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1.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(9): 763-770, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792080

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been declared as a pandemic. COVID-19 patients may require transport for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes intra- or interhospital or transport from an outside hospital to a healthcare facility. Transport of critically ill or infectious patients is always challenging and involves the integration of various tasks and manpower. The adverse events have been attributed to various factors such as a multidisciplinary team and lack of appropriate communication among team members, absence of equipment, or failure during transport, apart from physiological alteration inherent to the disease of the patient. The transport of COVID-19 patients carries an additional risk of not only the disease itself but also due to the risk of its transmission to the transport team. The human-to-human transmission of the virus can occur via respiratory droplets. So, the person involved in the transport of such patients shall be at risk and warrants appropriate steps for their safety. Appropriate planning by a well-trained transport team is an essence for the safe transport of the suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. The Transport Medicine Society guidelines present consensus guidelines for the safe transport of COVID-19 patients. DISCLAIMER: These consensus guidelines are applicable for the safe transport of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 adult patients. These recommendations should be used in conjunction with medical management guidelines and advisories related to COVID-19. These recommendations should be adapted to the local policies prevalent at the workplace and also per agreement among the hospitals for transport (agreement between referring and receiving facilities). With the emergence of new scientific evidence, these guidelines may require modification. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Munjal M, Ahmed SM, Garg R, Das S, Chatterjee N, Mittal K, et al. The Transport Medicine Society Consensus Guidelines for the Transport of Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(9):763-770.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725660

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of people's lives all over the world. This Facebook survey study aimed to investigate the COVID-19-related factors that were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts among members of the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. The online survey recruited 1970 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported experience of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the previous week were collected along with a number of COVID-19-related factors, including level of worry, change in social interaction and daily lives, any academic/occupational interference, levels of social and specific support, and self-reported physical health. In total, 55.8% of the participants reported sleep disturbance, and 10.8% reported having suicidal thoughts in the previous week. Multiple COVID-19-related factors were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased worry about COVID-19, more severe impact of COVID-19 on social interaction, lower perceived social support, more severe academic/occupational interference due to COVID-19, lower COVID-19-specified support, and poorer self-reported physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Less handwashing, lower perceived social support, lower COVID-19-specified support, poorer self-reported physical health, and younger age were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts. Further investigation is needed to understand the changes in mental health among the public since the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Media , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
3.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(12): 2213-2219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714871

