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1.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

2.
Life Sci ; 284: 119201, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm is the exaggerated immune response often observed in viral infections. It is also intimately linked with the progression of COVID-19 disease as well as associated complications and mortality. Therefore, targeting the cytokine storm might help in reducing COVID-19-associated health complications. The number of COVID-19 associated deaths (as of January 15, 2021; https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/) in the USA is high (1199/million) as compared to countries like India (110/million). Although the reason behind this is not clear, spices may have some role in explaining this difference. Spices and herbs are used in different traditional medicines, especially in countries such as India to treat various chronic diseases due to their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: To evaluate the literature available on the anti-inflammatory properties of spices which might prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. METHOD: A detailed literature search has been conducted on PubMed for collecting information pertaining to the COVID-19; the history, origin, key structural features, and mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2; the repurposed drugs in use for the management of COVID-19, and the anti-inflammatory role of spices to combat COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. KEY FINDINGS: The literature search resulted in numerous in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials that have reported the potency of spices to exert anti-inflammatory effects by regulating crucial molecular targets for inflammation. SIGNIFICANCE: As spices are derived from Mother Nature and are inexpensive, they are relatively safer to consume. Therefore, their anti-inflammatory property can be exploited to combat the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. This review thus focuses on the current knowledge on the role of spices for the treatment of COVID-19 through suppression of inflammation-linked cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Spices , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013333, 2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demodex blepharitis is a chronic condition commonly associated with recalcitrant dry eye symptoms though many people with Demodex mites are asymptomatic. The primary cause of this condition in humans is two types of Demodex mites: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. There are varying reports of the prevalence of Demodex blepharitis among adults, and it affects both men and women equally. While Demodex mites are commonly treated with tea tree oil, the effectiveness of tea tree oil for treating Demodex blepharitis is not well documented. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of tea tree oil on ocular Demodex infestation in people with Demodex blepharitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2019, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the databases on 18 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with tea tree oil (or its components) versus another treatment or no treatment for people with Demodex blepharitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts and then full text of records to determine their eligibility. The review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using Covidence. A third review author resolved any conflicts at all stages. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (1124 eyes of 562 participants; 17 to 281 participants per study) from the US, Korea, China, Australia, Ireland, and Turkey. The RCTs compared some formulation of tea tree oil to another treatment or no treatment. Included participants were both men and women, ranging from 39 to 55 years of age. All RCTs were assessed at unclear or high risk of bias in one or more domains. We also identified two RCTs that are ongoing or awaiting publications. Data from three RCTs that reported a short-term mean change in the number of Demodex mites per eight eyelashes contributed to a meta-analysis. We are uncertain about the mean reduction for the groups that received the tea tree oil intervention (mean difference [MD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24 to 1.16) at four to six weeks as compared to other interventions. Only one RCT reported data for long-term changes, which found that the group that received intense pulse light as the treatment had complete eradication of Demodex mites at three months. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. Three RCTs reported no evidence of a difference for participant reported symptoms measured on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) between the tea tree oil group and the group receiving other forms of intervention. Mean differences in these studies ranged from -10.54 (95% CI - 24.19, 3.11) to 3.40 (95% CI -0.70 7.50). We did not conduct a meta-analysis for this outcome given substantial statistical heterogeneity and graded the certainty of the evidence as low. One RCT provided information concerning visual acuity but did not provide sufficient data for between-group comparisons. The authors noted that mean habitual LogMAR visual acuity for all study participants improved post-treatment (mean LogMAR 1.16, standard deviation 0.26 at 4 weeks). We graded the certainty of evidence for this outcome as low. No RCTs provided data on mean change in number of cylindrical dandruff or the proportion of participants experiencing conjunctival injection or experiencing meibomian gland dysfunction. Three RCTs provided information on adverse events. One reported no adverse events. The other two described a total of six participants randomized to treatment with tea tree oil who experienced ocular irritation or discomfort that resolved with re-educating the patient on application techniques and continuing use of the tea tree oil. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current review suggests that there is uncertainty related to the effectiveness of 5% to 50% tea tree oil for the short-term treatment of Demodex blepharitis; however, if used, lower concentrations may be preferable in the eye care arena to avoid induced ocular irritation. Future studies should be better controlled, assess outcomes at long term (e.g. 10 to 12 weeks or beyond), account for patient compliance, and study the effects of different tea tree oil concentrations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Blepharitis/drug therapy , Mite Infestations/drug therapy , Tea Tree Oil/therapeutic use , Adult , Blepharitis/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mite Infestations/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(7): e1726, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a mostly autosomal recessive, genetic disease of abnormal motile cilia function, resulting in bronchiectasis, infertility, organ laterality defects, and chronic otolaryngology disease. Though motile, ependymal cilia influencing cerebrospinal fluid flow in the central nervous system share many aspects of structure and function with motile cilia in the respiratory tract, hydrocephalus is rarely associated with PCD. Recently, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 (Chr 17q25.1) were identified causing PCD associated with hydrocephalus, reduced respiratory cilia number, axonemal microtubule disorganization, and occurring in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. METHOD: Two patients with chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease and hydrocephalus underwent candidate testing of FOXJ1. Coding region and splice junctions were sequenced and analyzed under the auspices of Genetic Disorders of Mucociliary Clearance Consortium. RESULTS: Upon sequencing of the entire coding region and splice-junctions, heterozygous, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 were discovered in exon 3 of two patients: an 11-month-old female with situs inversus totalis (NM_001454.4: c.945delC (p.Phe315Leufs*18)) and a 51 year-old male, post-double lung transplantation (NM_001454.4: c.929_932delACTG (p.Asp310Glyfs*22)). FOXJ1 variants were not detected in the available parents and the siblings of these probands. CONCLUSION: FOXJ1 pathogenic variants cause PCD in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and are associated with hydrocephalus. Physicians treating patients with hydrocephalus and chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease should be aware of this PCD association and test for FOXJ1 variants.


