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2.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S40-S44, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792227

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) has usurped human peace and mobility. The confinement of the population and the rising epidemic has disrupted the routine care for non-COVID-19 patients. Telehealth is a growing field, and its application in palliative care is seen as a solution to serve the population in this difficult crisis. METHODOLOGY: A exploratory survey was designed to assess the changes in the hospital-based practice of palliative care in the COVID-19 pandemic and patient/caregiver's perception about the provision of telehealth services to palliative care patients of a tertiary care cancer hospital of eastern India. RESULTS: There was a dramatic reduction in the outpatient clinic footfalls by 51% with teleconsultation. Although there was no change in the number of emergency visits, the inpatient admissions reduced by 44%. Nearly 82% of patient/caregivers gave a positive feedback about telemedicine care provided by the department and mentioned that the service provided them with support and connectedness. Almost 64% of the patients and caregivers reported that the service helped allay the fear and reassured them that there was a someone to support them. As high as 76% of the participants felt that they would prefer teleconsultation in future and were ready to pay for teleconsultations if charges were to be applied in the future. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine is an important tool and an essential service to care for palliative care patients in the community especially when the patient and health-care professionals are separated by a pandemic or natural disaster.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100094, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595256

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the response of a group of volunteers in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, as the city faced an unprecedented demand for face masks during the onset of the COVID-19 crisis in 2020. The performance of artisanal-produced masks was compared with industry equivalents. STUDY DESIGN: Case report with comparative testing. METHODS: A comparison was made between two parallel projects that produced single-use masks for healthcare workers and reusable masks for the community. Mask samples were tested for filtration efficiency (FE) and breathability (pressure drop). RESULTS: Results for FE averaged 40-60% for healthcare masks and 10% for community masks; both types of masks were tested for particle sizes of 0.3 â€‹µm. CONCLUSIONS: While performance was inferior to standard comparators, the masks investigated in this study afforded a level of protection in the absence of alternatives, especially in non-aerosol generating contexts. The findings of this study are useful for communities with limited resources in other developing countries. In addition, insights can be gained from the experiences in Ribeirão Preto in terms of how to respond to future health emergencies.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557551

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, particularly among South Asian (SA) communities. Previous research has highlighted the heterogeneous nature of SA ethnicity and the need to consider culture in SA patients' self-management of T2D. We conducted a critical interpretative synthesis (CIS) which aimed to a) develop a new and comprehensive insight into the psychology which underpins SA patients' T2D self-management behaviours and b) present a conceptual model to inform future T2D interventions. A systematic search of the literature retrieved 19 articles, including 536 participants. These were reviewed using established CIS procedures. Analysis identified seven constructs, from which an overarching synthesizing argument 'Cultural Conflict' was derived. Our findings suggest that patients reconstruct knowledge to manage their psychological, behavioural, and cultural conflicts, impacting decisional conflicts associated with T2D self-management and health professional advice (un)consciously. Those unable to resolve this conflict were more likely to default towards cultural identity, continue to align with cultural preferences rather than health professional guidance, and reduce engagement with self-management. Our synthesis and supporting model promote novel ideas for self-management of T2D care for SA patients. Specifically, health professionals should be trained and supported to explore and mitigate negative health beliefs to enable patients to manage social-cultural influences that impact their self-management behaviours.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research
6.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 28(6): 941-942, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528402
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1784-1789, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected communities of color, with black persons experiencing the highest rates of disease severity and mortality. A vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to reduce the race mortality gap from COVID-19; however, hesitancy toward the vaccine in the black community threatens vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted focus groups with black barbershop and salon owners living in zip codes of elevated COVID-19 prevalence to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and norms around a COVID-19 vaccine. We used a modified grounded theory approach to analyze the transcripts. RESULTS: We completed 4 focus groups (N = 24 participants) in July and August 2020. Participants were an average age of 46 years, and 89% were black non-Hispanic. Hesitancy against the COVID-19 vaccine was high due to mistrust in the medical establishment, concerns with the accelerated timeline for vaccine development, limited data on short- and long-term side effects, and the political environment promoting racial injustice. Some participants were willing to consider the vaccine once the safety profile is robust and reassuring. Receiving a recommendation to take the vaccine from a trusted healthcare provider served as a facilitator. Health beliefs identified were similar to concerns around other vaccines and included the fear of getting the infection with vaccination and preferring to improve one's baseline physical health through alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: We found that hesitancy of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine was high; however, provider recommendation and transparency around the safety profile might help reduce this hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , African Americans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504476

