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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 579289, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199322

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 has generated profound changes in personal and working relations, and in dreams of millions of people worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and content of nightmares during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, evaluating its associations with sociodemographic, occupational, and clinical factors. Cross-sectional exploratory study, including 1,057 participants who responded to an online survey about mental violence and nightmares during the pandemic, between May 25 and June 1, 2020. A descriptive analysis of the results was done to obtain frequency tables. McNemar's non-parametric test was used to compare the frequency of nightmares before and after the pandemic, and logistic regression models, to identify factors most strongly associated with the pandemic nightmares. Participants were from 21 Brazilian states, with a mean age of 38 ± 14 years, and 78% women. Half of them (n = 529) reported at least one nightmare episode during the pandemic, and 32.9% (n = 348) described a pandemic content. There was nearly a 3-fold increase in the occurrence of nightmares "once a week or more" during the pandemic, 9% before vs. 25% after. Prior psychiatric care, suicidal ideation, sleep medication, increased pandemic alcohol consumption, perceiving high risk of contamination, being woman, and of younger age were factors associated with having nightmares during the pandemic. Prior psychiatric care, sleep medication, and age remained significant after excluding participants without nightmares and comparing between individuals with and without a pandemic content. We conclude the COVID-19 pandemic has affected people's dreams. The increase in the frequency of nightmares, their pandemic content, and association with previous conditions are a concerning public mental health issue and should be taken into consideration by authorities and policy makers.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e25241, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes to normal life and disrupted social and economic function worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of social media use, unhealthy lifestyles, and the risk of miscarriage among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between social media use, unhealthy lifestyles, and the risk of miscarriage among pregnant women in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 456 singleton pregnant women in mainland China were recruited during January and February 2020. Sociodemographic characteristics, history of previous health, social media use, and current lifestyles were collected at baseline, and we followed up about the occurrence of miscarriage. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RRs) of miscarriage for women with different exposures to COVID-19-specific information. RESULTS: Among all the 456 pregnant women, there were 82 (18.0%) who did no physical activities, 82 (18.0%) with inadequate dietary diversity, 174 (38.2%) with poor sleep quality, and 54 (11.8%) spending >3 hours on reading COVID-19 news per day. Women with excessive media use (>3 hours) were more likely to be previously pregnant (P=.03), have no physical activity (P=.003), have inadequate dietary diversity (P=.03), and have poor sleep quality (P<.001). The prevalence of miscarriage was 16.0% (n=73; 95% CI 12.6%-19.4%). Compared with women who spent 0.5-2 hours (25/247, 10.1%) on reading COVID-19 news per day, miscarriage prevalence in women who spent <0.5 hours (5/23, 21.7%), 2-3 hours (26/132, 19.7%), and >3 hours (17/54, 31.5%) was higher (P<.001). Miscarriage prevalence was also higher in pregnant women with poor sleep quality (39/174, 22.4% vs 34/282, 12.1%; P=.003) and a high education level (66/368, 17.9% vs 7/88, 8.0%; P=.02). In the multivariable model, poor sleep quality (adjusted RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.24-3.44; P=.006), 2-3 hours of media use daily (adjusted RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97; P=.04), and >3 hours of media use daily (adjusted RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.43-4.59; P=.002) were associated with miscarriage. In the sensitivity analysis, results were still stable. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with excessive media use were more likely to have no physical activity, inadequate dietary diversity, and poor sleep quality. Excessive media use and poor sleep quality were associated with a higher risk of miscarriage. Our findings highlight the importance of healthy lifestyles during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Life Style , Pregnant Women/psychology , Social Media/trends , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Social Media/statistics & numerical data
3.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 37(3): 435-436, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097853

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with a papulovesicular skin eruption predominantly involving the trunk. We hereby present a case of COVID-19-associated varicella-like exanthem in an 8-year-old girl with mild systemic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(13-14): NP12284-NP12309, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002030

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to correlate several factors - including depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem levels in both men and women - with the occurrence of domestic violence against women (VAW) during quarantine. This cross-sectional study was carried out in April 2020, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic when lockdown procedures were implemented; 86 married couples participated in this study amounting to 172 responses in total. A different questionnaire was set for women and men; the couple filled out their respective questionnaire simultaneously, but privately where one did not see the answers of the other. Inclusion criteria included married couples of all ages that are living together during the lockdown of COVID-19. The results of this study showed that a higher total abuse score was found in 39 females (45.3%; CI: 0.34 - 0.56). Being a Muslim female (Beta =24.80) and females having higher anxiety (Beta=0.97) were significantly associated with higher total abuse scores, whereas higher stress score in female (Beta=-0.61) was significantly associated with lower total abuse scores. In conclusion, this study focuses on VAW as a serious problem while demonstrating its further emergence during quarantine. This study also focused on the effects brought on by lockdown policies, including social and economic factors, and their implications in the increase of VAW during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine
6.
J Health Soc Sci ; 5(2): 231-240, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989939