Subject(s)
Ciliary Motility Disorders/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Hydrocephalus/genetics , Ciliary Motility Disorders/pathology , Female , Genes, Dominant , Humans , Hydrocephalus/pathology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phenotype
6.
Addiction ; 116(9): 2559-2571, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334376

ABSTRACT

This narrative review provides a summary of the impact of tobacco smoking on the respiratory system and the benefits of smoking cessation. Tobacco smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death world-wide and a major risk factor for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is also associated with an increased risk of respiratory infections and appears to be related to poorer outcomes among those with COVID-19. Non-smokers with second-hand smoke exposure also experience significant adverse respiratory effects. Smoking imposes enormous health- and non-health-related costs to societies. The benefits of smoking cessation, in both prevention and management of respiratory disease, have been known for decades and, to this day, cessation support remains one of the most important cost-effective interventions that health professionals can provide to people who smoke. Cessation at any age confers substantial health benefits, even in smokers with established morbidities. As other treatments for chronic respiratory disease advance and survival rates increase, smoking cessation treatment will become even more relevant. While smoking cessation interventions are available, the offer of these by clinicians and uptake by patients remain limited.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/pathology , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy
7.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

8.
Neurosurgery ; 89(3): 364-371, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270746

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has received increased attention in recent years as a potential solution to expand clinical capability and patient access to care in many fields, including neurosurgery. Although patient and physician attitudes are rapidly shifting toward greater telemedicine use in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, there remains uncertainty about telemedicine's regulatory future. Despite growing evidence of telemedicine's utility, there remain a number of significant medicolegal barriers to its mass adoption and wider implementation. Herein, we examine recent progress in state and federal regulations in the United States governing telemedicine's implementation in quality of care, finance and billing, privacy and confidentiality, risk and liability, and geography and interstate licensure, with special attention to how these concern teleneurosurgical practice. We also review contemporary topics germane to the future of teleneurosurgery, including the continued expansion of reciprocity in interstate licensure, expanded coverage for homecare services for chronic conditions, expansion of Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services reimbursements, and protections of store-and-forward technologies. Additionally, we discuss recent successes in teleneurosurgery, stroke care, and rehabilitation as models for teleneurosurgical best practices. As telemedicine technology continues to mature and its expanse grows, neurosurgeons' familiarity with its benefits, limitations, and controversies will best allow for its successful adoption in our field to maximize patient care and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , Humans , Medicare , Neurosurgeons , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Metabolism ; 121: 154814, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265810

ABSTRACT

Diabetes, one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world, is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19. Scrupulous blood sugar management is crucial, since the worse outcomes are closely associated with higher blood sugar levels in COVID-19 infection. Although recent observational studies showed that insulin was associated with mortality, it should not deter insulin use in hospitalized patients requiring tight glucose control. Back and forth dilemma in the past with regards to continue/discontinue certain medications used in diabetes have been mostly resolved. The initial fears of consequences related to continuing certain medications have been largely dispelled. COVID-19 also necessitates the transformation in diabetes care through the integration of technologies. Recent advances in health-related technologies, notably telemedicine and remote continuous glucose monitoring, have become essential in the management of diabetes during the pandemic. Today, these technologies have changed the landscape of medicine and become more important than ever. Being a high-risk population, patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, should be prioritized for vaccination. In the future, as the pandemic fades, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases is expected to rise due to lifestyle changes and medical issues/dilemma encountered during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 34(2): 224-229, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262267

