Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 161
Filter
1.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(S 01): e129-e136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare respiratory illness-related hospitalization (RIH) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related hospitalization (RSVH) in multiple births versus singletons, who received palivizumab during the RSV season and participated in the Canadian registry of palivizumab (CARESS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of infants aged <2 years recruited across 32 centers over 12 RSV seasons from 2005 to 2017. Demographic data were collected at enrolment and RIH events were recorded monthly. RESULTS: A total of 25,003 infants were enrolled of whom 6,949 (27.8%) were of multiple birth, and 18,054 (72.2%) were singletons. A significantly larger proportion of the multiple births were premature (80.2%) compared with the singleton group (56.8%). Multiples had a lower gestational age (mean ± standard deviation): 31.2 ± 3.2 versus 33.2 ± 5.5 weeks and birth weight (mean: 1,590 ± 606.8 vs. 2,069.4 ± 1068.5 g; both p < 0.0005). They were younger at enrolment (4.5 ± 5.0 vs. 6.1 ± 6.8 months), and fewer attended daycare (1.9 vs. 4.6%), and experienced exposure to smoking (24.5 vs. 29.9%), but more lived in a crowded household (36.7 vs. 19.4%); all p < 0.0005. Multiples had a longer length of neonatal stay (51.1 ± 65.9 vs. 47.9 ± 67.8 days), and more required respiratory support (65.7 vs. 57.7%), but for shorter duration (22.6 ± 32.9 vs. 24.7 ± 40.6 days); all p < 0.001. RIH and RSVH rates (%) in multiples versus singletons were 4.7; 7.7 and 1.4; and 1.6, respectively. Cox regression showed that multiples had a lower risk of RIH compared with singletons (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.543-0.698, p < 0.0005), but not RSVH (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.57-1.02, p = 0.071). CONCLUSION: Multiple birth infants, who are known to be at greater risk for severe RSVH compared with singletons, are well protected by palivizumab, provided adherence to the monthly injection scheme is guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Palivizumab/administration & dosage , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pregnancy, Multiple/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Registries , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0202, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795075

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome appear to present with at least two distinct phenotypes: severe hypoxemia with relatively well-preserved lung compliance and lung gas volumes (type 1) and a more conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome phenotype, displaying the typical characteristics of the "baby lung" (type 2). We aimed to test plausible hypotheses regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome and to evaluate the resulting implications for ventilatory management. DESIGN: We adapted a high-fidelity computational simulator, previously validated in several studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome, to: 1) develop quantitative insights into the key pathophysiologic differences between the coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome and the conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2) assess the impact of different positive end-expiratory pressure, Fio2, and tidal volume settings. SETTING: Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Systems Medicine Research Network. SUBJECTS: The simulator was calibrated to represent coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with both normal and elevated body mass indices undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An acute respiratory distress syndrome model implementing disruption of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasodilation leading to hyperperfusion of collapsed lung regions failed to replicate clinical data on type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Adding mechanisms to reflect disruption of alveolar gas-exchange due to the effects of pneumonitis and heightened vascular resistance due to the emergence of microthrombi produced levels of ventilation perfusion mismatch and hypoxemia consistent with data from type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, while preserving close-to-normal lung compliance and gas volumes. Atypical responses to positive end-expiratory pressure increments between 5 and 15 cm H2O were observed for this type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome model across a range of measures: increasing positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in reduced lung compliance and no improvement in oxygenation, whereas mechanical power, driving pressure, and plateau pressure all increased. Fio2 settings based on acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols at different positive end-expiratory pressure levels were insufficient to achieve adequate oxygenation. Incrementing tidal volumes from 5 to 10 mL/kg produced similar increases in multiple indicators of ventilator-induced lung injury in the type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome model to those seen in a conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome model. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that use of standard positive end-expiratory pressure/Fio2 tables, higher positive end-expiratory pressure strategies, and higher tidal volumes may all be potentially deleterious in type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, and that a highly personalized approach to treatment is advisable.

