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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25917, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Invasive mechanical ventilation is recommended for the management of patients with COVID-19 who have severe respiratory symptoms. However, various complications can develop after its use. The efficient and appropriate management of patients requires the identification of factors associated with an aggravation of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms to a degree where invasive mechanical ventilation becomes necessary, thereby enabling clinicians to prevent such ventilation. This retrospective study included 138 inpatients with COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated the differences in the demographic and clinical data between 27 patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and 111 patients who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the duration of fever, national early warning score (NEWS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission were significantly associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in this cohort. The optimal cut-off values were: fever duration ≥1 day (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 54.95%), NEWS ≥7 (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 92.52%), and LDH >810 mg/dL (sensitivity 56.0%, specificity 90.29%). These findings can assist in the early identification of patients who will require invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies in larger patient populations are recommended to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Warning Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 89-92, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096391
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 820-825, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from those caused by common viruses. Early isolation and containment is challenging. Although screening all patients with respiratory symptoms for COVID-19 has been recommended, the practicality of such an effort has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Over a 6-week period during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, our institution introduced a "respiratory surveillance ward" (RSW) to segregate all patients with respiratory symptoms in designated areas, where appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) could be utilized until SARS-CoV-2 testing was done. Patients could be transferred when SARS-CoV-2 tests were negative on 2 consecutive occasions, 24 hours apart. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,178 patients were admitted to the RSWs. The mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.89 days (SD, 1.23). Among confirmed cases of pneumonia admitted to the RSW, 5 of 310 patients (1.61%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This finding was comparable to the pickup rate from our isolation ward. In total, 126 HCWs were potentially exposed to these cases; however, only 3 (2.38%) required quarantine because most used appropriate PPE. In addition, 13 inpatients overlapped with the index cases during their stay in the RSW; of these 13 exposed inpatients, 1 patient subsequently developed COVID-19 after exposure. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. However, this method was resource-intensive in terms of testing and bed capacity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1108-1114, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trust in healthcare providers is associated with important outcomes, but has primarily been assessed in the outpatient setting. It is largely unknown how hospitalized patients conceptualize trust in their providers. OBJECTIVE: To examine the dimensionality of a measure of trust in the inpatient setting. DESIGN: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized patients (N = 1756; 76% response rate) across six hospitals in the midwestern USA. The sample was randomly split such that approximately one half was used in the EFA, and the other half in the CFA. MAIN MEASURES: The Trust in Physician Scale, adapted for inpatient care. KEY RESULTS: Based on the Kaiser-Guttman criterion and parallel analysis, EFAs were inconclusive, indicating that trust may be comprised of either one or two factors in this sample. In follow-up CFAs, a 2-factor model fit best based on a chi-squared difference test (Δχ2 = 151.48(1), p < .001) and a Comparative Fit Index (CFI) difference test (CFI difference = .03). The overall fit for the 2-factor CFA model was good (χ2 = 293.56, df = 43, p < .01; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .081 [90% confidence interval = .072-.090]; TLI = .93; SRMR = .04). Items loaded onto two factors related to cognitive (i.e., whether patients view providers as competent) and affective (i.e., whether patients view that providers care for them) dimensions of trust. CONCLUSIONS: While measures of trust in the outpatient setting have been validated as unidimensional, in the inpatient setting, trust appears to be composed of two factors: cognitive and affective trust. This provides initial evidence that inpatient providers may need to work to ensure patients see them as both competent and caring in order to gain their trust.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Trust , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of developing a hypercoagulable state due to haemostatic changes directly related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection or to the consequence of the cytokine storm. Anticoagulation is now recommended to reduce the thrombotic risk. Ilio-psoas haematoma (IPH) is a potentially lethal condition that can arise during the hospitalization, especially in intensive care units (ICUs) and frequently reported as a complication of anticoagulation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case series of seven subjects with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia complicated by Ilio-psoas haematomas (IPHs) at our COVID-Hospital in Rome, Italy. RESULTS: Over the observation period, 925 subjects with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our COVID-hospital. Among them, we found seven spontaneous IPHs with an incidence of 7.6 cases per 1000 hospitalization. All the reported cases had a severe manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia, with at least one comorbidity and 5/7 were on treatment with low weight molecular heparin for micro or macro pulmonary thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Given the indications to prescribe anticoagulant therapy in COVID-19 and the lack of solid evidences on the optimal dose and duration, it is important to be aware of the iliopsoas haematoma as a potentially serious complication in COVID-19 inpatients. KEY MESSAGE Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of hypercoagulability state and anticoagulation therapy is recommended. Ilio-psoas haematoma (IPH) is found to be a complication of anticoagulation regimen especially in severe COVID-19 cases. An incidence of 7.6 cases per 1000 admission of IPHs was reported. Hypoesthesia of the lower limbs, pain triggered by femoral rotation, hypovolaemia and anaemia are the most common symptoms and signs of IPHs that should alert physician.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Hematoma/epidemiology , Psoas Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/diagnosis , Hematoma/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4113-e4123, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e168, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537262

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify clinical features for prognosing mortality risk using machine-learning methods in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective study of the inpatients with COVID-19 admitted from 15 January to 15 March 2020 in Wuhan is reported. The data of symptoms, comorbidity, demographic, vital sign, CT scans results and laboratory test results on admission were collected. Machine-learning methods (Random Forest and XGboost) were used to rank clinical features for mortality risk. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify clinical features with statistical significance. The predictors of mortality were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and age based on 500 bootstrapped samples. A multivariate logistic regression model was formed to predict mortality 292 in-sample patients with area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0.9521, which was better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.8501) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.4530). An out-sample data set of 13 patients was further tested to show our model (AUROC of 0.6061) was also better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.4608) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.2292). LDH, CRP and age can be used to identify severe patients with COVID-19 on hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Young Adult
11.
J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 62(6): 577-581, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited access to mental health resources has challenged clinicians in delivering early behavioral health interventions to perinatal populations. We describe telepsychiatry consultations to a rural hospital's labor and delivery unit. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how consultation-liaison services during peripartum hospitalization could meet this need. METHODS: One-year data from electronic medical records of women who were at risk of postpartum syndromes and offered a telepsychiatry consult was extracted and reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 85 consults were conducted via telepsychiatry primarily for depression, anxiety, and medication management. Bedside psychotherapeutic interventions and education were provided to 63 patients, medications were initiated for 32 patients, and outpatient referrals were made for 47 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that consultation-liaison telehealth can successfully engage at-risk mothers in psychiatric treatment. Given accelerated telemedicine efforts due to the COVID-19 pandemic, improving access to telepsychiatry for rural, peripartum populations is an important area of development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3456-3461, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical centers across the country have had to rapidly adapt clinician staffing strategies to accommodate large influxes of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the adaptations and staffing strategies that US academic medical centers employed in the inpatient setting early in the spread of COVID-19, and to assess whether those changes were sustained during the first phase of the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey assessing organization-level, team-level, and clinician-level inpatient workforce adaptations. PARTICIPANTS: Hospital medicine leadership at 27 academic medical centers in the USA. KEY RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 36 centers responded to the survey (75%). Widespread practices included frequent staffing reassessment, organization-level changes such as geographic cohorting and redeployment of non-hospitalists, and exempting high-risk healthcare workers from direct care of patients with COVID-19. Several practices were implemented but discontinued, such as reduction of non-essential services, indicating that they were less sustainable for large centers. CONCLUSION: These findings provide guidance for inpatient leaders seeking to identify sustainable practices for COVID-19 inpatient workforce planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inpatients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1032-1035, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525576

ABSTRACT

There is a need to discriminate which COVID-19 inpatients are at higher risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) to inform prophylaxis strategies. The IMPROVE-DD VTE risk assessment model (RAM) has previously demonstrated good discrimination in non-COVID populations. We aimed to externally validate the IMPROVE-DD VTE RAM in medical patients hospitalized with COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the IMPROVE-DD VTE RAM in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to one of thirteen Northwell Health hospitals in the New York metropolitan area between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020. VTE was defined as new-onset symptomatic deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. To assess the predictive value of the RAM, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Of 9407 patients who met study criteria, 274 patients developed VTE with a prevalence of 2.91%. The VTE rate was 0.41% for IMPROVE-DD score 0-1 (low risk), 1.21% for score 2-3 (moderate risk), and 5.30% for score ≥ 4 (high risk). Approximately 45.7% of patients were classified as high VTE risk, 33.3% moderate risk, and 21.0% low risk. Discrimination of low versus moderate-high VTE risk demonstrated sensitivity 0.971, specificity 0.215, PPV 0.036, and NPV 0.996. ROC AUC was 0.703. In this external validation study, the IMPROVE-DD VTE RAM demonstrated very good discrimination to identify hospitalized COVID-19 patients at low, moderate, and high VTE risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Risk Assessment , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inpatients , New York City , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(5): 499-504, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Older adults often have atypical presentation of illness and are particularly vulnerable to influenza and its sequelae, making the validity of influenza case definitions particularly relevant. We sought to assess the performance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) criteria in hospitalized older adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network undertakes active surveillance for influenza among hospitalized adults. METHODS: Data were pooled from 3 influenza seasons: 2011/12, 2012/13, and 2013/14. The ILI and SARI criteria were defined clinically, and influenza was laboratory confirmed. Frailty was measured using a validated frailty index. RESULTS: Of 11,379 adult inpatients (7,254 aged ≥65 years), 4,942 (2,948 aged ≥65 years) had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Their median age was 72 years (interquartile range [IQR], 58-82) and 52.6% were women. The sensitivity of ILI criteria was 51.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.6-52.6) for younger adults versus 44.6% (95% CI, 43.6-45.8) for older adults. SARI criteria were met by 64.1% (95% CI, 62.7-65.6) of younger adults versus 57.1% (95% CI, 55.9-58.2) of older adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with influenza who were prefrail or frail were less likely to meet ILI and SARI case definitions. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of older adults, particularly those who are frail, are missed by standard ILI and SARI case definitions. Surveillance using these case definitions is biased toward identifying younger cases, and does not capture the true burden of influenza. Because of the substantial fraction of cases missed, surveillance definitions should not be used to guide diagnosis and clinical management of influenza.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bias , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Frail Elderly , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization , Laboratories, Hospital , Male , Prospective Studies , Research , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sentinel Surveillance
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(SI): SI59-SI67, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (IRD); in patients with RA treated with specific DMARDs; and the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients with RA. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study from Denmark between 1 March and 12 August 2020. The adjusted incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA; spondyloarthritis including psoriatic arthritis; connective tissue disease; vasculitides; and non-IRD individuals. Further, the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated for patients with RA treated and non-treated with TNF-inhibitors, HCQ or glucocorticoids, respectively. Lastly, the incidence of severe COVID-19 infection (intensive care, acute respiratory distress syndrome or death) among hospital-admitted patients was estimated for RA and non-IRD sp - individudals. RESULTS: Patients with IRD (n = 58 052) had an increased partially adjusted incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 compared with the 4.5 million people in the general population [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.86] with strongest associations for patients with RA (n = 29 440, HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.30) and vasculitides (n = 4072, HR 1.82, 95% CI: 0.91, 3.64). There was no increased incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization associated with TNF-inhibitor, HCQ nor glucocorticoid use. COVID-19 admitted patients with RA had a HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.53) for a severe outcome. CONCLUSION: Patients with IRD were more likely to be admitted with COVID-19 than the general population, and COVID-19 admitted patients with RA could be at higher risk of a severe outcome. Treatment with specific DMARDs did not affect the risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/virology
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5908-5916, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432424

ABSTRACT

The main entry receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). SARS-CoV-2 interactions with ACE2 may increase ectodomain shedding but consequences for the renin-angiotensin system and pathology in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. We measured soluble ACE2 (sACE2) and sACE levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 114 hospital-treated COVID-19 patients compared with 10 healthy controls; follow-up samples after four months were analyzed for 58 patients. Associations between sACE2 respectively sACE and risk factors for severe COVID-19, outcome, and inflammatory markers were investigated. Levels of sACE2 were higher in COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls, median 5.0 (interquartile range 2.8-11.8) ng/ml versus 1.4 (1.1-1.6) ng/ml, p < .0001. sACE2 was higher in men than women but was not affected by other risk factors for severe COVID-19. sACE2 decreased to 2.3 (1.6-3.9) ng/ml at follow-up, p < .0001, but remained higher than in healthy controls, p = .012. sACE was marginally lower during COVID-19 compared with at follow-up, 57 (45-70) ng/ml versus 72 (52-87) ng/ml, p = .008. Levels of sACE2 and sACE did not differ depending on survival or disease severity. sACE2 during COVID-19 correlated with von Willebrand factor, factor VIII and D-dimer, while sACE correlated with interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Conclusions: sACE2 was transiently elevated in COVID-19, likely due to increased shedding from infected cells. sACE2 and sACE during COVID-19 differed in correlations with markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, suggesting release from different cell types and/or vascular beds.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 299-311, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Male sex is one of the determinants of severe coronavirus diseas-e-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to characterize sex differences in severe outcomes in adults with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a sex-stratified analysis of clinical and biological features and outcomes (i.e. invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and home discharge at day 7 (D7) or day 28 (D28)) in 2380 patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 and included in the nationwide CORONADO observational study (NCT04324736). RESULTS: The study population was predominantly male (63.5%). After multiple adjustments, female sex was negatively associated with the primary outcome (IMV and/or death, OR: 0.66 (0.49-0.88)), death (OR: 0.49 (0.30-0.79)) and ICU admission (OR: 0.57 (0.43-0.77)) at D7 but only with ICU admission (OR: 0.58 (0.43-0.77)) at D28. Older age and a history of microvascular complications were predictors of death at D28 in both sexes, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was predictive of death in women only. At admission, C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), according to the CKD-EPI formula predicted death in both sexes. Lymphocytopenia was an independent predictor of death in women only, while thrombocytopenia and elevated plasma glucose concentration were predictors of death in men only. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, female sex was associated with lower incidence of early severe outcomes, but did not influence the overall in-hospital mortality, suggesting that diabetes mitigates the female protection from COVID-19 severity. Sex-associated biological determinants may be useful to optimize COVID-19 prevention and management in women and men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Sex Characteristics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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