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1.
J Mol Struct ; 1230: 129868, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734825

ABSTRACT

In view of the recent global pandemic caused by COVID-19 intense efforts have been devoted worldwide towards the development of an effective treatment for this disease. Recently, PDE4 inhibitors have been suggested to attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19 especially tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In our effort we have explored the 2-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines for this purpose because of their potential inhibitory properties of PDE-4 / TNF-α. Moreover, several of these compounds appeared to be promising in silico when assessed for their binding affinities via docking into the N-terminal RNA-binding domain (NTD) of N-protein of SARS-CoV-2. A rapid and one-pot synthesis of this class of molecules was achieved via the Cu-catalyzed coupling-cyclization-desulfinylation of 3-alkynyl-2-chloroquinoxalines with t-butyl sulfinamide as the ammonia surrogate under ultrasound irradiation. Most of these compounds showed good to significant inhibition of TNF-α in vitro establishing a SAR (Structure Activity Relationship) within the series. One compound e.g. 3i was identified as a promising hit for which the desirable ADME and acceptable toxicity profile was predicted in silico.

2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574052

ABSTRACT

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologicals, Dexamethasone and rIL-7 are of considerable interest in treating COVID-19 patients who are in danger of, or have become, seriously ill. Yet reducing sepsis mortality by lowering circulating levels of TNF lost favour when positive endpoints in earlier simplistic models could not be reproduced in well-conducted human trials. Newer information with anti-TNF biologicals has encouraged reintroducing this concept for treating COVID-19. Viral models have had encouraging outcomes, as have the effects of anti-TNF biologicals on community-acquired COVID-19 during their long-term use to treat chronic inflammatory states. The positive outcome of a large scale trial of dexamethasone, and its higher potency late in the disease, harmonises well with its capacity to enhance levels of IL-7Rα, the receptor for IL-7, a cytokine that enhances lymphocyte development and is increased during the cytokine storm. Lymphoid germinal centres required for antibody-based immunity can be harmed by TNF, and restored by reducing TNF. Thus the IL-7- enhancing activity of dexamethasone may explain its higher potency when lymphocytes are depleted later in the infection, while employing anti-TNF, for several reasons, is much more logical earlier in the infection. This implies dexamethasone could prove to be synergistic with rIL-7, currently being trialed as a COVID-19 therapeutic. The principles behind these COVID-19 therapies are consistent with the observed chronic hypoxia through reduced mitochondrial function, and also the increased severity of this disease in ApoE4-positive individuals. Many of the debilitating persistent aspects of this disease are predictably susceptible to treatment with perispinal etanercept, since they have cerebral origins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Interleukin-17/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
3.
Life Sci ; 284: 119201, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm is the exaggerated immune response often observed in viral infections. It is also intimately linked with the progression of COVID-19 disease as well as associated complications and mortality. Therefore, targeting the cytokine storm might help in reducing COVID-19-associated health complications. The number of COVID-19 associated deaths (as of January 15, 2021; https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/) in the USA is high (1199/million) as compared to countries like India (110/million). Although the reason behind this is not clear, spices may have some role in explaining this difference. Spices and herbs are used in different traditional medicines, especially in countries such as India to treat various chronic diseases due to their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: To evaluate the literature available on the anti-inflammatory properties of spices which might prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. METHOD: A detailed literature search has been conducted on PubMed for collecting information pertaining to the COVID-19; the history, origin, key structural features, and mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2; the repurposed drugs in use for the management of COVID-19, and the anti-inflammatory role of spices to combat COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. KEY FINDINGS: The literature search resulted in numerous in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials that have reported the potency of spices to exert anti-inflammatory effects by regulating crucial molecular targets for inflammation. SIGNIFICANCE: As spices are derived from Mother Nature and are inexpensive, they are relatively safer to consume. Therefore, their anti-inflammatory property can be exploited to combat the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. This review thus focuses on the current knowledge on the role of spices for the treatment of COVID-19 through suppression of inflammation-linked cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Spices , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 515-519, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574756