3.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(8): 1610-1618, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747012

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 started in December 2019 as an outbreak of unexplained pneumonias in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province of China. This illness emerged as an epidemic in China and later spread to almost all countries over the globe except Antarctica. This is caused by a beta Corona virus, which is genetically similar to SARS virus. The predominant mode of transmission is via droplet spread, when the infected person coughs, sneezes or talks the virus is released in the respiratory secretions. As there are only a few cases of COVID 19 in neonates, there is no convincing evidence to support the possibility of vertical transmission. Clinical presentation in neonates is nonspecific, commonly observed are temperature instability, respiratory distress, poor feeding, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory examinations may be nonspecific. Definitive test for 2019-nCoV is the detection of viral nucleic acid by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Suspected and confirmed COVID positive mothers should be delivered in separate delivery rooms and operation theaters. Since there is no approved treatment or drug for this disease, prevention of infection and breaking the chain of transmission plays a crucial role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(12): 1780-1784, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the safety of Bacille Calmette-Guérin [BCG] vaccination in infants born to mothers receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor [anti-TNF] therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Adverse events of BCG vaccination were evaluated in 90 infants who were last exposed to anti-TNF agents at a median of gestational week 30. RESULTS: After receiving BCG vaccination at a median age of 6 months [range, 0.25-11 months], three infants [3.3%] showed injection site swelling, two of whom also showed axillar lymphadenopathy. The rates of adverse events were similar between infants who were last exposed to anti-TNF agents before the third trimester [n = 35] and those who were last exposed in the third trimester [n = 55] [2.9% vs 3.6%; p = 1.00]. All adverse events were spontaneously resolved and there were no serious adverse events such as active tuberculosis infection or death. CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccination after 6 months of age is of low risk in infants exposed to anti-TNF agents in utero.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512665

ABSTRACT

Acute viral bronchiolitis causes significant mortality in the developing world, is the number one cause of infant hospitalisation in the developed world, and is associated with the later development of chronic lung diseases such as asthma. A vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the leading cause of viral bronchiolitis in infancy, remains elusive, and hence new therapeutic modalities are needed to limit disease severity. However, much remains unknown about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Neutrophilic inflammation is the predominant phenotype observed in infants with both mild and severe disease, however, a clear understanding of the beneficial and deleterious effects of neutrophils is lacking. In this review, we describe the multifaceted roles of neutrophils in host defence and antiviral immunity, consider their contribution to bronchiolitis pathogenesis, and discuss whether new approaches that target neutrophil effector functions will be suitable for treating severe RSV bronchiolitis.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis, Viral/immunology , Bronchiolitis, Viral/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Neutrophils/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity
8.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504476

ABSTRACT

Background: In the UK setting, where neonatal jaundice treatment is required, it is largely carried out in hospitals. However, it is possible to safely administer home phototherapy (HPT). Objective: To report on our centre's experience of HPT and its potential benefits. Design: Retrospective observational study performed as a service evaluation. Patients: Infants ≥35 weeks corrected gestational age with a weight of 2 kg and serum bilirubin ≤50 µmol/L above treatment thresholds. Controls were a matched group of infants who received inpatient phototherapy (IPT). Setting: The catchment area of two neonatal intensive care units, one special care unit and a birth centre at four different hospitals that is covered by a single neonatal community outreach nursing team in Birmingham, UK. Intervention: HPT was started either in the community or as a continuation of IPT. Controls received IPT. Main outcome measures: The rate of bilirubin reduction, hospital readmission rates and parental satisfaction. Results: 100 infants received HPT while 50 received IPT. No infant showed a progressive rise of serum bilirubin level while receiving HPT. The rate of bilirubin reduction was similar in both HPT and IPT groups (2.4±1.9 and 2.5±1.6 µmol/L/hour, respectively, MD=-0.1, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.53, p=0.74). Readmission rate was 3% in the HPT group. 97% of parents stated that the overall experience was good and 98% would choose HPT if they had their time all over again. Conclusion: Our programme suggests that HPT for neonatal jaundice can be carried out in a select group of infants. It helps in providing holistic family-centred care and is viewed positively by families.