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remarkably accelerated the adoption of telemedicine in outpatient settings. Out of necessity, virtual care became a preferred and default modality of extending primary care services to health care consumers. Although telemedicine is not a new concept and had been used in many organizations and health systems, the COVID-19 pandemic scaled up its use in a variety of health care settings. Telehealth's use in primary care was particularly important because of the need to maintain continuity of care for successful coordination of chronic disease management. This article examines the benefits of telehealth, including continuity of care, convenience of access to care, screening and triaging, and social distancing and disease prevention. The utilization of telehealth and financial implications are discussed, including reimbursement and cost-effectiveness. Barriers and challenges are addressed, including methods for successful implementation of nurse practitioner (NP) in primary care practices as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The leadership role of the NP in telehealth is discussed and implementation guidance is provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Hypertens Res ; 44(9): 1047-1053, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260939

ABSTRACT

There is currently a respiratory disease outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenoviral vector vaccines were approved within a year, which has demonstrated the strong impact of preventing infectious diseases using gene therapy technology. Furthermore, intensive immunological analysis has been performed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of these vaccines, potentially allowing for rapid progress in vaccine technology. After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the novel vaccine technology developed will expand to other vaccines. We have been developing vaccines for chronic diseases, such as hypertension, for >10 years. Regarding the development of vaccines against self-antigens (i.e., angiotensin II), the vaccine should efficiently induce a blocking antibody response against the self-antigen without activating cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, the epitope vaccine approach has been proposed to induce antibody production in response to a combination of a B cell epitope and exogenous T cell epitopes through major histocompatibility complex molecules. When these vaccines are established as therapeutic options for hypertension, their administration regimen, which might be a few times per year, will replace daily medication use. Thus, therapeutic vaccines for hypertension may be a novel option to control the progression of cerebrovascular diseases. Hopefully, the accumulation of immunological findings and vaccine technology advances due to COVID-19 will provide a novel concept for vaccines for chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoantigens/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypertension/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Humans
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 20-30, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260751

ABSTRACT

Chitosan-loaded nanomedicines provide a greater opportunity for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Natural biopolymer chitosan and its derivatives have a large number of proven pharmacological actions like antioxidant, wound healing, immuno-stimulant, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, obesity treatment, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, bone tissue engineering, antifungal, regenerative medicine, anti-diabetic and mucosal adjuvant, etc. which attracted its use in the pharmaceutical industry. As compared to other polysaccharides, chitosan has excellent mucoadhesive characteristics, less viscous, easily modified into the chemical and biological molecule and gel-forming property due to which the drugs retain in the respiratory tract for a longer period of time providing enhanced therapeutic action of the drug. Chitosan-based nanomedicines would have the greatest effect when used to transport poor water soluble drugs, macromolecules like proteins, and peptides through the lungs. In this review, we highlight and discuss the role of chitosan and its nanomedicines in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, COPD, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Drug Carriers/therapeutic use , Nanomedicine , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans
13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic dermatological condition characterized by lesions on extensor surfaces, hands, feet, and genital areas. Chronic renal failure is often associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis. CASE REPORT: In this paper, we report a patient with stage-three chronic renal failure that improved his renal condition after treatment with ixekizumab, an anti-IL17A drug used in the treatment of various cutaneous and rheumatological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: IL17A blockage may help to treat various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, that may lead to renal impairment. Further investigation is necessary in order to prove the effectiveness of this drug in renal conditions.

14.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(6): ytab204, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Goji berries (GB), usually marketed as a 'superfruit', are a widely used herbal supplement. As with other herbal remedies, the use of GB might be associated with herb-drug interactions, increasing plasma levels of other drugs and causing adverse events. Here, we present the case of a patient that developed flecainide toxicity secondary to an herb-drug interaction, associated with the use of GB to prevent COVID-19. CASE SUMMARY: A 75-year-old female presented to the emergency department with fainting. She was taking flecainide for the treatment of atrial extrasystoles diagnosed 2 years previously, and she was using a tea of GB for the prevention of COVID-19. The admission electrocardiogram showed a wide complex polymorphic tachycardia that was considered and treated as flecainide toxicity. The patient had a favourable evolution and was discharged 48 h after admission. DISCUSSION: Flecainide toxicity is uncommon and needs timely recognition and treatment; it is usually secondary to overdose and renal or hepatic failure. In our case, toxicity was associated with GB use, probably by inhibition of CYP2D6 which is the main enzyme associated with the metabolism of flecainide. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible interactions between herbal remedies (in this case used for the prevention of COVID-19) and cardiovascular drugs that are used to treat chronic cardiovascular diseases.