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the association between psychological stress and physical fitness. BACKGROUND: Both obesity and psychological stress reduce exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether obesity may modify the relationship. METHODS: A population of 4,080 military subjects in Taiwan was divided to three groups according to the BMI ≥27.0 kg/m2 (obesity), 24.0-26.9 kg/m2 (overweight) and 18.5-23.9 kg/m2 (normal weight). Normal, slight, and great psychological stress was evaluated by the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale (BSRS-5) score ≤5, 6-9, and ≥10, respectively. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness were respectively evaluated by time for a 3000-meter run and numbers of 2-minute sit-ups and 2-minute push-ups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with adjustments for age and sex was used to determine the relationship. RESULTS: The mean time (sec) for a 3000-meter run (standard error) under slight and great stress differed from that under normal stress in the normal weight (881.0 (11.0) and 877.9 (5.8) vs. 862.2 (1.7), p=0.089 and 0.0088, respectively) and in the obesity (928.1 (16.8) and 921.8 (10.7) vs. 895.2 (1.6), p=0.054 and 0.016, respectively), while the differences were not significant in the overweight (877.1 (12.7) and 877.5 (7.1) vs. 867.1 (2.1), both p >0.5). The impacts of the BMI on 2-minute sit-ups had a similar pattern with that on a 3000-meter run whereas the impact of the BMI on 2-minute push-ups was insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Mental stress may not affect physical fitness in overweight military personnel. The mechanism is not clear and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Military Personnel , Body Mass Index , Hospitalization , Humans , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 367-373, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of current or past coronavirus disease 2019 in skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents is unknown because of asymptomatic infection and constrained testing capacity early in the pandemic. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine a more comprehensive prevalence of past coronavirus disease 2019 in Los Angeles County SNF residents and staff members. METHODS: We recruited participants from 24 facilities; participants were requested to submit a nasopharyngeal swab sample for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and a serum sample for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All participants were cross-referenced with our surveillance database to identify persons with prior positive SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: From 18 August to 24 September 2020, we enrolled 3305 participants (1340 residents and 1965 staff members). Among 856 residents providing serum samples, 362 (42%) had current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 346 serology-positive residents, 199 (58%) did not have a documented prior positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result. Among 1806 staff members providing serum, 454 (25%) had current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 447 serology-positive staff members, 353 (79%) did not have a documented prior positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result. CONCLUSIONS: Past testing practices and policies missed a substantial number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in SNF residents and staff members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Skilled Nursing Facilities
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 1-7, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Households are high-risk settings for the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is likely associated with the infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We therefore aimed to assess the association between SARS-CoV-2 exposure within households and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We performed a Danish, nationwide, register-based, cohort study including laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals from 22 February 2020 to 6 October 2020. Household exposure to SARS-CoV-2 was defined as having 1 individual test positive for SARS-CoV-2 within the household. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between "critical COVID-19" within and between households with and without secondary cases. RESULTS: From 15 063 multiperson households, 19 773 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were included; 11 632 were categorized as index cases without any secondary household cases; 3431 as index cases with secondary cases, that is, 22.8% of multiperson households; and 4710 as secondary cases. Critical COVID-19 occurred in 2.9% of index cases living with no secondary cases, 4.9% of index cases with secondary cases, and 1.3% of secondary cases. The adjusted hazard ratio for critical COVID-19 among index cases vs secondary cases within the same household was 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88-3.34), 2.27 (95% CI, 1.77-2.93) for index cases in households with no secondary cases vs secondary cases, and 1.1 (95% CI, .93-1.30) for index cases with secondary cases vs index cases without secondary cases. CONCLUSIONS: We found no increased hazard ratio of critical COVID-19 among household members of infected SARS-CoV-2 index cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans
6.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(8): 847-853, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574345

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adherence to healthy lifestyles (as measured by the healthy lifestyle index [HLI]) and depressive symptoms among staff members at a large national medical institution in Tokyo, Japan, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study sample consisted of 1228 staff members aged between 21 and 73 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in July 2020. We constructed the HLI by assigning one point to each healthy lifestyle factor: normal body mass index, sufficient physical activity, non-smoking status, non-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and sufficient sleep duration. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for depressive symptoms were 1.00 (reference), 0.71, 0.66, and 0.56 for participants with HLI scores of 0 to 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The present study suggests the role of healthy lifestyles in mental health among hospital staff working during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Healthy Lifestyle , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 29(23): e1217-e1224, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526957

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although the pause in elective surgery was necessary to preserve healthcare resources at the height of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, recent data have highlighted the worsening pain, decline in physical activity, and increase in anxiety among cancelled total hip and knee arthroplasty patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of our staged reopening protocol and the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among elective arthroplasty patients. METHODS: We identified all elective hip and knee arthroplasty patients who underwent our universal COVID-19 testing protocol during our phased reopening between May 1, 2020, and July 21, 2020, at our institution. We recorded the SARS-CoV-2 test results of each patient along with their demographics, medical comorbidities, and symptoms at the time of testing. We followed each of these positive patients through their rescheduled cases and recorded any complications or potential SARS-CoV-2 healthcare exposures. RESULTS: Of the 2,329 patients, we identified five patients (0.21%) with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction--confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive test, none with symptoms. All patients were successfully rescheduled and underwent their elective arthroplasty procedure within 6 weeks of their original surgery date. None of these patients experienced a perioperative complication at the time of their rescheduled arthroplasty procedure. No orthopaedic surgeon or staff member caring for these patients reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. CONCLUSION: Our phased reopening protocol with universal preoperative virus testing was safe and identified a low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic, elective arthroplasty patients at our institution. With uncertainty regarding the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic, we hope that this research can guide future policy decisions regarding elective surgery.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19 Testing , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 644899, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526792