Subject(s)
Jaundice, Neonatal , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Jaundice, Neonatal/therapy , Parents , Phototherapy , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom
9.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(6): 627-634, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with delivery room respiratory support in at-risk infants who are initially vigorous and received delayed cord clamping (DCC). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Two perinatal centres in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: At-risk infants born at ≥35+0 weeks gestation with a paediatric doctor in attendance who were initially vigorous and received DCC for >60 s. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delivery room respiratory support defined as facemask positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure and/or supplemental oxygen within 10 min of birth. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-eight infants born at a median (IQR) gestational age of 39+3 (38+2-40+2) weeks were included. Cord clamping occurred at a median (IQR) of 128 (123-145) s. Forty-four (15%) infants received respiratory support at a median of 214 (IQR 156-326) s after birth. Neonatal unit admission for respiratory distress occurred in 32% of infants receiving delivery room respiratory support vs 1% of infants who did not receive delivery room respiratory support (p<0.001). Risk factors independently associated with delivery room respiratory support were average heart rate (HR) at 90-120 s after birth (determined using three-lead ECG), mode of birth and time to establish regular cries. Decision tree analysis identified that infants at highest risk had an average HR of <165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth following caesarean section (risk of 39%). Infants with an average HR of ≥165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth were at low risk (5%). CONCLUSIONS: We present a clinical decision pathway for at-risk infants who may benefit from close observation following DCC. Our findings provide a novel perspective of HR beyond the traditional threshold of 100 beats per minute.


Subject(s)
Critical Pathways/standards , Delivery, Obstetric , Electrocardiography/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Umbilical Cord , Australia/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Constriction , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Heart Rate , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
10.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 638871, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457675

ABSTRACT

With birth, the newborn is transferred from a quasi-sterile environment to the outside world. At this time, the neonatal immune system is inexperienced and continuously subject to a process of development as it encounters different antigenic stimuli after birth. It is initially characterized by a bias toward T helper 2 phenotype, reduced T helper 1, and cytotoxic responses to microbial stimuli, low levels of memory, and effector T and B cells and a high production of suppressive T regulatory cells. The aim of this setting, during fetal life, is to maintain an anti-inflammatory state and immune-tolerance. Maternal antibodies are transferred during pregnancy through the placenta and, in the first weeks of life of the newborn, they represent a powerful tool for protection. Thus, optimization of vaccination in pregnancy represents an important strategy to reduce the burden of neonatal infections and sepsis. Beneficial effects of maternal immunization are universally recognized, although the optimal timing of vaccination in pregnancy remains to be defined. Interestingly, the dynamic exchange that takes place at the fetal-maternal interface allows the transfer not only of antibodies, but also of maternal antigen presenting cells, probably in order to stimulate the developing fetal immune system in a harmless way. There are still controversial effects related to maternal immunization including the so called "immunology blunting," i.e., a dampened antibody production following infant's vaccination in those infants who received placentally transferred maternal immunity. However, clinical relevance of this phenomenon is still not clear. This review will provide an overview of the evolution of the immune system in early life and discuss the benefits of maternal vaccination. Current maternal vaccination policies and their rationale will be summarized on the road to promising approaches to enhance immunity in the neonate.

11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Bias , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Heart-Lung Machine/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
13.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(8): 1392-1405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389051