ABSTRACT

Background: In the UK setting, where neonatal jaundice treatment is required, it is largely carried out in hospitals. However, it is possible to safely administer home phototherapy (HPT). Objective: To report on our centre's experience of HPT and its potential benefits. Design: Retrospective observational study performed as a service evaluation. Patients: Infants ≥35 weeks corrected gestational age with a weight of 2 kg and serum bilirubin ≤50 µmol/L above treatment thresholds. Controls were a matched group of infants who received inpatient phototherapy (IPT). Setting: The catchment area of two neonatal intensive care units, one special care unit and a birth centre at four different hospitals that is covered by a single neonatal community outreach nursing team in Birmingham, UK. Intervention: HPT was started either in the community or as a continuation of IPT. Controls received IPT. Main outcome measures: The rate of bilirubin reduction, hospital readmission rates and parental satisfaction. Results: 100 infants received HPT while 50 received IPT. No infant showed a progressive rise of serum bilirubin level while receiving HPT. The rate of bilirubin reduction was similar in both HPT and IPT groups (2.4±1.9 and 2.5±1.6 µmol/L/hour, respectively, MD=-0.1, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.53, p=0.74). Readmission rate was 3% in the HPT group. 97% of parents stated that the overall experience was good and 98% would choose HPT if they had their time all over again. Conclusion: Our programme suggests that HPT for neonatal jaundice can be carried out in a select group of infants. It helps in providing holistic family-centred care and is viewed positively by families.


Subject(s)
Jaundice, Neonatal , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Jaundice, Neonatal/therapy , Parents , Phototherapy , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1841-e1849, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spectrum of disease is essential for clinical and public health interventions. There are limited data on mild or asymptomatic infections, but recognition of these individuals is key as they contribute to viral transmission. We describe the symptom profiles from individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From 22 March to 22 April 2020 in Wisconsin and Utah, we enrolled and prospectively observed 198 household contacts exposed to SARS-CoV-2. We collected and tested nasopharyngeal specimens by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) 2 or more times during a 14-day period. Contacts completed daily symptom diaries. We characterized symptom profiles on the date of first positive rRT-PCR test and described progression of symptoms over time. RESULTS: We identified 47 contacts, median age 24 (3-75) years, with detectable SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. The most commonly reported symptoms on the day of first positive rRT-PCR test were upper respiratory (n = 32 [68%]) and neurologic (n = 30 [64%]); fever was not commonly reported (n = 9 [19%]). Eight (17%) individuals were asymptomatic at the date of first positive rRT-PCR collection; 2 (4%) had preceding symptoms that resolved and 6 (13%) subsequently developed symptoms. Children less frequently reported lower respiratory symptoms (21%, 60%, and 69% for <18, 18-49, and ≥50 years of age, respectively; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Household contacts with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported mild symptoms. When assessed at a single timepoint, several contacts appeared to have asymptomatic infection; however, over time all developed symptoms. These findings are important to inform infection control, contact tracing, and community mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Contact Tracing , Fever , Humans , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1252-1259.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to widespread implementation of public health measures, such as stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and masking mandates. In addition to decreasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these measures also impact the transmission of seasonal viral pathogens, which are common triggers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Whether reduced viral prevalence mediates reduction in COPD exacerbation rates is unknown. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of data from a large, multicenter health care system to assess admission trends associated with community viral prevalence and with initiation of COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We applied difference-in-differences analysis to compare season-matched weekly frequency of hospital admissions for COPD prior to and after implementation of public health measures for COVID-19. Community viral prevalence was estimated using regional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention test positivity data and correlated to COPD admissions. RESULTS: Data involving 4422 COPD admissions demonstrated a season-matched 53% decline in COPD admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which correlated to community viral burden (r = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.78) and represented a 36% greater decline over admission frequencies observed in other medical conditions less affected by respiratory viral infections (incidence rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.71, P < .001). The post-COVID-19 decline in COPD admissions was most pronounced in patients with fewer comorbidities and without recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: The implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COPD admissions. These changes are plausibly explained by reduced prevalence of seasonal respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(7): 939-949, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) COVID-19 vaccines have shown excellent safety and efficacy in phase 3 trials. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines in a UK community setting. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we examined the proportion and probability of self-reported systemic and local side-effects within 8 days of vaccination in individuals using the COVID Symptom Study app who received one or two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine or one dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We also compared infection rates in a subset of vaccinated individuals subsequently tested for SARS-CoV-2 with PCR or lateral flow tests with infection rates in unvaccinated controls. All analyses were adjusted by age (≤55 years vs >55 years), sex, health-care worker status (binary variable), obesity (BMI <30 kg/m2vs ≥30 kg/m2), and comorbidities (binary variable, with or without comorbidities). FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, and March 10, 2021, 627 383 individuals reported being vaccinated with 655 590 doses: 282 103 received one dose of BNT162b2, of whom 28 207 received a second dose, and 345 280 received one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Systemic side-effects were reported by 13·5% (38 155 of 282 103) of individuals after the first dose of BNT162b2, by 22·0% (6216 of 28 207) after the second dose of BNT162b2, and by 33·7% (116 473 of 345 280) after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Local side-effects were reported by 71·9% (150 023 of 208 767) of individuals after the first dose of BNT162b2, by 68·5% (9025 of 13 179) after the second dose of BNT162b2, and by 58·7% (104 282 of 177 655) after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Systemic side-effects were more common (1·6 times after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 2·9 times after the first dose of BNT162b2) among individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection than among those without known past infection. Local effects were similarly higher in individuals previously infected than in those without known past infection (1·4 times after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 1·2 times after the first dose of BNT162b2). 3106 of 103 622 vaccinated individuals and 50 340 of 464 356 unvaccinated controls tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Significant reductions in infection risk were seen starting at 12 days after the first dose, reaching 60% (95% CI 49-68) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 69% (66-72) for BNT162b2 at 21-44 days and 72% (63-79) for BNT162b2 after 45-59 days. INTERPRETATION: Systemic and local side-effects after BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination occur at frequencies lower than reported in phase 3 trials. Both vaccines decrease the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 12 days. FUNDING: ZOE Global, National Institute for Health Research, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Research and Innovation, American Gastroenterological Association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Safety/statistics & numerical data , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom
12.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
13.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: e295-e303, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416833