ABSTRACT

Blockade of IL-6 function by an anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody (tocilizumab, trade name Actemra) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, treatment with tocilizumab has also been found to alleviate the cytokine storm induced by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy. Patients with serious cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which suggested that tocilizumab might be an effective therapeutic for serious cases of COVID-19. In the first part of this short review, the therapeutic effect of tocilizumab for the disease induced by IL-6 overproduction is described. CRS induced by CAR-T-cell therapy and COVID-19 is then discussed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4223-4231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502208

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection accompanied by severe or fatal pneumonia-like symptoms and sometimes death. It has posed to be an ongoing global health emergency caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a sudden outbreak and a large number of infections and deaths, it became a major concern all over the world. The options available as effective therapeutics should be urgently exercised to handle this pandemic. So far, no specific and accurate anti- SARS-CoV-2 treatment is recommended because of the absence of sufficient clinical evidence. In such cases, the clinical use of available drugs is always considered to be on top priority. A broad-spectrum antiviral agent, remdesivir, is found effective in many cases and recommended by many clinicians in many countries. This drug acts as a potential inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein and thus likely to be efficacious in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tocilizumab is currently recommended by many hospitals as an alternative treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients. Tocilizumab has been administered to control cytokine storms that occur due to the release of proinflammatory cytokine, including interleukin 6. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are also used in hospitals to handle severe COVID-19 patients. Currently, plasma therapy has been exercised as a therapeutic alternative, especially to handle severe COVID-19 patients. In addition, herbal medicines are expected to play a significant role in the control and prevention of COVID-19. All these therapeutic options have their advantages and limitations. This review highlights the therapeutic potential of these available drugs, along with their mechanism of action and shortcomings. We have provided detailed information on available therapeutic options, which have proved to be effective in improving clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Phytotherapy
6.
Anaesthesist ; 70(2): 121-126, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453674

ABSTRACT

A 59-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital diagnosed with moderate pneumonia associated with COVID-19. Upfront treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was started. Due to a clinical deterioration (ARDS, circulatory shock) and greatly increased inflammation markers 6 days after admission, a cytokine storm was suspected and off-label treatment with the IL­6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab was initiated. Subsequently there was a dramatic rise of D­dimers indicating pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy and respiratory insufficiency worsened. After a second dose of tocilizumab was administered severe perimyocarditis with cardiac arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and ST elevation occurred. Shortly afterwards the patient died due to multiorgan failure. From our experience, exacerbation of COVID-19 following treatment with tocilizumab cannot be ruled out. Randomized controlled studies are necessary to further investigate the efficacy, safety and patient selection criteria for tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Off-Label Use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Treatment Outcome
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 650295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389231

ABSTRACT

Hyperinflammatory syndromes comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by severe inflammation, multiple organ dysfunction, and potentially death. In response to antigenic stimulus (e.g., SARS-CoV-2 infection), overactivated CD8+ T-cells and macrophages produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12. Multiple inflammatory mediators implicated in hyperinflammatory syndromes utilize the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) cascade to propagate their biological function. Our findings demonstrate that oral ruxolitinib dosing designed to mimic clinically relevant JAK-STAT pathway inhibition significantly reduces the harmful consequences of immune overactivation in multiple hyperinflammatory models. In contrast to monoclonal antibody therapies targeting a single cytokine, ruxolitinib effectively downregulates the functional effect of multiple cytokines implicated in hyperinflammatory states, without broad immunosuppression.