ABSTRACT

The complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its COVID-19 disease on mothers and their offspring are less known. This review aimed to determine the transmission, severity, and complications of SARS- CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. This review showed the influence of COVID-19 disease on neonatal neurogenesis. Owing medicines that were reported for the treatment of COVID-19 disease, this review suggested some control strategies like treatments (medicinal plants, antiviral therapy, cellular therapy, and immunotherapy), nutrition uptake, prevention, and recommendations. This overview showed that severe infection of SARS-CoV-2 during the early stage of pregnancy might increase the risk of stress, panic, and anxiety. This disorder can disturb the maternal immune system, and thus causing a neurodevelopmental disturbance. This hypothesis may be depending on the severity and intensity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. However, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from dams to their fetuses is absent until now. During this global pandemic disease, maintaining safety during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and breastfeeding may play a vital role in a healthy life for the offspring. Thus, international, and national organizations should be continuing for perinatal management, particularly during the next pandemic or disaster time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Med (N Y) ; 2(2): 149-163.e4, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody responses to virus reflect exposure and potential protection. METHODS: We developed a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04039945), in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03316261), and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data. FINDINGS: Dual-antibody positivity was detected in none of the 3,887 children in 2019 (100% specificity) and 73 of 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals (97.3% sensitivity). Antibody surveillance in children during 2020 resulted in frequencies of 0.08% in January to March, 0.61% in April, 0.74% in May, 1.13% in June, and 0.91% in July. Antibody prevalence from April 2020 was 6-fold higher than the incidence of authority-reported cases (156 per 100,000 children), showed marked variation between the seven Bavarian regions (p < 0.0001), and was not associated with age or sex. Transmission in children with virus-positive family members was 35%. 47% of positive children were asymptomatic. No association with type 1 diabetes autoimmunity was observed. Antibody frequency in newborns was 0.47%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the value of population-based screening programs for pandemic monitoring. FUNDING: The work was supported by funding from the BMBF (FKZ01KX1818).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Indian J Anaesth ; 65(1): 17-22, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325869

ABSTRACT

Paediatric anaesthesia is an upcoming speciality which is gaining wide interest and can be a career choice for the new trainees. The need to develop paediatric anaesthesia as a speciality was realised with the progress in the field of paediatric surgery. The profile of the 'patient' encountered by a paediatric anaesthesiologist spans from an extremely premature neonate on the fringes of survival, to a full-grown adolescent equivalent to an adult. Perioperative morbidity and mortality are 2-3 times higher in infants and neonates compared to adults particularly in middle and low-income countries. The anatomical, physiological, pharmacological variations and presence of congenital cardiac, pulmonary and metabolic diseases in young children make perioperative management challenging. Special expertise and training are required for anaesthetic management of these preverbal children. In India, 3-years DM and 1-year Fellowship courses in paediatric anaesthesia are now available for specialisation. An ideal paediatric anaesthesia training centre should have substantial paediatric and neonatal patient load with exclusive intensive care facility. Paediatric anaesthesiologists, having knowledge of several facets of paediatrics and anaesthesia are capable of coordinating with health care professionals performing procedures outside the operating room. Paediatric anaesthesia, as a career thus offers a great opportunity to enhance quality and safety of anaesthesia in this high-risk surgical population. Persistent coordinated team efforts improve patient outcomes, reduce stress at work and increase job satisfaction.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299441

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia due to respiratory infection with most prominently bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, or parasites is the leading cause of death worldwide among all infectious disease in both adults and infants. The introduction of modern antibiotic treatment regimens and vaccine strategies has helped to lower the burden of bacterial pneumonia, yet due to the unavailability or refusal of vaccines and antimicrobials in parts of the global population, the rise of multidrug resistant pathogens, and high fatality rates even in patients treated with appropriate antibiotics pneumonia remains a global threat. As such, a better understanding of pathogen virulence on the one, and the development of innovative vaccine strategies on the other hand are once again in dire need in the perennial fight of men against microbes. Recent data show that the secretome of bacteria consists not only of soluble mediators of virulence but also to a significant proportion of extracellular vesicles-lipid bilayer-delimited particles that form integral mediators of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles are released from cells of all kinds of organisms, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in which case they are commonly termed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and membrane vesicles (MVs), respectively. (O)MVs can trigger inflammatory responses to specific pathogens including S. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and L. pneumophila and as such, mediate bacterial virulence in pneumonia by challenging the host respiratory epithelium and cellular and humoral immunity. In parallel, however, (O)MVs have recently emerged as auspicious vaccine candidates due to their natural antigenicity and favorable biochemical properties. First studies highlight the efficacy of such vaccines in animal models exposed to (O)MVs from B. pertussis, S. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. An advanced and balanced recognition of both the detrimental effects of (O)MVs and their immunogenic potential could pave the way to novel treatment strategies in pneumonia and effective preventive approaches.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Outer Membrane/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/prevention & control , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virulence
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 5182-5187, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298501