15.
Aust Health Rev ; 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238057

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study investigated the experience of patients with chronic diseases regarding access to and utilisation of multidisciplinary care during COVID-19 in South Australia.MethodsTelephone interviews were conducted with 30 patients with chronic conditions attending nine general practices in metropolitan Adelaide. Supplementary data were obtained from the Medicare Benefit Schedule (MBS) to compare health services activity data provided by different health professionals before and after COVID-19 (from January 2019 to June 2020).ResultsThere was variation in access to different health services by patients with chronic conditions during COVID-19. The introduction of telehealth facilitated continuity of general practitioner (GP) services, with a high level of satisfaction among patients. Changes in medicines regulation, including the home delivery of medications, enabled timely access to medications for patients. The use of telehealth was less common for specialist and particularly allied health services. Dental check-ups that are important for the management of some chronic conditions were disrupted the most during COVID-19.ConclusionThe findings of this study suggest that the policy measures introduced in Australia provided an opportunity to maintain multidisciplinary care for patients with chronic diseases during COVID-19. GPs, as core members of the primary healthcare team, as well as pharmacy and pathology services, were highly accessible. Telehealth was less accessed for chronic care services provided by specialists and allied health professionals.What is known about the topic?Access to multidisciplinary care is critical to ensure continuity and quality of care for patients with chronic health conditions. Evidence suggests disruptions in health services can occur during pandemics. To continue access to routine care, the Australian Government introduced several policy initiatives during COVID-19 to enhance access to multidisciplinary care.What does this paper add?Telehealth policy was particularly effective in facilitating patients' access to general practice services during COVID-19 particularly those services that did not need physical examinations. This policy complemented changes in medicines regulations that enabled timely and convenient access to medications for patients with chronic conditions. Allied health services, as important elements of multidisciplinary care, were more likely to be disrupted during COVID-19.What are the implications for practitioners?Continuation of telehealth services is likely to enhance access to general practice services. The acceptability and use of telehealth for allied health services may require more flexibility, and training for both practitioners and patients.

16.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230295

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

17.
EPMA J ; : 1-14, 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227926

ABSTRACT

Chronic liver disease management is a comprehensive approach requiring multi-professional expertise and well-orchestrated healthcare measures thoroughly organized by responsible medical units. Contextually, the corresponding multi-faceted chain of healthcare events is likely to be severely disturbed or even temporarily broken under the force majeure conditions such as global pandemics. Consequently, the chronic liver disease is highly representative for the management of any severe chronic disorder under lasting pandemics with unprecedented numbers of acutely diseased persons who, together with the chronically sick patient cohorts, have to be treated using the given capacity of healthcare systems with their limited resources. Current study aimed at exploring potentially negative impacts of the SARS CoV-2 outbreak on the quality of the advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) management considering two well-classified parameters, namely, (1) the continuity of the patient registrations and (2) the level of mortality rates, comparing pre-COVID-19 statistics with these under the current pandemic in Slovak Republic. Altogether 1091 registrations to cirrhosis registry (with 60.8% versus 39.2% males to females ratio) were included with a median age of 57 years for patients under consideration. Already within the very first 3 months of the pandemic outbreak in Slovakia (lockdown declared from March 16, 2020, until May 20, 2020), the continuity of the patient registrations has been broken followed by significantly increased ACLD-related death rates. During this period of time, the total number of new registrations decreased by about 60% (15 registrations in 2020 versus 38 in 2018 and 38 in 2019). Corresponding mortality increased by about 52% (23 deaths in 2020 versus 10 in 2018 and 12 in 2019). Based on these results and in line with the framework of 3PM guidelines, the pandemic priority pathways (PPP) are strongly recommended for maintaining tertiary care uninterrupted. For the evidence-based implementation of PPP, creation of predictive algorithms and individualized care strategy tailored to the patient is essential. Resulting classification of measures is summarized as follows:The Green PPP Line is reserved for prioritized (urgent and comprehensive) treatment of patients at highest risk to die from ACLD (tertiary care) as compared to the risk from possible COVID-19 infection.The Orange PPP Line considers patients at middle risk of adverse outcomes from ACLD with re-addressing them to the secondary care. As further deterioration of ACLD is still probable, pro-active management is ascertained with tertiary center serving as the 24/7 telemedicine consultation hub for a secondary facility (on a physician-physician level).The Red PPP Line is related to the patients at low risk to die from ACLD, re-addressing them to the primary care. Since patients with stable chronic liver diseases without advanced fibrosis are at trivial inherent risk, they should be kept out of the healthcare setting as far as possible by the telemedical (patient-nurse or patient- physician) measurements. The assigned priority has to be monitored and re-evaluated individually-in intervals based on the baseline prognostic score such as MELD. The approach is conform with principles of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM / 3PM) and demonstrates a potential of great clinical utility for an optimal management of any severe chronic disorder (cardiovascular, neurological and cancer) under lasting pandemics.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 612602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223895