8.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173679

ABSTRACT

As human life expectancy is rising, the incidence of age-associated diseases will also increase. Scientific evidence has revealed that healthy diets, including good fats, vitamins, minerals, or polyphenolics, could have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, with antiaging effects. Recent studies demonstrated that vitamin K is a vital cofactor in activating several proteins, which act against age-related syndromes. Thus, vitamin K can carboxylate osteocalcin (a protein capable of transporting and fixing calcium in bone), activate matrix Gla protein (an inhibitor of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events) and carboxylate Gas6 protein (involved in brain physiology and a cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease inhibitor). By improving insulin sensitivity, vitamin K lowers diabetes risk. It also exerts antiproliferative, proapoptotic, autophagic effects and has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Recent research shows that protein S, another vitamin K-dependent protein, can prevent the cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 cases. The reduced activation of protein S due to the pneumonia-induced vitamin K depletion was correlated with higher thrombogenicity and possibly fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Our review aimed to present the latest scientific evidence about vitamin K and its role in preventing age-associated diseases and/or improving the effectiveness of medical treatments in mature adults ˃50 years old.

9.
Diseases ; 9(2)2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304637

ABSTRACT

Exaggerated oxidative stress and hyper-inflammation are essential features of oxidative/inflammatory diseases. Simultaneously, both processes may be the cause or consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction, thus establishing a vicious cycle among these three factors. However, several natural substances, including melatonin and micronutrients, may prevent or attenuate mitochondrial damage and may preserve an optimal state of health by managing the general oxidative and inflammatory status. This review aims to describe the crucial role of mitochondria in the development and progression of multiple diseases as well as the close relationship among mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cytokine storm. Likewise, it attempts to summarize the main findings related to the powerful effects of melatonin and some micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), which may be useful (alone or in combination) as therapeutic agents in the treatment of several examples of oxidative/inflammatory pathologies, including sepsis, as well as cardiovascular, renal, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders.

10.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 33(4): 165-177, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297283

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric sequalae to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are beginning to emerge, like previous Spanish influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome episodes. Streptococcal infection in paediatric patients causing obsessive compulsive disorder (PANDAS) is another recent example of an infection-based psychiatric disorder. Inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders has been previously reported but there is no standard clinical management approach established. Part of the reason is that it is unclear what factors determine the specific neuronal vulnerability and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment in neuroinflammation. The emerging COVID-19 data suggested that in the acute stage, widespread neuronal damage appears to be the result of abnormal and overactive immune responses and cytokine storm is associated with poor prognosis. It is still too early to know if there are long-term-specific neuronal or brain regional damages associated with COVID-19, resulting in distinct neuropsychiatric disorders. In several major psychiatric disorders where neuroinflammation is present, patients with abnormal inflammatory markers may also experience less than favourable response or treatment resistance when standard treatment is used alone. Evidence regarding the benefits of co-administered anti-inflammatory agents such as COX-2 inhibitor is encouraging in selected patients though may not benefit others. Disease-modifying therapies are increasingly being applied to neuropsychiatric diseases characterised by abnormal or hyperreactive immune responses. Adjunct anti-inflammatory treatment may benefit selected patients and is definitely an important component of clinical management in the presence of neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Streptococcal Infections/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/etiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology
11.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(2): 423-427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298274

