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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 141, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Transcriptome, epigenome and kinome profiling allowed a systems biology level characterisation of genomewide immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract in THP1 monocytes. RESULTS: Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed that Echinaforce® treatment triggers antiviral innate immunity pathways, involving tonic IFN signaling, activation of pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis and immunometabolism. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi) genomic protective response against viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity through tonic IFN regulation of pattern recognition and chemokine gene expression and DNA repeat hypermethylated silencing of HERVs in monocytes. These results suggest that immunomodulation by Echinaforce® treatment holds promise to reduce symptoms and duration of infection episodes of common cold corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2, with strongly impaired interferon (IFN) response and weak innate antiviral defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Echinacea , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389163

ABSTRACT

Eliciting durable and protective T cell-mediated immunity in the respiratory mucosa remains a significant challenge. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based cationic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) loaded with TLR agonists mimic biophysical properties of microbes and hence, simulate pathogen-pattern recognition receptor interactions to safely and effectively stimulate innate immune responses. We generated micro particle PLPs loaded with TLR4 (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant, GLA) or TLR9 (CpG) agonists, and formulated them with and without a mucosal delivery enhancing carbomer-based nanoemulsion adjuvant (ADJ). These adjuvants delivered intranasally to mice elicited high numbers of influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ effector and tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in lungs and airways. PLPs delivering TLR4 versus TLR9 agonists drove phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of effector and memory T cells. While PLPs loaded with CpG or GLA provided immunity, combining the adjuvanticity of PLP-GLA and ADJ markedly enhanced the development of airway and lung TRMs and CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent immunity to influenza virus. Further, balanced CD8 (Tc1/Tc17) and CD4 (Th1/Th17) recall responses were linked to effective influenza virus control. These studies provide mechanistic insights into vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity and pave the way for the development of a universal influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Dogs , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
3.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234671

ABSTRACT

Macrophages play a key role in induction of inflammatory responses. These inflammatory responses are mostly considered to be instigated by activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or cytokine receptors. However, recently it has become clear that also antibodies and pentraxins, which can both activate Fc receptors (FcRs), induce very powerful inflammatory responses by macrophages that can even be an order of magnitude greater than PRRs. While the physiological function of this antibody-dependent inflammation (ADI) is to counteract infections, undesired activation or over-activation of this mechanism will lead to pathology, as observed in a variety of disorders, including viral infections such as COVID-19, chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease, and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this review we discuss how physiological ADI provides host defense by inducing pathogen-specific immunity, and how erroneous activation of this mechanism leads to pathology. Moreover, we will provide an overview of the currently known signaling and metabolic pathways that underlie ADI, and how these can be targeted to counteract pathological inflammation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Antibodies/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/microbiology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107087, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884727

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm generates during various systemic acute infections, including sepsis and current pandemic called COVID-19 (severe) causing devastating inflammatory conditions, which include multi-organ failure or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death of the patient. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the major pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by immune cells as well as non-immune cells, including neurons, which play a crucial role in generating cytokine storm. They recognize microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, expressed by pathogens) and damage or death-associate molecular patterns (DAMPs; released and/expressed by damaged/killed host cells). Upon recognition of MAMPs and DAMPs, TLRs activate downstream signaling pathways releasing several pro-inflammatory mediators [cytokines, chemokines, interferons, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS or RNS)], which cause acute inflammation meant to control the pathogen and repair the damage. Induction of an exaggerated response due to genetic makeup of the host and/or persistence of the pathogen due to its evasion mechanisms may lead to severe systemic inflammatory condition called sepsis in response to the generation of cytokine storm and organ dysfunction. The activation of TLR-induced inflammatory response is hardwired to the induction of several negative feedback mechanisms that come into play to conclude the response and maintain immune homeostasis. This state-of-the-art review describes the importance of TLR signaling in the onset of the sepsis-associated cytokine storm and discusses various host-derived endogenous negative regulators of TLR signaling pathways. The subject is very important as there is a vast array of genes and processes implicated in these negative feedback mechanisms. These molecules and mechanisms can be targeted for developing novel therapeutic drugs for cytokine storm-associated diseases, including sepsis, severe COVID-19, and other inflammatory diseases, where TLR-signaling plays a significant role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Immunomodulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/physiology , Animals , Humans , Mice , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination
5.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(2): e2163, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793060