ABSTRACT

A diagnosis of melanoma requires multidisciplinary specialized care across all stages of disease. Although many important advances have been made for the treatment of melanoma for local and advanced disease, barriers to optimal care remain for many patients who live in areas without ready access to the expertise of a specialized melanoma center. In this article, we review some of the recent advances in the treatment of melanoma and the persistent challenges around the world that prevent the delivery of the best standard of care to patients living in the community. With the therapeutic landscape continuing to evolve and newer more complex drug therapies soon to be approved, it is important to recognize the many challenges that patients face and attempt to identify tools and policies that will help to improve treatment outcomes for their melanoma.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , Humans , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/epidemiology , Melanoma/therapy , Treatment Outcome
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 515-518, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387743

ABSTRACT

While the role of children in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains to be defined, children likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic or have milder symptoms and less likely to present for healthcare and be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, our current estimates are likely under-representative of the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 in children. Given the potential direct benefit of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and the substantial indirect benefit through community protection, or "herd immunity," we argue that planning and implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should include children. Furthermore, community protection occurred after widespread implementation of prior childhood vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, rubella, and rotavirus. We detail considerations for vaccine clinical trials, potential barriers to the implementation of widespread vaccination and argue why children would be an ideal target population for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Gac Sanit ; 35(6): 580-584, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385590

ABSTRACT

In most European countries, facemasks use is recommended or mandatory in enclosed spaces where physical distancing is not possible. In Spain, this measure was first extended to open public spaces and later made mandatory regardless of whether or not the interpersonal safety distance can be kept. At present, there is no evidence on the effectiveness of universal masking of healthy people in the community to prevent infection with respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The mandatory use of masks poses some ethical questions. Firstly, it entails a paternalistic action. Secondly, application of the principle of precaution becomes questionable when there is no clear benefit-risk relationship. Thirdly, compulsoriness can interfere with equity of public health actions. Fourthly, it can result in social stigma and discrimination against those who do not wear one, even though they well may have good reasons for doing so. Lastly, this measure may generate confusion in the population, along with an altered perception of the risk. The World Health Organization recommends its use in public places with a high potential risk of transmission and where other prevention measures, such as physical distancing, are not possible. Mandatory use of masks in public open spaces, regardless of the risk of transmission or of whether or not the interpersonal safety distance can be kept, is an intrusive measure that restricts individual freedoms, and would not appear to be justified on the basis of available scientific evidence. What we need are recommendations explaining where, when, how and what type of mask to wear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1691-1694, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389858

ABSTRACT

Mitigation measures, including stay-at-home orders and public mask wearing, together with routine public health interventions such as case investigation with contact tracing and immediate self-quarantine after exposure, are recommended to prevent and control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). On March 11, the first COVID-19 case in Delaware was reported to the Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH). The state responded to ongoing community transmission with investigation of all identified cases (commencing March 11), issuance of statewide stay-at-home orders (March 24-June 1), a statewide public mask mandate (from April 28), and contact tracing (starting May 12). The relationship among implementation of mitigation strategies, case investigations, and contact tracing and COVID-19 incidence and associated hospitalization and mortality was examined during March-June 2020. Incidence declined by 82%, hospitalization by 88%, and mortality by 100% from late April to June 2020, as the mask mandate and contact tracing were added to case investigations and the stay-at-home order. Among 9,762 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases reported during March 11-June 25, 2020, two thirds (6,527; 67%) of patients were interviewed, and 5,823 (60%) reported completing isolation. Among 2,834 contacts reported, 882 (31%) were interviewed and among these contacts, 721 (82%) reported completing quarantine. Implementation of mitigation measures, including mandated mask use coupled with public health interventions, was followed by reductions in COVID-19 incidence and associated hospitalizations and mortality. The combination of state-mandated community mitigation efforts and routine public health interventions can reduce the occurrence of new COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delaware/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Young Adult
18.
Turk Pediatri Ars ; 55(2): 95-102, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389829

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a RNA virus that emerged in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan in China and took hold of the whole world, affects children as well as all age groups. In our country, we started to observe the first cases by March 2020. SARS-CoV-2, which is transmitted by droplets and by way of contact with surfaces contaminated by these droplets, is generally transmitted to children from adults through close contact. There is no proven information about other transmission routes such as fecal-oral transmission. Similar to adults, the primary symptoms at presentation include fever, cough, sore throat, malaise, nasal discharge, and rarely, vomiting and diarrhea in children. Although the majority of pediatric patients are asymptomatic or have a mild clinical course, severe cases have been reported in children with underlying chronic diseases. There is currently no specific antiviral treatment against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Supportive treatment is recommended in children with a mild course, and some treatments are recommended in children with comorbidities or in children who are observed to have a more severe course. Asymptomatic pediatric patients or pediatric patients who have a mild course constitute an important group in terms of transmission of the infection to the advanced age group who carry high risk. Prevention of infection is very important in terms of reducing new cases and alleviating the load on the healthcare system. In order to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, hygienic rules should be pursued in the community, social distancing should be observed, and the family members and contacts of patients who have been diagnosed should be screened and isolated.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041937, 2020 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes around 10 hospitalisations per 1000 child-years, each associated with an average 13 non-routine days experienced and more than 4 parent workdays lost. In adults, steroid treatment shortens time to clinical stabilisation without an increase in complications in patients with CAP. However, despite promising data from observational studies, there is a lack of high-quality evidence for the use of steroids. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The KIDS-STEP trial is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial of betamethasone treatment on outcome of hospitalised children with CAP. Children are enrolled in paediatric emergency departments of hospitals across Switzerland and randomised to adjunct oral betamethasone for 2 days or matching placebo in addition to standard of care treatment. The co-primary outcomes are the proportion of children clinically stable 48 hours after randomisation and the proportion of children with CAP-related readmission within 28 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include length of hospital stay, time away from routine childcare and healthcare utilisation and total antibiotic prescriptions within 28 days from randomisation.Each of the co-primary outcomes will be analysed separately. We will test clinical stability rates using a proportion test; to test non-inferiority in readmission rates, we will construct 1-α % CI of the estimated difference and test if it contains the pre-defined margin of 7%. Success is conditional on both tests. A simulation-based sample size estimation determined that recruiting 700 patients will ensure a power of 80% for the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol and materials were approved by ethics committees in Switzerland (lead: Ethikkommission Nordwest und Zentralschweiz) and the regulatory authority Swissmedic. Participants and caregivers provide informed consent prior to study procedures commencing. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at national and international conferences. Key messages will also be disseminated via press and social media where appropriate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03474991 and SNCTP000002864.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adult , Betamethasone , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378341

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to systematically review to find the best available evidence on the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions that have been used in the community so far. Through eight electronic journal database, 9 articles met our inclusion Participants, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study Design (PICOS) criteria based on medical symptoms, interventions, and improvements. In general, interventions included hand hygiene, mask use, health education such as cough etiquette, hand washing and sanitizer methods. In addition, exercise and meditation were performed to improve immunity. As a result, the number of incidents and absences related to respiratory infections were reduced, the frequency and method of handwashing improved, and there were also positive effects in knowledge, attitude/perception, and performance. We concluded that it is necessary to create an environment and systematic support so that organizations or governments can determine healthy behavior at the same time as an individual approach. Furthermore, the follow-up for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions and the monitoring period should be included during the study, consequently resulting in having an opportunity to continuously remind people about health behavior. The community provides information on various types of non-pharmaceutical intervention to maintain healthy management and lifestyles in the public.


Subject(s)
Hand Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections , Exercise , Hand Disinfection , Health Education , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
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