ABSTRACT

Acute severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) which is associated with inflammation, thrombosis edema, hemorrhage, intra-alveolar fibrin deposition, and vascular and pulmonary damage. In COVID-19, the coronavirus activates macrophages by inducing the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF] that can damage endothelial cells, activate platelets and neutrophils to produce thromboxane A2 (TxA2), and mediate thrombus generation. In severe cases, all these phenomena can lead to patient death. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the Toll Like Receptor (TLR) results in the release of pro-IL-1ß that is cleaved by caspase-1, followed by the production of active mature IL-1ß which is the most important cytokine in causing fever and inflammation. Its activation in COVID-19 can cause a "cytokine storm" with serious biological and clinical consequences. Blockade of IL-1 with inhibitory and anti-inflammatory cytokines represents a new therapeutic strategy also for COVID-19. Recently, very rare allergic reactions to vaccines have been reported, with phenomena of pulmonary thrombosis. These side effects have raised substantial concern in the population. Highly allergic subjects should therefore be vaccinated under strict medical supervision. COVID-19 has accelerated vaccine therapy but also the use of drugs and monoclonal antibodies (mABs) which have been used in COVID-19 therapy. They are primarily adopted to treat high-risk mild-to-moderate non-hospitalized patients, and it has been noted that the administration of two mABs gave better results. mABs, other than polyclonal plasma antibodies from infected subjects with SARS-CoV-2, are produced in the laboratory and are intended to fight SARS-CoV-2. They bind specifically to the antigenic determinant of the spike protein, inhibiting the pathogenicity of the virus. The most suitable individuals for mAB therapy are people at particular risk, such as the elderly and those with serious chronic diseases including diabetics, hypertension and obesity, including subjects suffering from cardiovascular diseases. These antibodies have a well-predetermined target, they bind mainly to the protein S (formed by the S1A, B, C and D subtypes), located on the viral surface, and to the S2 protein that acts as a fuser between the virus and the cell membrane. Since mABs are derived from a single splenic immune cell, they are identical and form a cell clone which can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by binding to the epitope of the virus. However, this COVID-19 therapy may cause several side effects such as mild pain, bleeding, bruising of the skin, soreness, swelling, thrombotic-type episodes, arterial hypertension, changes in heart activity, slowed bone marrow activity, impaired renal function, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, allergic reaction, fever, and possible subsequent infection may occur at the site of injection. In conclusion, the studies promoting mAB therapy in COVID-19 are very promising but the results are not yet definitive and more investigations are needed to certify both their good neutralizing effects of SARS-CoV-2, and to eliminate, or at least mitigate, the harmful side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endothelial Cells , Humans
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298166

ABSTRACT

The virus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a new virus with high infectivity and moderate mortality. The major clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is interstitial pneumonia, which may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the disease causes a potent systemic hyperin-flammatory response, i.e., a cytokine storm or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), which is associated with thrombotic complications. The complexity of the disease requires appropriate intensive treatment. One of promising treatment is statin administration, these being 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors that exert pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that statin therapy is associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19, which may be caused by direct and indirect mechanisms. According to literature data, statins can limit SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and replication by inhibiting the main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The cytokine storm can be ameliorated by lowering serum IL-6 levels; this can be achieved by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and modulating macrophage activity. Statins can also reduce the complications of COVID-19, such as thrombosis and pulmonary fibrosis, by reducing serum PAI-1 levels, attenuating TGF-ß and VEGF in lung tissue, and improving endothelial function. Despite these benefits, statin therapy may have side effects that should be considered, such as elevated creatinine kinase (CK), liver enzyme and serum glucose levels, which are already elevated in severe COVID-19 infection. The present study analyzes the latest findings regarding the benefits and limitations of statin therapy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Macrophage Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/drug therapy
13.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211019557, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262488