ABSTRACT

To improve long-term outcomes of therapies for chronic diseases, health promotion and lifestyle modifications are the most promising and sustainable strategies. In addition, advances in digital technologies provide new opportunities to address limitations of drug-based treatments, such as medication non-adherence, adverse effects, toxicity, drug resistance, drug shortages, affordability, and accessibility. Pharmaceutical drugs and biologics can be combined with digital health technologies, including mobile medical apps (digital therapeutics), which offer additional clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness. Promises of drug+digital combination therapies are recognized by pharmaceutical and digital health companies, opening opportunities for integrating pharmacotherapies with non-pharmacological interventions (metapharmacology). Herein we present unique features of digital health technologies which can deliver personalized self-care modalities such as breathing exercises, mindfulness meditation, yoga, physical activity, adequate sleep, listening to preferred music, forgiveness and gratitude. Clinical studies reveal how aforementioned complimentary practices may support treatments of epilepsy, chronic pain, depression, cancer, and other chronic diseases. This article also describes how digital therapies delivering "medicinal" self-care and other non-pharmacological interventions can also be personalized by accounting for: 1) genetic risks for comorbidities, 2) adverse childhood experiences, 3) increased risks for viral infections such as seasonal influenza, or COVID-19, and 4) just-in-time stressful and traumatic circumstances. Development and implementation of personalized pharmacological-behavioral combination therapies (precision metapharmacology) require aligning priorities of key stakeholders including patients, research communities, healthcare industry, regulatory and funding agencies. In conclusion, digital technologies enable integration of pharmacotherapies with self-care, lifestyle interventions and patient empowerment, while concurrently advancing patient-centered care, integrative medicine and digital health ecosystems.

19.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(5): 358-366, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217792

ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first identified during pregnancy. Delays in diagnosis and challenges in management can lead to serious adverse outcomes for the mother and child. As rates of GDM diagnosis increase worldwide, health systems and maternity services have become increasingly strained, especially with new restrictions around in-person care due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Mobile health (mHealth) has increasingly shown promise for management of chronic disease, driven by smartphone adoption and increased internet connectivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adoption and multidisciplinary care coordination of an mHealth platform called M♡THer in a cohort of women with first-time diagnosis of GDM. Methods: The mHealth platform for GDM management was developed incorporating a smartphone application, clinician portal, and secure cloud data storage. Forty participants with a first-time diagnosis of GDM were recruited to use the app during their pregnancy. User attitudes from clinicians and women were captured through post-hoc surveys, and app-usage metrics. Results: Clinicians and women indicated satisfaction and ease of use of the mHealth platform, with some technological challenges around wireless connectivity. Blood glucose reviews and antenatal contact were higher with use of the M♡THer app compared with a matched historical sample. Conclusion: The M♡THer mHealth platform is a new comprehensive tool for health care of women with GDM, and may provide an effective new avenue to enhance multidisciplinary care in the face of COVID-19 disruptions and challenges to traditional care pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Women's Health , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Patient Care Team , Patient Satisfaction , Pregnancy , Smartphone , Young Adult
20.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217059

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has brought many difficulties in the management of infected and high-risk patients. Telemedicine platforms can really help in this situation, since they allow remotely monitoring Covid-19 patients, reducing the risk for the doctors, without decreasing the efficiency of the therapies and while alleviating patients' mental issues. In this paper, we present the entire architecture and the experience of using the Tel.Te.Covid19 telemedicine platform. Projected for the treatment of chronic diseases, it has been technologically updated for the management of Covid-19 patients with the support of a group of doctors in the territory when the pandemic arrived, introducing new sensors and functionalities (e.g., the familiar use and video calls). In Tuscany (Central Italy), during the first wave of outbreak, a model for enrolling patients was created and tested. Because of the positive results, the latter has been then adopted in the second current wave. The Tel.Te.Covid19 platform has been used by 40 among general practitioners and doctors of continuity care and about 180 symptomatic patients since March 2020. Both patients and doctors have good opinion of the platform, and no hospitalisations or deaths occurred for the monitored patients, reducing also the impact on the National Healthcare System.

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