ABSTRACT

Recent media articles have suggested that women-led countries are doing better in terms of their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine an ensemble of public health metrics to assess the control of COVID-19 epidemic in women-versus men-led countries worldwide based on data available up to June 3. The median of the distribution of median time-varying effective reproduction number for women- and men-led countries were 0.89 and 1.14 respectively with the 95% two-sample bootstrap-based confidence interval for the difference (women - men) being [-0.34, 0.02]. In terms of scale of testing, the median percentage of population tested were 3.28% (women), 1.59% (men) [95% CI: (-1.29%, 3.60%)] with test positive rates of 2.69% (women) and 4.94% (men) respectively. It appears that though statistically not significant, countries led by women have an edge over countries led by men in terms of public health metrics for controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.

7.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 350-357, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989679

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic that started in Wuhan city, Hubei province in China in December 2019 and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by a heightened inflammatory and prothrombotic state that are known to cause various cardiovascular manifestations such as thromboembolism, acute coronary syndrome and stroke. We here present a 72-year-old woman with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and COVI 19 pneumonia who presented with acute ischemic stroke. She was also noted to have ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on the electrocardiogram however the imaging and clinical presentation was consistent with apical takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We here discuss the various pathophysiologic mechanisms by which COVID-19 can result in acute stroke. The patient likely developed takotsubo cardiomyopathy because of stroke and acute COVID-19 induced sympathetic stimulation and catecholamine surge. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of apical variant of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a COVID-19 report.

8.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(3): 303-311, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895868

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fact that multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affects women has been recognized for many years. As the age at diagnosis is decreasing, and treatment options are becoming more complex, increasing numbers of women are facing decisions about the use of disease modifying therapy (DMT) in and around pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: New data are rapidly becoming available, particularly regarding the safety of therapies in both pregnancy and breastfeeding. Effective treatment and suppression of relapses is key to ensuring good outcomes in the longer term for the woman, however this must be balanced against individual risk of relapse and risks to the fetus. Women should be advised that it is possible to breastfeed while taking selected DMT. SUMMARY: In this review, we discuss evidence surrounding the safety of DMTs in both pregnancy and breastfeeding, and use this knowledge to suggest approaches to pregnancy and family planning in women with MS.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnancy , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
9.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(2): e007643, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883362

ABSTRACT

Following decades of decline, maternal mortality began to rise in the United States around 1990-a significant departure from the world's other affluent countries. By 2018, the same could be seen with the maternal mortality rate in the United States at 17.4 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. When factoring in race/ethnicity, this number was more than double among non-Hispanic Black women who experienced 37.1 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. More than half of these deaths and near deaths were from preventable causes, with cardiovascular disease being the leading one. In an effort to amplify the magnitude of this epidemic in the United States that disproportionately plagues Black women, on June 13, 2020, the Association of Black Cardiologists hosted the Black Maternal Heart Health Roundtable-a collaborative task force to tackle the maternal health crisis in the Black community. The roundtable brought together diverse stakeholders and champions of maternal health equity to discuss how innovative ideas, solutions and opportunities could be implemented, while exploring additional ways attendees could address maternal health concerns within the health care system. The discussions were intended to lead the charge in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality through advocacy, education, research, and collaborative efforts. The goal of this roundtable was to identify current barriers at the community, patient, and clinician level and expand on the efforts required to coordinate an effective approach to reducing these statistics in the highest risk populations. Collectively, preventable maternal mortality can result from or reflect violations of a variety of human rights-the right to life, the right to freedom from discrimination, and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. This is the first comprehensive statement on this important topic. This position paper will generate further research in disparities of care and promote the interest of others to pursue strategies to mitigate maternal mortality.


Subject(s)
Cardiologists , Maternal Health , African Americans , Female , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Mothers , United States/epidemiology
11.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2113-2119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808755

ABSTRACT

AIM: The global impact of COVID-19 on mental health increases from time to time. Several studies show that depression is highly prevalent among quarantined individuals. COVID-19 is a pandemic with a rapidly increasing incidence of infections and deaths. People are depressed and psychologically overwhelmed by the illness and possible loss of their friends and loved ones. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals in Tigrai treatment center, Tigrai, Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS: A multicenter Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among individuals in the Tigrai quarantine centers. A simple random sampling technique was used between April and October 2020 until an adequate sample size was reached. Depression was assessed by using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS). Epi data manager version 4.4 was used to enter data and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was carried out and an odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was computed to identify factors associated with depression. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and the strength of the association was presented by an odds ratio of 95% CI. RESULTS: The finding of the present study on the prevalence of depression among quarantined individuals was 18.1 with 95% CI (14.8-22.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed and factors such as being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic was 18.1%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. So, clinicians, mental health professionals, and policymakers should work together to address the problem.