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global emergency, affecting millions of individuals both physically and psychologically. The present research investigated the associations between social media exposure and depression during the COVID-19 outbreak by examining the mediating role of psychological distress and the moderating role of emotion regulation among members of the general public in China. Participants (N = 485) completed a set of questionnaires online, including demographic information, self-rated physical health, and social media exposure to topics related to COVID-19. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were utilized to measure psychological distress about COVID-19, depression, and emotion regulation strategies, respectively. Results found that older age and greater levels of social media exposure were associated with more psychological distress about the virus (r = 0.14, p = 0.003; r = 0.22, p < 0.001). Results of the moderated mediation model suggest that psychological distress mediated the relationship between social media exposure and depression (ß = 0.10; Boot 95% CI = 0.07, 0.15). Furthermore, expressive suppression moderated the relationship between psychological distress and depression (ß = 0.10, p = 0.017). The findings are discussed in terms of the need for mental health assistance for individuals at high risk of depression, including the elderly and individuals who reported greater psychological distress and those who showed preference usage of suppression, during the COVID-19 crisis.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3036-e3041, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ongoing in Europe in June 2020, day care centers were reopened in the state of Hesse, Germany, after the lockdown. The role young children play in the dynamics of the transmission was unknown. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study over 12 weeks and 2 days (18 June 2020-10 September 2020) to screen attendees and staff from day care centers in the state of Hesse, Germany, for both respiratory and gastrointestinal shedding of SARS-CoV-2. A total of 859 children (age range, 3 months-8 years) and 376 staff members from 50 day care centers, which were chosen representatively from throughout the state, participated in the study. Parents were asked to collect both a buccal mucosa and an anal swab from their children once a week. Staff were asked to self-administer the swabs. Reverse transcriptas polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in a multiple-swab pooling protocol. RESULTS: A total of 7366 buccal mucosa swabs and 5907 anal swabs were analyzed. No respiratory or gastrointestinal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in any of the children. Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 2 staff members from distinct day care centers. One was asymptomatic at the time of testing, and one was symptomatic and did not attend the facility on that day. CONCLUSION: Detection of either respiratory or gastrointestinal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in children and staff members attending day care centers was rare in the context of limited community activity and with infection prevention measures in the facilities in place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Day Care, Medical , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Viral
10.
Mil Med ; 185(3-4): e448-e456, 2020 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455332

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medical error is the third leading cause of death in the United States, contributing to suboptimal care, serious patient injury, and mortality among beneficiaries in the Military Health System. Recent media reports have scrutinized the safety and quality of military healthcare, including surgical complications, infection rates, clinician competence, and a reluctance of leaders to investigate operational processes. Military leaders have aggressively committed to a continuous cycle of process improvement and a culture of safety with the goal to transform the Military Health System into a high-reliability organization. The cornerstone of patient safety is effective clinician communication. Military surgical teams are particularly susceptible to communication error because of potential barriers created by military rank, clinical specialty, and military culture. With an operations tempo requiring the military to continually deploy small, agile surgical teams, effective interpersonal communication among these team members is vital to providing life-saving care on the battlefield. METHODS: The purpose of our exploratory, prospective, cross-sectional study was to examine the association between social distance and interpersonal communication in a military surgical setting. Using social network analysis to map the relationships and structure of interpersonal relations, we developed six networks (interaction frequency, close working relationship, socialization, advice-seeking, advice-giving, and speaking-up/voice) and two models that represented communication effectiveness ratings for each participant. We used the geodesic or network distance as a predictor of team member network position and assessed the relationship of distance to pairwise communication effectiveness with permutation-based quadratic assignment procedures. We hypothesized that the shorter the network geodesic distance between two individuals, the smaller the difference between their communication effectiveness. RESULTS: We administered a network survey to 50 surgical teams comprised of 45 multidisciplinary clinicians with 522 dyadic relationships. There were significant and positive correlations between differences in communication effectiveness and geodesic distances across all five networks for both general (r = 0.819-0.894, P < 0.001 for all correlations) and task-specific (r = 0.729-0.834, P < 0.001 for all correlations) communication. This suggests that a closer network ties between individuals is associated with smaller differences in communication effectiveness. In the quadratic assignment procedures regression model, geodesic distance predicted task-specific communication (ß = 0.056-0.163, P < 0.001 for all networks). Interaction frequency, socialization, and advice-giving had the largest effect on task-specific communication difference. We did not uncover authority gradients that affect speaking-up patterns among surgical clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have important implications for safety and quality. Stronger connections in the interaction frequency, close working relationship, socialization, and advice networks were associated with smaller differences in communication effectiveness. The ability of team members to communicate clinical information effectively is essential to building a culture of safety and is vital to progress towards high-reliability. The military faces distinct communication challenges because of policies to rotate personnel, the presence of a clear rank structure, and antifraternization regulations. Despite these challenges, overall communication effectiveness in military teams will likely improve by maintaining team consistency, fostering team cohesion, and allowing for frequent interaction both inside and outside of the work environment.