ABSTRACT

Infections due to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are frequent during early childhood. Usually, they have a favorable clinical course. Conversely, HHV-6 congenital infections occur in about 1% of neonates and may present with more severe clinical pictures. HHV-6 can be found in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from patients with pneumonia and in immunocompromised patients can cause mild to severe pneumonia. In neonates, the role of HHV-6 in the genesis of severe pneumonia is poorly defined still now. We describe a healthy infant with a late-onset (15 days of life) severe interstitial pneumonia and heavy HHV-6 genome load, persistently detected in its BAL fluid. The baby underwent high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and ganciclovir for 6 weeks and at 9 months she died. Next-generation sequencing of genes known to cause neonatal respiratory insufficiency revealed the presence of a "probably pathogenetic" heterozygous variant in the autosomal recessive DRC1 gene, a heterozygous variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the autosomal recessive RSPH9 gene, and a heterozygous VUS in the autosomal recessive MUC5B gene. HHV-6 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of late-onset severe respiratory distress in neonates and the co-occurrence of genetic predisposing factors or modifiers should be tested by specific molecular techniques. The intensity of HHV-6 genome load in BAL fluid could be an indicator of the response to antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genetic Variation , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Viral Load
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626717, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285285

ABSTRACT

Vaccination during pregnancy is a safe and effective intervention to protect women from potentially severe consequences of influenza and reduce risk of influenza and pertussis in their infants. However, coverage remains variable. In this mini-review we update findings from a 2015 systematic review to describe results from recent studies in high income countries on the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccination in pregnancy, reasons for vaccine hesitancy and barriers to increasing uptake, from maternal and healthcare provider (HCP) perspectives. Studies reported highly variable uptake (from 0% to 78%). A main facilitator for uptake among pregnant women was receiving a recommendation from their HCP. However, studies showed that HCP awareness of guidelines did not consistently translate into them recommending vaccines to pregnant women. Safety concerns are a well-established barrier to uptake/coverage of maternal immunization; 7%-52% of unvaccinated women gave safety concerns as a reason but these were also present in vaccinated women. Knowledge/awareness gaps among pregnant women and lack of confidence among HCPs to discuss vaccination were both important barriers. Several studies indicated that midwives were more likely to express safety concerns than other HCPs, and less likely to recommend vaccination to pregnant women. Women who perceived the risk of infection to be low were less likely to accept vaccination in several studies, along with women with prior vaccine refusal. Findings highlight the importance of further research to explore context-specific barriers to vaccination in pregnancy, which may include lack of vaccine confidence among pregnant woman and HCPs, and policy and structural factors.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(7): 968-975, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281250

ABSTRACT

Cell-based therapies hold promise to substantially curb complications from extreme preterm birth, the main cause of death in children below the age of 5 years. Exciting preclinical studies in experimental neonatal lung injury have provided the impetus for the initiation of early phase clinical trials in extreme preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Clinical translation of promising therapies, however, is slow and often fails. In the adult population, results of clinical trials so far have not matched the enticing preclinical data. The neonatal field has experienced many hard-earned lessons with the implementation of oxygen therapy or postnatal steroids. Here we briefly summarize the preclinical data that have permitted the initiation of early phase clinical trials of cell-based therapies in extreme preterm infants and describe the INCuBAToR concept (Innovative Neonatal Cellular Therapy for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Accelerating Translation of Research), an evidence-based approach to mitigate the risk of translating advanced therapies into this vulnerable patient population. The INCuBAToR addresses several of the shortcomings at the preclinical and the clinical stage that usually contribute to the failure of clinical translation through (a) systematic reviews of preclinical and clinical studies, (b) integrated knowledge transfer through engaging important stakeholders early on, (c) early economic evaluation to determine if a novel therapy is viable, and (d) retrospective and prospective studies to define and test ideal eligibility criteria to optimize clinical trial design. The INCuBAToR concept can be applied to any novel therapy in order to enhance the likelihood of success of clinical translation in a timely, transparent, rigorous, and evidence-based fashion.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Premature Birth , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL