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1.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100424, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838955

ABSTRACT

For centuries, traditional medicines of Ayurveda have been in use to manage infectious and non-infectious diseases. The key embodiment of traditional medicines is the holistic system of approach in the management of human diseases. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection is an ongoing pandemic, which has emerged as the major health threat worldwide and is causing significant stress, morbidity and mortality. Studies from the individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection have shown significant immune dysregulation and cytokine overproduction. Neutrophilia and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio has been correlated to poor outcome due to the disease. Neutrophils, component of innate immune system, upon stimulation expel DNA along with histones and granular proteins to form extracellular traps (NETs). Although, these DNA lattices possess beneficial activity in trapping and eliminating pathogens, NETs may also cause adverse effects by inducing immunothrombosis and tissue damage in diseases including Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis. Tissues of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects showed microthrombi with neutrophil-platelet infiltration and serum showed elevated NETs components, suggesting large involvement and uncontrolled activation of neutrophils leading to pathogenesis and associated organ damage. Hence, traditional Ayurvedic herbs exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may act in a manner that might prove beneficial in targeting over-functioning of neutrophils and there by promoting normal immune homeostasis. In the present manuscript, we have reviewed and discussed pathological importance of NETs formation in SARS-CoV-2 infections and discuss how various Ayurvedic herbs can be explored to modulate neutrophil function and inhibit NETs formation in the context of a) anti-microbial activity to enhance neutrophil function, b) immunomodulatory effects to maintain neutrophil mediated immune homeostasis and c) to inhibit NETs mediated thrombosis.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726034

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a serious pandemic in China and other countries worldwide. So far, more than 460,000 confirmed cases were diagnosed in nearly 190 countries, causing globally over 20,000 deaths. Currently, the epidemic is still spreading and there is no effective means to prevent the infection. Vaccines are proved to be the most effective and economical means to prevent and control infectious diseases. Several countries, companies, and institutions announced their programs and progress on vaccine development against the virus. While most of the vaccines are under design and preparation, there are some that have entered efficacy evaluation in animals and initial clinical trials. This review mainly focused on the progress and our prospects on field of vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
4.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1156): 131-137, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452953

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory infections are often caused or precipitated by viruses and are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Mutations in these viral genomes can produce highly infectious strains that transmit across species and have the potential to initiate epidemic, or pandemic, human viral respiratory disease. Transmission between humans primarily occurs via the airborne route and is accelerated by our increasingly interconnected and globalised society. To this date, there have been four major human viral respiratory outbreaks in the 21st century. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk during respiratory epidemics or pandemics. This is due to crowded working environments where social distancing, or wearing respiratory personal protective equipment for prolonged periods, might prove difficult, or performing medical procedures that increase exposure to virus-laden aerosols, or bodily fluids. This review aims to summarise the evidence and approaches to occupational risk and protection of HCWs during epidemic or pandemic respiratory viral disease.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Occupational Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Workplace
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389388

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383856

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most efficient public healthcare measures to fight infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the immune mechanisms induced in vivo by vaccination are still unclear. The route of administration, an important vaccination parameter, can substantially modify the quality of the response. How the route of administration affects the generation and profile of immune responses is of major interest. Here, we aimed to extensively characterize the profiles of the innate and adaptive response to vaccination induced after intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara model vaccine in non-human primates. The adaptive response following subcutaneous immunization was clearly different from that following intradermal or intramuscular immunization. The subcutaneous route induced a higher level of neutralizing antibodies than the intradermal and intramuscular vaccination routes. In contrast, polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell responses were preferentially induced after intradermal or intramuscular injection. We observed the same dichotomy when analyzing the early molecular and cellular immune events, highlighting the recruitment of cell populations, such as CD8+ T lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, and the activation of key immunomodulatory gene pathways. These results demonstrate that the quality of the vaccine response induced by an attenuated vaccine is shaped by early and subtle modifications of the innate immune response. In this immunization context, the route of administration must be tailored to the desired type of protective immune response. This will be achieved through systems vaccinology and mathematical modeling, which will be critical for predicting the efficacy of the vaccination route for personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Injections, Intradermal , Injections, Intramuscular , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Vaccines, Attenuated/pharmacology
7.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1476-1498, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352121

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, and the situation worsens daily, associated with acute increases in case fatality rates. The main protease (Mpro) enzyme produced by SARS-CoV-2 was recently demonstrated to be responsible for not only viral reproduction but also impeding host immune responses. The element selenium (Se) plays a vital role in immune functions, both directly and indirectly. Thus, we hypothesised that Se-containing heterocyclic compounds might curb the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We performed a molecular docking analysis and found that several of the selected selenocompounds showed potential binding affinities for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, especially ethaselen (49), which exhibited a docking score of -6.7 kcal/mol compared with the -6.5 kcal/mol score for GC376 (positive control). Drug-likeness calculations suggested that these compounds are biologically active and possess the characteristics of ideal drug candidates. Based on the binding affinity and drug-likeness results, we selected the 16 most effective selenocompounds as potential anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. We also validated the structural integrity and stability of the drug candidate through molecular dynamics simulation. Using further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we believe that the targeted compound identified in this study (ethaselen) could pave the way for the development of prospective drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections and trigger specific host immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Selenium/analysis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Heterocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Sulfonic Acids
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323314

ABSTRACT

Dendrimers comprise a specific group of macromolecules, which combine structural properties of both single molecules and long expanded polymers. The three-dimensional form of dendrimers and the extensive possibilities for use of additional substrates for their construction creates a multivalent potential and a wide possibility for medical, diagnostic and environmental purposes. Depending on their composition and structure, dendrimers have been of interest in many fields of science, ranging from chemistry, biotechnology to biochemical applications. These compounds have found wide application from the production of catalysts for their use as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agents. Of particular interest are peptide dendrimers as a medium for transport of therapeutic substances: synthetic vaccines against parasites, bacteria and viruses, contrast agents used in MRI, antibodies and genetic material. This review focuses on the description of the current classes of dendrimers, the methodology for their synthesis and briefly drawbacks of their properties and their use as potential therapies against infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Dendrimers/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Biotechnology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalysis , Contrast Media , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Design , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mice , Nanotechnology , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereoisomerism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308394

ABSTRACT

Vaccinations are a safe and effective way to protect against infectious diseases. The World Health Organization estimates vaccines have saved more lives than any other interventions and every year about two to three million deaths are averted worldwide through immunization. To improve vaccination coverage, pharmacists have been increasingly involved in immunization roles in their communities-as advocates, educators, and immunizers. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services have increased both in the number of immunization providers and the number of sites where patients can receive immunizations. In Canada, health care is under provincial legislation-and so, there are distinct differences in scope of pharmacist practice across the country. Prior to the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, in Québec, Canada's second-largest province, pharmacists did not have the authority to administer vaccines. To help prepare pharmacists in Québec to become immunizers, we developed and deployed a series of accredited workshops. In these facilitated workshops, pharmacists were able to share best practices that may lead to providing effective vaccination services, identify common competency gaps, discuss effective patient communication skills, and determine how to target the most vulnerable population groups. Participants were also asked to evaluate the workshop. Our results indicate the evaluation was very reliable in measuring participant satisfaction (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and pharmacists commented that the workshops' learning outcomes exceeded their expectations, and the topics covered were relevant and applicable. The evaluation also asked participants to identify weaknesses of training, so future educational interventions can be planned accordingly. We believe this work will contribute to the continual growth and advancement of the pharmacy profession in Canada.