Subject(s)
Communication , Patient Care Team , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , United States
11.
Oral Dis ; 27 Suppl 3: 707-709, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434792

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of COVID-19 showing negative respiratory swabs but positive salivary samples at the same time. These findings rise the concern about how to manage these patients before hospital discharging, thus avoiding contagion among their family members or a second coronavirus wave once the lockdown is over.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1261-e1269, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of children in household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain, and investigate the household transmission dynamics. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was performed during summer and school periods (1 July 2020-31 October 2020) to analyze epidemiological and clinical features and viral household transmission dynamics in COVID-19 patients aged <16 years. A pediatric index case was established when a child was the first individual infected. Secondary cases were defined when another household member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 before the child. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was calculated, and logistic regression was used to assess associations between transmission risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The study included 1040 COVID-19 patients. Almost half (47.2%) were asymptomatic, 10.8% had comorbidities, and 2.6% required hospitalization. No deaths were reported. Viral transmission was common among household members (62.3%). More than 70% (756/1040) of pediatric cases were secondary to an adult, whereas 7.7% (80/1040) were index cases. The SAR was significantly lower in households with COVID-19 pediatric index cases during the school period relative to summer (P = .02) and compared to adults (P = .006). No individual or environmental risk factors associated with the SAR. CONCLUSIONS: Children are unlikely to cause household COVID-19 clusters or be major drivers of the pandemic, even if attending school. Interventions aimed at children are expected to have a small impact on reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
13.
Chaos ; 30(8): 081103, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396544

ABSTRACT

We present numerical results obtained from the modeling of a stochastic, highly connected, and mobile community. The spread of attributes like health and disease among the community members is simulated using cellular automata on a planar two-dimensional surface. With remarkably few assumptions, we are able to predict the future course of propagation of such a disease as a function of time and the fine-tuning of parameters related to interactions among the automata.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248162, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394534

