provided an impetus to develop innovative teaching practices, bringing with it unprecedented success in allowing medical students to continue their education in ophthalmology despite these challenges. We review and appraise novel educational interventions implemented by various institutions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting their effectiveness, challenges and proposing future directions beyond the pandemic. Many of these innovations will persist even after the end of the pandemic because they have proven that face-to-face learning is not required for all aspects of the ophthalmic GME curriculum. As ophthalmic educators harness the power of educational technology it is critical that their novel educational initiatives are incorporated into competency-based curricula with assessments mapped to the competencies. Future research should focus on evaluating the impact of this transformation to virtual learning environments on student performances as well as implementing longitudinal assessment strategies for clinical competence in workplace-based practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Ophthalmology , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Ophthalmology/education , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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