ABSTRACT

Azithromycin (AZM) is a synthetic macrolide antibiotic effective against a broad range of bacterial and mycobacterial infections. Due to an additional range of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties, it has been given to patients with the coronaviruses SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV. It is now being investigated as a potential candidate treatment for SARS-CoV-2 having been identified as a candidate therapeutic for this virus by both in vitro and in silico drug screens. To date there are no randomised trial data on its use in any novel coronavirus infection, although a large number of trials are currently in progress. In this review, we summarise data from in vitro, murine and human clinical studies on the anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties of macrolides, particularly AZM. AZM reduces in vitro replication of several classes of viruses including rhinovirus, influenza A, Zika virus, Ebola, enteroviruses and coronaviruses, via several mechanisms. AZM enhances expression of anti-viral pattern recognition receptors and induction of anti-viral type I and III interferon responses. Of relevance to severe coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19), which is characterised by an over-exuberant innate inflammatory response, AZM also has anti-inflammatory properties including suppression of IL-1beta, IL-2, TNF and GM-CSF. AZM inhibits T cells by inhibiting calcineurin signalling, mammalian target of rapamycin activity and NFκB activation. AZM particularly targets granulocytes where it concentrates markedly in lysosomes, particularly affecting accumulation, adhesion, degranulation and apoptosis of neutrophils. Given its proven safety, affordability and global availability, tempered by significant concerns about antimicrobial stewardship, there is an urgent mandate to perform well-designed and conducted randomised clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Humans
6.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612678

ABSTRACT

It is well understood that the adaptive immune response to infectious agents includes a modulating suppressive component as well as an activating component. We now show that the very early innate response also has an immunosuppressive component. Infected cells upregulate the CD47 "don't eat me" signal, which slows the phagocytic uptake of dying and viable cells as well as downstream antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. A CD47 mimic that acts as an essential virulence factor is encoded by all poxviruses, but CD47 expression on infected cells was found to be upregulated even by pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that encode no mimic. CD47 upregulation was revealed to be a host response induced by the stimulation of both endosomal and cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines, including those found in the plasma of hepatitis C patients, upregulated CD47 on uninfected dendritic cells, thereby linking innate modulation with downstream adaptive immune responses. Indeed, results from antibody-mediated CD47 blockade experiments as well as CD47 knockout mice revealed an immunosuppressive role for CD47 during infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Since CD47 blockade operates at the level of pattern recognition receptors rather than at a pathogen or antigen-specific level, these findings identify CD47 as a novel potential immunotherapeutic target for the enhancement of immune responses to a broad range of infectious agents.IMPORTANCE Immune responses to infectious agents are initiated when a pathogen or its components bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRR binding sets off a cascade of events that activates immune responses. We now show that, in addition to activating immune responses, PRR signaling also initiates an immunosuppressive response, probably to limit inflammation. The importance of the current findings is that blockade of immunomodulatory signaling, which is mediated by the upregulation of the CD47 molecule, can lead to enhanced immune responses to any pathogen that triggers PRR signaling. Since most or all pathogens trigger PRRs, CD47 blockade could be used to speed up and strengthen both innate and adaptive immune responses when medically indicated. Such immunotherapy could be done without a requirement for knowing the HLA type of the individual, the specific antigens of the pathogen, or, in the case of bacterial infections, the antimicrobial resistance profile.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD47 Antigen/metabolism , Immunomodulation/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , A549 Cells , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Animals , CD47 Antigen/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation/immunology
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