12.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0218, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe three coronavirus disease 2019 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and tight anticoagulation monitoring presenting a novel pattern of multifocal brain hemorrhage in various degrees in all cerebral and cerebellar lobes. DESIGN: Clinical observation of three patients. Post mortem examinations. SETTING: Two ICUs at the University Hospital Erlangen. PATIENTS: Three patients (medium age 56.6 yr, two male with hypertension and diabetes, one female with no medical history) developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome on the basis of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. All required mechanical ventilation and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical observation, CT, data extraction from electronic medical records, and post mortem examinations. MAIN RESULTS: We report on an unusual multifocal bleeding pattern in the white matter in three cases with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019 undergoing venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. Bleeding pattern with consecutive herniation was found in CT scans as well as in neuropathologic post mortem examinations. Frequency for this unusual brain hemorrhage in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy at our hospital is currently 50%, whereas bleeding events in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients generally occur at 10-15%. CONCLUSIONS: Multifocality and high frequency of the unusual white matter hemorrhage pattern suggest a coherence to coronavirus disease 2019. Neuropathological analyses showed circumscribed thrombotic cerebrovascular occlusions, which eventually led to microvascular and later on macrovascular disseminated bleeding events. However, signs of cerebrovascular inflammation could not be detected. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid remained negative. Increased susceptibility for fatal bleeding events should be taken into consideration in terms of systemic anticoagulation strategies in coronavirus disease 2019.

13.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 12(1): e2020046, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate, retrospectively, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, laboratory results, radiologic findings, and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with transfusion-dependent ß thalassemia major (TM), ß-thalassemia intermedia (TI) and sickle cell disease (SCD). DESIGN: A total of 17 Centers, from 10 countries, following 9,499 patients with hemoglobinopathies, participated in the survey. MAIN OUTCOME DATA: Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 were collected from medical records and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients, 7 with TM, 3 with TI, and 3 with SCD, with confirmed COVID-19, were identified in 6 Centers from different countries. The overall mean age of patients was 33.7±12.3 years (range:13-66); 9/13 (69.2%) patients were females. Six patients had pneumonia, and 4 needed oxygen therapy. Increased C-reactive protein (6/10), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 6/10), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; 6/10) were the most common laboratory findings. 6/10 patients had an exacerbation of anemia (2 with SCD). In the majority of patients, the course of COVID-19 was moderate (6/10) and severe in 3/10 patients. A 30-year-old female with TM, developed a critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by death in an Intensive Care Unit. In one Center (Oman), the majority of suspected cases were observed in patients with SCD between the age of 21 and 40 years. A rapid clinical improvement of tachypnea/dyspnea and oxygen saturation was observed, after red blood cell exchange transfusion, in a young girl with SCD and worsening of anemia (Hb level from 9.2 g/dl to 6.1g/dl). CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this survey permit an early assessment of the clinical characteristics of COVID 19 in different countries. 70% of symptomatic patients with COVID- 19 required hospitalization. The presence of associated co-morbidities can aggravate the severity of COVID- 19, leading to a poorer prognosis irrespective of age.

14.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001656, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, also called severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originated in Wuhan, China. It has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and has been declared a global pandemic by the WHO. Influenza occurs mainly during the winter, with the burden of disease determined by several factors, including the effectiveness of the vaccine that season, the characteristics of the circulating viruses, and how long the season lasts. We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with influenza A and COVID-19 co-infection. LEARNING POINTS: COVID-19 can co-occur with other viral infections.Some of these co-infections have active treatments, while supportive treatment is the mainstay of treatment for others.