10.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(1): 51-58, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307660

ABSTRACT

This Crystal Ball speculates on the potential of molecular decoys for prevention and therapy in infectious diseases. It is dedicated to the memory of Singh Chhatwal, who pioneered research on disguises and decoys produced by Streptococcus, and so much more.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Streptococcus , Memory , Tropism
11.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 77, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257965

ABSTRACT

The number and severity of diseases affecting lung development and adult respiratory function have stimulated great interest in developing new in vitro models to study lung in different species. Recent breakthroughs in 3-dimensional (3D) organoid cultures have led to new physiological in vitro models that better mimic the lung than conventional 2D cultures. Lung organoids simulate multiple aspects of the real organ, making them promising and useful models for studying organ development, function and disease (infection, cancer, genetic disease). Due to their dynamics in culture, they can serve as a sustainable source of functional cells (biobanking) and be manipulated genetically. Given the differences between species regarding developmental kinetics, the maturation of the lung at birth, the distribution of the different cell populations along the respiratory tract and species barriers for infectious diseases, there is a need for species-specific lung models capable of mimicking mammal lungs as they are of great interest for animal health and production, following the One Health approach. This paper reviews the latest developments in the growing field of lung organoids.


Subject(s)
Lung , Mammals , Organoids , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Animals , Lung/growth & development , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Organoids/growth & development , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/physiopathology
12.
Mol Omics ; 17(3): 376-393, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281750

ABSTRACT

Metabolomics has emerged as an invaluable tool that can be used along with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics to understand host-pathogen interactions at small-molecule levels. Metabolomics has been used to study a variety of infectious diseases and applications. The most common application of metabolomics is for prognostic and diagnostic purposes, specifically the screening of disease-specific biomarkers by either NMR-based or mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. In addition, metabolomics is of great significance for the discovery of druggable metabolic enzymes and/or metabolic regulators through the use of state-of-the-art flux analysis, for example, via the elucidation of metabolic mechanisms. This review discusses the application of metabolomics technologies to biomarker screening, the discovery of drug targets in infectious diseases such as viral, bacterial and parasite infections and immunometabolomics, highlights the challenges associated with accessing metabolite compartmentalization and discusses the available tools for determining local metabolite concentrations.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use
13.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(8): 4178-4187, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274943

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease that presumably began in 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in a pandemic. Initially, COVID-19 was thought to only affect respiration. However, accumulating evidence shows a wide range of neurological symptoms are also associated with COVID-19, such as anosmia/ageusia, headaches, seizures, demyelination, mental confusion, delirium, and coma. Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients may arise due to a cytokine storm and a heighten state of inflammation. The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a central pathway involved with inflammation and is shown to be elevated in a dose-dependent matter in response to coronaviruses. NF-κB has a role in cytokine storm syndrome, which is associated with greater severity in COVID-19-related symptoms. Therefore, therapeutics that reduce the NF-κB pathway should be considered in the treatment of COVID-19. Neuro-COVID-19 units have been established across the world to examine the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. Neuro-COVID-19 is increasingly becoming an accepted term among scientists and clinicians, and interdisciplinary teams should be created to implement strategies for treating the wide range of neurological symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278172

ABSTRACT

A potent therapy for the infectious coronavirus disease COVID-19 is urgently required with, at the time of writing, research in this area still ongoing. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro anti-viral activities of combinations of certain commercially available drugs that have recently formed part of COVID-19 therapy. Dual combinatory drugs, namely; Lopinavir-Ritonavir (LOPIRITO)-Clarithromycin (CLA), LOPIRITO-Azithromycin (AZI), LOPIRITO-Doxycycline (DOXY), Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)-AZI, HCQ-DOXY, Favipiravir (FAVI)-AZI, HCQ-FAVI, and HCQ-LOPIRITO, were prepared. These drugs were mixed at specific ratios and evaluated for their safe use based on the cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. The anti-viral efficacy of these combinations in relation to Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus isolated from a patient in Universitas Airlangga hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia and evaluated for IC50 24, 48, and 72 hours after viral inoculation was subsequently determined. Observation of the viral load in qRT-PCR was undertaken, the results of which indicated the absence of high levels of cytotoxicity in any samples and that dual combinatory drugs produced lower cytotoxicity than single drugs. In addition, these combinations demonstrated considerable effectiveness in reducing the copy number of the virus at 48 and 72 hours, while even at 24 hours, post-drug incubation resulted in low IC50 values. Most combination drugs reduced pro-inflammatory markers, i.e. IL-6 and TNF-α, while increasing the anti-inflammatory response of IL-10. According to these results, the descending order of effective dual combinatory drugs is one of LOPIRITO-AZI>LOPIRITO-DOXY>HCQ-AZI>HCQ-FAVI>LOPIRITO-CLA>HCQ-DOX. It can be suggested that dual combinatory drugs, e.g. LOPIRITO-AZI, can potentially be used in the treatment of COVID-19 infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Combinations , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Indonesia , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Inpatients , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
15.
Biosci Trends ; 15(3): 188-191, 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271034

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world. As many countries have entered the postpandemic period, current efforts to prevent and control COVID-19 have gradually been normalized in many countries. Although the focus is on vaccines to achieve herd immunity, conventional physical containment strategies should be reassessed as part of efforts to prevent and control infectious diseases. Continued respiratory protective measures such as social distancing and the wearing of masks have been extensively accepted by the public in most countries. A point worth noticing is that the activities of influenza and other respiratory diseases have decreased as these strategies have been implemented. Public mobilization and large-scale campaigns to promote health are also important to interrupting the transmission of pathogens. A good example can be found in the achievements of China's Patriotic Public Health Campaign. These practices underscore the importance of enhancing physical containment strategies and public mobilization and management, with support from the legal system, to respond to any potential emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26370, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic infectious disease resulted from 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Up till now, COVID-19 has swept globally. Currently, due to many high-profiled benefits, clinical studies on Toujie Quwen granule (TJQW) have been increasing. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of TJQW used with conventional western therapy for COVID-19. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in Chinese and English databases, and the search time is January 2020 to May 2021. English databases include PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Chinese databases include CNKI, WF, VIP, and CBM. The international clinical trial registration platform and the Chinese clinical trial registration platform of controlled trials will be searched by us from January 2020 to May 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, screening literature, extraction data will be conducted by 2 researchers independently. Statistical analysis will be conducted using the RevMan 5.3.5 software. After screening the literature based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, The Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system will be used to evaluate the quality of each result. RESULTS: This study will provide the evidence for TJQW to be used with conventional western therapy for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of TJQW used with conventional western therapy for COVID-19 will be assessed. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202150038.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Nutritional Support , Phytotherapy , Respiratory Therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266725

ABSTRACT

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are commonly affected by medical illness. The aim of the present study was to explore the risks of contracting respiratory infectious diseases (RIDs), including upper and lower RIDs and influenza, in children with ADHD. We also examined whether methylphenidate has a protective effect regarding the risk of contracting RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment. Children in the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2016 were included in the present study. Upper and lower RIDs, influenza, ADHD, age, sex, and records of methylphenidate prescription were identified. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the significance of the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD in comparison with that among children without ADHD after adjustment for sex and age. The self-controlled case series analysis was conducted to examine the protective effect of methylphenidate treatment against RIDs. In total, 85,853 children with ADHD and 1,458,750 children without ADHD were included in the study. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, we observed that children with ADHD had significantly higher risks of upper RIDs, lower RIDs, and influenza infection than did those without ADHD. Among the children with ADHD who had a history of methylphenidate treatment, the risk of contracting RIDs was lower during the methylphenidate treatment period than during the nontreatment period. Children with ADHD had a higher RID risk than those without ADHD. Methylphenidate might reduce the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Communicable Diseases , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Taiwan/epidemiology
18.
Int J Womens Health ; 13: 509-523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sex workers, like others, are facing economic hardships and anxiety about their health and safety due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Universally, most sex work has largely reduced, moved online, or undertaken covertly because of lockdown measures and need for social distancing to break the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, the ability of sex workers to protect themselves against COVID-19 depends on their individual and interpersonal behaviors and work environment. In this study, we sought to determine the relationships between COVID-19 knowledge, awareness and prevention practice (KAP) among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to inform the development of prevention interventions for this vulnerable population. METHODS: Data used in this study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 604 FCSW operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to assess their socio-demographic characteristics and COVID-19 KAP adopted against the novel coronavirus. Latent class analysis was used to systematically classify participants' attributes and behaviors into the most likely distinct clusters or risk groups. RESULTS: The majority of the FCSW were singles (86.8%) of childbearing ages, 21-35 years (86.2%), with almost three quarters (73.2%) of them having sex with 3-4 clients per day during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, almost three quarters of the participants had both good knowledge and awareness about COVID-19 but less than half of them (41.1%) implemented good practice to prevent the spread of the disease. However, a highly significant and positive relationship was recorded between COVID-19 knowledge (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and awareness (r=0.65, p<0.0001), and preventive practice of FCSW, respectively. About 89.1% of the participants were not very familiar with the symptoms of COVID-19 (p<0.0001). Only 10.9% of the FCSW indicated that they wear facemask at all times, while 45.2% of them do not wear facemask during sexual intercourse with their clients (p<0.0001). Based on the FCSW attributes and behaviors, we identified three distinct clusters or risk groups (p<0.0001), namely, low-risk takers (Cluster 1), high-risk takers (Cluster 2) and very high-risk takers (Cluster 3) with latent class prevalence rates (γc) of 41.13% (95% CI: 37.26-45.10), 33.17% (95% CI: 29.53-37.02) and 25.71% (95% CI: 22.38-29.34), respectively. CONCLUSION: Sex work has high transmission potentials for SARS-CoV-2 because of its operational nature, which does not permit social distancing, and thus, renders certain preventive measures practically ineffective. This is a major challenge in the fight against COVID-19 in this high-risk group and calls for the development of operational guidelines and targeted intervention strategies to help reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the Niger Delta region.