ABSTRACT

MAVIE is a web-based prospective cohort study of Home, Leisure, and Sports Injuries with a longitudinal follow-up of French general population volunteers. MAVIE participants are voluntary members of French households, including overseas territories. Participation in the cohort involves answering individual and household questionnaires and relevant exposures and prospectively reporting injury events during the follow-up. Recruitment and data collection have been in progress since 2014. The number of participants as of the end of the year 2019 was 12,419 from 9,483 households. A total of 8,640 participants provided data during follow-up. Respondents to follow-up were composed of 763 children aged 0-14, 655 teenagers and young adults aged 15-29, 6,845 adults, and 377 people aged 75 or more. At the end of the year 2019, 1,698 participants had reported 2,483 injury events. Children, people aged 50 and more, people with poor self-perceived physical and mental health, people who engage in sports activities, and people with a history of injury during the year before recruitment were more likely to report new injuries. An interactive mobile/web application (MAVIE-Lab) was developed to help volunteers decide on personalized measures to prevent their risks of HLIs. The available data provides an opportunity to analyse multiple exposures at both the individual and household levels that may be associated with an increased risk of trauma. The ongoing analysis includes HLI incidence estimates, the determination of health-related risk factors, a specific study on the risk of home injury, another on sports injuries, and an analysis of the role of cognitive skills and mind wandering. Volunteers form a community that constitutes a population laboratory for preventative initiatives.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Home/statistics & numerical data , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Leisure Activities , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Young Adult
15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(10): 1791-1799, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 triggers severe illness with high mortality in a subgroup of patients. Such a critical course of COVID-19 is thought to be associated with the development of cytokine storm, a condition seen in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, specific data demonstrating a clear association of cytokine storm with severe COVID-19 are still lacking. The aim of this study was to directly address whether immune activation in COVID-19 does indeed mimic the conditions found in these classic cytokine storm syndromes. METHODS: Levels of 22 biomarkers were quantified in serum samples from patients with COVID-19 (n = 30 patients, n = 83 longitudinal samples in total), patients with secondary HLH/MAS (n = 50), and healthy controls (n = 9). Measurements were performed using bead array assays and single-marker enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum biomarker levels were assessed for correlations with disease outcome. RESULTS: In patients with secondary HLH/MAS, we observed pronounced activation of the interleukin-18 (IL-18)-interferon-γ axis, increased serum levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and IL-8, and strongly reduced levels of soluble Fas ligand in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These observations appeared to discriminate immune dysregulation in critical COVID-19 from the well-recognized characteristics of other cytokine storm syndromes. CONCLUSION: Serum biomarker profiles clearly separate COVID-19 from MAS or secondary HLH in terms of distinguishing the severe systemic hyperinflammation that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings could be useful in determining the efficacy of drugs targeting key molecules and pathways specifically associated with systemic cytokine storm conditions in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(21): 779-784, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395448

ABSTRACT

To meet the educational, physical, social, and emotional needs of children, many U.S. schools opened for in-person learning during fall 2020 by implementing strategies to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). To date, there have been no U.S. studies comparing COVID-19 incidence in schools that varied in implementing recommended prevention strategies, including mask requirements and ventilation improvements* (2). Using data from Georgia kindergarten through grade 5 (K-5) schools that opened for in-person learning during fall 2020, CDC and the Georgia Department of Public Health (GDPH) assessed the impact of school-level prevention strategies on incidence of COVID-19 among students and staff members before the availability of COVID-19 vaccines.† Among 169 K-5 schools that participated in a survey on prevention strategies and reported COVID-19 cases during November 16-December 11, 2020, COVID-19 incidence was 3.08 cases among students and staff members per 500 enrolled students.§ Adjusting for county-level incidence, COVID-19 incidence was 37% lower in schools that required teachers and staff members to use masks, and 39% lower in schools that improved ventilation, compared with schools that did not use these prevention strategies. Ventilation strategies associated with lower school incidence included methods to dilute airborne particles alone by opening windows, opening doors, or using fans (35% lower incidence), or in combination with methods to filter airborne particles with high-efficiency particulate absorbing (HEPA) filtration with or without purification with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) (48% lower incidence). Multiple strategies should be implemented to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in schools (2); mask requirements for teachers and staff members and improved ventilation are important strategies that elementary schools could implement as part of a multicomponent approach to provide safer, in-person learning environments. Universal and correct mask use is still recommended by CDC for adults and children in schools regardless of vaccination status (2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Schools , Ventilation/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389387

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA), which is the master regulator of MHC class II gene expression. CIITA is the founding member of the mammalian nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) protein family but stood apart for a long time as the only transcriptional regulator. More recently, it was found that its closest homolog, NLRC5 (NLR protein caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD)-containing 5), is a regulator of MHC-I gene expression. Both act as non-DNA-binding activators through multiple protein-protein interactions with an MHC enhanceosome complex that binds cooperatively to a highly conserved combinatorial cis-acting module. Thus, the regulation of MHC-II expression is regulated largely through the differential expression of CIITA. In addition to the well-defined role of CIITA in MHC-II GENE regulation, we will discuss several other aspects of CIITA functions, such as its role in cancer, its role as a viral restriction element contributing to intrinsic immunity, and lastly, its very recently discovered role as an inhibitor of Ebola and SARS-Cov-2 virus replication. We will briefly touch upon the recently discovered role of NLRP3 as a transcriptional regulator, which suggests that transcriptional regulation is, after all, not such an unusual feature for NLR proteins.