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, initially in December 2019 at Wuhan, China, subsequently spread around the world. We describe a case series of COVID-19 patients treated at our academic medical center with focus on cytokine storm and potential therapeutic role of tocilizumab. A 59-year-old female admitted for shortness of breath (SOB), productive cough, fever, and nausea in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. Oxygen saturation was 81% necessitating supplemental oxygen. She was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for worsening hypoxia; intubated and received tocilizumab following which her oxygen requirements improved. A 52-year-old female admitted from an outside hospital with SOB, intubated for worsening hypoxia, in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. She received tocilizumab 400 mg intravenous for 2 doses on ICU admission, with clinical improvement. A 56-year-old female hospitalized with worsening SOB, fever, and cough for 8 days saturating 88% on room air in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. Worsening hypoxia necessitated high flow nasal cannula. She was transferred to the ICU where she received 2 doses of tocilizumab 400 mg intravenous. She did not require intubation and was transitioned to nasal cannula. A hyperinflammatory syndrome may cause a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Tocilizumab is the first marketed interleukin-6 blocking antibody, and through targeting interleukin-6 receptors likely has a role in treating cytokine storm. We noted clinical improvement of patients treated with tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pennsylvania , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 36: 100926, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 Intravenous Immunoglobulin (C-IVIG) is an unexplored therapy amidst the rapidly evolving spectrum of medical therapies for COVID-19 and is expected to counter the three most life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 including lung injury by the virus, cytokine storm and sepsis. METHODS: A single center, phase I/II, randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were COVID-19 infected individuals, classified as either severely or critically ill with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Participants were randomized through parallel-group design with sequential assignment in a 4:1 allocation to either intervention group with four C-IVIG dosage arms (0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 g/kg), or control group receiving standard of care only (n = 10). Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality, patient's clinical status on ordinal scale and Horowitz index (HI), and were analysed in all randomized participants that completed the follow-up period (intention-to-treat population). The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04521309). FINDINGS: Fifty participants were enrolled in the study from June 19, 2020 to February 3, 2021 with a mean age of 56.54±13.2 years of which 22 patients (44%) had severe and 28 patients (56%) had critical COVID-19. Mortality occurred in ten of 40 participants (25%) in intervention group compared to six of ten (60%) in control group, with relative risk reduction in intervention arm I (RR, 0.333; 95% CI, 0.087-1.272), arm II (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.171-1.463), arm III (RR, 0.167; 95% CI, 0.024-1.145), and arm IV (RR, 0.667; 95% CI, 0.268-1.660). In intervention group, median HI significantly improved to 359 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR) 127-400, P = 0.009)] by outcome day, while the clinical status of intervention group also improved as compared to control group, with around 15 patients (37.5%) being discharged by 7th day with complete recovery. Additionally, resolution of chest X-rays and restoration of biomarkers to normal levels were also seen in intervention groups. No drug-related adverse events were reported during the study. INTERPRETATION: Administration of C-IVIG in severe and critical COVID-19 patients was safe, increased the chance of survival and reduced the risk of disease progression. FUNDING: Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan (Ref no. 20-RRG-134/RGM/R&D/HEC/2020).

15.
Regen Ther ; 18: 152-160, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260854

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 disease has recently become one of the biggest challenges globally, and there is still no specific medication. Findings showed the immune system in severe Covid-19 patients loses regulatory control of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6 production, called the "Cytokine storm" process. This process can cause injury to vital organs, including lungs, kidneys, liver, and ultimately death if not inhibited. While many treatments have been proposed to reduce cytokine storm, but the safety and effectiveness of each of them are still in doubt. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with self-renewal potential capable of suppressing overactive immune responses and leading to tissue restoration and repair. These immuno-modulatory properties of MSCs and their derivatives (like exosomes) can improve the condition of Covid-19 patients with serious infectious symptoms caused by adaptive immune system dysfunction. Many clinical trials have been conducted in this field using various MSCs around the world. Some of these have been published and summarized in the present article, while many have not yet been completed. Based on these available data, MSCs can reduce inflammatory cytokines, increase oxygen saturation, regenerate lung tissue and improve clinical symptoms in Covid-19 patients. The review article aims to collect available clinical data in more detail and investigate the role of MSCs in reducing cytokine storms as well as improving clinical parameters of Covid-19 patients for use in future clinical studies.

16.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 14: 621-629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256179

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), a metabolic cascade regulating pressure and circulating blood volume, has been considered the main system involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung injury and organs decline in COVID-19 patients. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE1), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), angiotensinogen (AGT) and receptors angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) are key factors for SARS-CoV-2 entering in the cells, sodium and water retention with an increase blood pressure, promotion of fibrotic and inflammatory phenomena resulting in a cytokine storm. METHODS: In this pilot study, the frequencies of six polymorphisms in the ACE1, ACE2, AGT and AGTR1 genes were analysed in symptomatic patients affected by COVID-19 and compared with the results obtained from asymptomatic subjects. RESULTS: Thus, we have identified that rs2074192 (ACE2), rs1799752 (ACE1) and rs699 (AGT) SNPs could potentially be a valuable tool for predicting the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. A genetic predisposition may be prospected for severe internal organ damages and poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19 disease, as observed in symptomatic vs asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that analysis of RAAS polymorphisms could be considered the key point in understanding and predicting the SARS-CoV-2 course infection.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 666664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256398