19.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 84: 106105, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265733

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has been associated not only with respiratory complications. The COVID-19 disease includes, also damage to other organ systems as well as coagulopathy. The present report describes a case of COVID-19 presenting with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) and subsequent acute limb ischemia (ALI). PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 84-years old hospitalized female patient presenting diabetes and recent COVID-19 reported acute onset of abdominal pain and typical findings of AMI. The CT-angiography confirmed the AMI secondary to a superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The patient was managed through an endovascular approach using a SMA mechanical thrombectomy and stenting with a good result. DISCUSSION: Treatment of this life-threatening condition includes surgical resection of the necrotic bowel, restoration of blood flow to the ischemic intestine and supportive measure - gastrointestinal decompression, fluid resuscitation, hemodynamic support. Endovascular management of AMI is preferred over the standard surgical approach due to a reduced mortality and morbidity rates. Imaging findings of intestinal necrosis, however, represent an indication for AMI surgical treatment with explorative laparotomy. Different endovascular solutions have been employed to address AMI including mechanical thrombectomy, local thrombolysis, and PTA-stenting. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 clinical presentation can be atypical, including gastrointestinal symptoms. If a first embolic event occurs, an aggressive anticoagulation treatment could be inefficient to reduce the risk of subsequent embolization events. The limited life expectancy of such revascularization procedures should orientate towards less invasive treatments.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107493, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263296

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a global pandemic outbreak is an emerging new virus accountable for respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, originated in Wuhan city, Hubei province China, urgently calls to adopt prevention and intervention strategies. Several viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 to 2003 and H1N1 influenza in 2009 were reported since last two decades. Moreover, the Saudi Arabia was the epicenter for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. The CoVs are large family with single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA). Genome sequence of 2019-nCoV, shows relatively different homology from other coronavirus subtypes, categorized in betacoronavirus and possibly found from strain of bats. The COVID-19 composed of exposed densely glycosylated spike protein (S) determines virus binding and infiltrate into host cells as well as initiate protective host immune response. Recently published reviews on the emerging SARS-CoV-2 have mainly focused on its structure, development of the outbreak, relevant precautions and management trials. Currently, there is an urgency of pharmacological intervention to combat this deadly infectious disease. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of COVID-19 becomes necessary. Based on the current literature and understanding, the aim of this review is to provide current genome structure, etiology, clinical prognosis as well as to explore the viral receptor binding together functional insight of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) with treatment and preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Genome, Viral , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Attachment
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