Subject(s)
Genes, MHC Class II , NLR Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Trans-Activators/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Ebolavirus/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/metabolism , Humans , NLR Proteins/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trans-Activators/genetics , Virus Replication
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1868-1872, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389861

ABSTRACT

The Head Start program, including Head Start for children aged 3-5 years and Early Head Start for infants, toddlers, and pregnant women, promotes early learning and healthy development among children aged 0-5 years whose families meet the annually adjusted Federal Poverty Guidelines* throughout the United States.† These programs are funded by grants administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families (ACF). In March 2020, Congress passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act,§ which appropriated $750 million for Head Start, equating to approximately $875 in CARES Act funds per enrolled child. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, most states required all schools (K-12) to close or transition to virtual learning. The Office of Head Start gave its local programs that remained open the flexibility to use CARES Act funds to implement CDC-recommended guidance (1) and other ancillary measures to provide in-person services in the early phases of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in April and May 2020, when many similar programs remained closed. Guidance included information on masks, other personal protective equipment, physical setup, supplies necessary for maintaining healthy environments and operations, and the need for additional staff members to ensure small class sizes. Head Start programs successfully implemented CDC-recommended mitigation strategies and supported other practices that helped to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff members. CDC conducted a mixed-methods analysis to document these approaches and inform implementation of mitigation strategies in other child care settings. Implementing and monitoring adherence to recommended mitigation strategies reduces risk for COVID-19 transmission in child care settings. These approaches could be applied to other early care and education settings that remain open for in-person learning and potentially reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Day Care Centers/organization & administration , Schools, Nursery/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child, Preschool , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , United States/epidemiology
19.
Front Psychol ; 11: 603440, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389239

ABSTRACT

These days many gyms and fitness centers are closed to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in society. The gym is an environment rich in microorganisms, and careful hygiene is a necessity to keep infections at bay. Exercise centers strive for better hygiene compliance among their members. This effort has become essential in light of the current pandemic. Several experimental studies show that others' physical presence, or the "illusion" of being watched, may alter behavior. This article reports on a natural field experiment testing one specific social nudge intended to increase gym members' hygienic behavior. The study was conducted before the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. A picture of "observing eyes" was attached to paper dispensers and cleanser spray bottles at two different gyms in Norway. A reversal design, also called an ABA design, with and without the nudge's presence, was used to investigate the impact on gym members' hygienic behavior. A follow-up study was conducted in one of the centers to investigate whether the nudge stimuli would function over time. The study included 254 individual choice situations during nine observation sessions conducted over 9 weeks. The results from both centers provide evidence of a strong effect of the nudge. However, the effect decreased during the follow-up study. These findings support previous research indicating that human behavior is influenced by the presence of implicit observation cues - in this case - observing eyes. However, insights into the long-term effect of implicit observation cues are still needed since the salience of the stimuli faded over time.

20.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 41: 102059, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Determinants of vaccine acceptance are multifactorial, complex, and in most cases, context-dependent. We determined the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination intention (VI) and fear of its adverse effects (FAE) as well as their associated factors in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). METHODS: We conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis of a database collected by the University of Maryland and Facebook. We included participants aged 18 and over from LAC surveyed, January 15 to February 1, 2021. We evaluated VI, FAE, sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 symptomatology, compliance with community mitigation strategies, food and economic insecurity, mental health evaluation and the influence in VI when recommended by different stakeholders. We calculated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with their 95%CIs. RESULTS: We analyzed 472,521 responses by Latin American adults, finding a VI and FAE prevalence of 80.0% and 81.2%, respectively. We found that female and non-binary genders were associated with a lower probability of VI and a higher probability of FAE. Besides, living in a town, village or rural area and economic insecurity was associated with a higher FAE probability. The fears of becoming seriously ill, a family member becoming seriously ill from COVID-19 and having depressive symptoms were associated with a higher probability of VI and FAE. CONCLUSION: Eight out of 10 adults in LAC have VI and FAE. The factors identified are useful for the development of communication strategies to reduce FAE frequency. It is necessary to guarantee mass vaccination and support the return of economic activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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