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 and named COVID-19 urgent the need for novel lead antiviral drugs. Recently, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of remdesivir as anti-SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is a natural product-inspired nucleoside analogue with significant broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Nucleosides analogues from marine sponge including spongouridine and spongothymidine have been used as lead for the evolutionary synthesis of various antiviral drugs such as vidarabine and cytarabine. Furthermore, the marine sponge is a rich source of compounds with unique activities. Marine sponge produces classes of compounds that can inhibit the viral cysteine protease (Mpro) such as esculetin and ilimaquinone and human serine protease (TMPRSS2) such as pseudotheonamide C and D and aeruginosin 98B. Additionally, sponge-derived compounds such as dihydrogracilin A and avarol showed immunomodulatory activity that can target the cytokines storm. Here, we reviewed the potential use of sponge-derived compounds as promising therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the reported antiviral activity of isolated marine metabolites, structural modifications showed the importance in targeting and efficacy. On that basis, we are proposing a novel structure with bifunctional scaffolds and dual pharmacophores that can be superiorly employed in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

18.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(5): 51-75, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241385

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of the date of this writing, a total of 116 M cases has been diagnosed worldwide leading to 2.5 M deaths. The number of mortalities is directly correlated with the rise of innate immune cells (especially macrophages) in the lungs that secrete inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) leading to the development of "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS), multi-organ-failure and death. Given that currently the treatment of this condition is rare and release of effective vaccine might be months away, here, we review the plants and their pharmacologically active-compounds as potential phytopharmaceuticals for the virus induced inflammatory response. Experimental validation of the effectiveness of these natural compounds to prevent or reduce the cytokine storm might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence/drug effects , Virulence/immunology
19.
World J Methodol ; 11(3): 95-109, 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have good prognoses, but some develop a critical illness that can lead to death. Evidence shows severe acute respiratory syndrome is closely related to the induced cytokine storm. Interleukin-6 is a key player; its role in systemic inflammation is well known. AIM: To evaluate the effect of tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, on the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, MedRxiv, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to 9th June 2020 for observational or prospective studies reporting results of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 infection treated with TCZ. Effect sizes were reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and an OR less than 1 was associated with a better outcome in those treated with TCZ. RESULTS: Overall 13476 patients (33 studies; n = 3264 received TCZ) with COVID-19 pneumonia and various degree of severity were included. Outcome was improved with TCZ. In the primary analysis (n = 19 studies reporting data), mortality was reduced in patients treated with TCZ (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.47-0.87; P < 0.01). In 9 studies where risk of death with TCZ use was controlled for other variables mortality was reduced by 57% (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.27-0.7; P < 0.01). Intensive care need (mechanical ventilation) was also reduced (OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.14-0.89; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19-infected patients treated with TCZ, outcome may be improved compared to those not treated with TCZ.

20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 625836, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241176

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through excessive end organ inflammation. Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology, management, and the great efforts worldwide to produce effective drugs, death rates of COVID-19 patients remain unacceptably high, and effective treatment is unfortunately lacking. Pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating inflammation in COVID-19 are being evaluated worldwide. Several drug therapies targeting this excessive inflammation, such as tocilizumab, an interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitor, corticosteroids, programmed cell death protein (PD)-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition, cytokine-adsorption devices, and intravenous immunoglobulin have been identified as potentially useful and reliable approaches to counteract the cytokine storm. However, little attention is currently paid for non-drug therapeutic strategies targeting inflammatory and immunological processes that may be useful for reducing COVID-19-induced complications and improving patient outcome. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates inflammation both in experimental models and preliminary data in human. Modulating the activity of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways (CAPs) described by the group of KJ Tracey has indeed become an important target of therapeutic research strategies for inflammatory diseases and sepsis. Non-invasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS), as a non-pharmacological adjuvant, may help reduce the burden of COVID-19 and deserve to be investigated. VNS as an adjunct therapy in COVID-19 patients should be investigated in clinical trials. Two clinical trials on this topic are currently underway (NCT04382391 and NCT04368156). The results of these trials will be informative, but additional larger studies are needed.

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