15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e47, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns in Latin America. METHODS: Descriptive study based on the prospective report of the units of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology Network. RESULTS: Of 86 pregnant women with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR in seven countries (6 from Latin America, and Equatorial Guinea) 68% (59) were asymptomatic. Of 32% of symptomatic women, 89% (24) had mild symptoms and 3.5% (3) had severe respiratory symptoms. No women died. The cesarean section rate was 38%; gestational age was < 37 weeks in 6% of cases. RT-PCR was performed on all newborns between 16 and 36 hours of age; 6 (7%) were positive. All of them presented mild and transient respiratory distress; none died. Two newborns with negative RT-PCR died from other causes. Breastfeeding was authorized in only 24% of mothers; in 13% milk was expressed and 63% of newborns were fed with formula. In 76% of cases the motherchild pair was separated, and in 95% of cases the mother could not be accompanied at delivery or during the postpartum period. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of maternal accompaniment, the low rate of breastfeeding and the frequent separation of the mother-child dyad are of concern. The health care team must reflect on the need to defend humanized and family-centered care during this pandemic.

16.
Front Psychol ; 11: 582014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760251

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively impacted global economies and employment. In the UK, it is predicted that approximately eight million jobs were furloughed as a result of the outbreak and the associated restriction of movement or shielding measures. This study aimed to investigate the impact of changes in employment status on cognitive and emotional health as well as perceptions of work. Furthermore, it examined the relationships between women's job security and anxiety, depression and cognitive function. Women living with breast cancer (N = 234) completed online questionnaires to measure their cognitive function, general emotional well-being, COVID-19 related emotional vulnerability (COVID-EMV), work ability and COVID-19 related perceptions of work. Our results revealed that threat to job security was predictive of depression and cognitive function in the entire sample Such that those with higher levels of perceived job security had lower depression and better cognitive function. Further, women who were furloughed or unable to continue work reported higher job insecurity compared to those who had worked throughout the pandemic. Greater rumination was also associated with worse anxiety and depression as well as poorer cognitive function. Finally, moderation analysis highlighted that women who had better cognitive functioning were less likely to experience anxiety when their job security was high. Given our findings, we suggest that employers provide women with accessible interventions to enhance cognitive and emotional resilience and thus help protect against the detrimental effects of job insecurity created by the COVID-19 outbreak.

17.
J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 30(1): 81-83, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726438
18.
Cardiol Young ; 31(6): 1021-1023, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701004

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old girl presented with fever and signs of systemic inflammation, and was found to have junctional tachycardia. She was subsequently diagnosed with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids, which led to resolution of the arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/etiology
19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 128-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV in the UK are an ethnically diverse group with significant psychosocial challenges. Increasing numbers are reaching older age. We describe psychological and socioeconomic factors among women with HIV in England aged 45-60 and explore associations with ethnicity. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data on 724 women recruited to the PRIME Study. Psychological symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 and social isolation with a modified Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Black African (BA) women were more likely than Black Caribbean or White British (WB) women to have a university education (48.3%, 27.0%, 25.7%, respectively, p<0.001), but were not more likely to be employed (68.4%, 61.4%, 65.2%, p=0.56) and were less likely to have enough money to meet their basic needs (56.4%, 63.0%, 82.9%, p<0.001). BA women were less likely to report being diagnosed with depression than WB women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.40, p<0.001) but more likely to report current psychological distress (aOR 3.34, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We report high levels of poverty, psychological distress and social isolation in this ethnically diverse group of midlife women with HIV, especially among those who were BA. Despite being more likely to experience psychological distress, BA women were less likely to have been diagnosed with depression suggesting a possible inequity in access to mental health services. Holistic HIV care requires awareness of the psychosocial needs of older women living with HIV, which may be more pronounced in racially minoritised communities, and prompt referral for support including psychology, peer support and advice about benefits.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/psychology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Age Factors , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 700-706, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634096

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore attitudes, motivations and intentions about attending for mammography among women who cancelled or postponed breast cancer screening, which had remained open in Denmark during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A telephone interview study was conducted at the end of April 2020. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was chosen to identify themes and concepts and a semi-structured interview guide was developed. The analysis was structured according to constructs from the theory of planned behaviour, including attitudes to breast cancer screening, norms and motivations to comply with breast cancer screening, perceived control and anticipated regret. RESULTS: Interviews were carried out with 33 women aged 50-69 (mean 62) years. The women felt that screening was of secondary importance during the height of the pandemic and they felt low perceived control over transportation to the screening clinic and over the screening situation itself, where social distancing was impossible. They perceived messages from the authorities as conflicting regarding the request for social distancing and a lack of recommendations about using face masks at the screening clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Women who postponed or cancelled breast cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic felt that public recommendations appeared contradictory. Uncertainty about the 'new norm(al)' of COVID-19 made them stay at home, although the screening clinics remained open. The findings point to the importance of addressing perceived inconsistency between recommendations from the World Health Organization and the national management of these recommendations, and to secure univocal information from the authorities about the recommended use of healthcare services in a time of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Attitude , Female , Humans , Intention , Mammography , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2
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