Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305767

ABSTRACT

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(9): 2230-2233, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276183

ABSTRACT

This article provides a brief overview of drug resistance to antiviral therapy as well as known and emergent variability in key SARS-CoV-2 viral sequences. The purpose is to stimulate deliberation about the need to consider drug resistance prior to widespread roll-out of antivirals for SARS-CoV-2. Many existing candidate agents have mechanisms of action involving drug targets likely to be critical for future drug development. Resistance emerged quickly with monotherapies deployed for other pulmonary viruses such as influenza virus, and in HIV mutations in key drug targets compromised efficacy of multiple drugs within a class. The potential for drug resistance in SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been rigorously debated or assessed, and we call for more academic and industry research on this potentially important future threat prior to widespread roll-out of monotherapies for COVID-19 treatment and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112313

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir (T-705, commercial name Avigan), a drug developed to treat influenza virus infection, has been used in some countries as an oral treatment for COVID-19; however, its clinical efficacy in this context is controversial.….

4.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067683

ABSTRACT

The medical burden caused by respiratory manifestations of influenza virus (IV) outbreak as an infectious respiratory disease is so great that governments in both developed and developing countries have allocated significant national budget toward the development of strategies for prevention, control, and treatment of this infection, which is seemingly common and treatable, but can be deadly. Frequent mutations in its genome structure often result in resistance to standard medications. Thus, new generations of treatments are critical to combat this ever-evolving infection. Plant materials and active compounds have been tested for many years, including, more recently, active compounds like flavonoids. Quercetin is a compound belonging to the flavonols class and has shown therapeutic effects against influenza virus. The focus of this review includes viral pathogenesis as well as the application of quercetin and its derivatives as a complementary therapy in controlling influenza and its related symptoms based on the targets. We also touch on the potential of this class of compounds for treatment of SARS-COV-2, the cause of new pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza, Human , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/metabolism
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 596587, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016065

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 has caused widespread mortality, creating an urgent need for effective treatments and a long-term need for antivirals for future emergent coronaviruses. Pharmacotherapy for respiratory viruses has largely been unsuccessful with the exception of early treatment of influenza viruses, which shortens symptom duration and prevents infection in close contacts. Under the rapidly evolving circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, most clinical trials of experimental treatments in the United States have focused on later stages of the disease process. Worldwide, the clinical studies of the most impactful drugs, remdesivir and dexamethasone in ACTT-1, RECOVERY, and Solidarity, have studied hospitalized patients. Less than half of clinical trials in the U.S. have investigated oral agents, and the majority have taken place in hospitals at a disease stage where the viral load is already decreasing. The limited success of treatments for respiratory viruses and the viral dynamics of COVID-19 suggest that an antiviral therapy with the greatest impact against pandemic coronaviruses would be orally administered, well-tolerated, target a highly conserved viral protein or host-coronavirus interaction and could be used effectively throughout the world, including resource-poor settings. We examine the treatment of respiratory viral infections and current clinical trials for COVID-19 to provide a framework for effective antiviral therapy and prevention of future emergent coronaviruses and call attention to the need for continued preclinical drug discovery.

6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(10): 1555-1576, 2020 Oct 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968412

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus infection is a respiratory infectious disease that can seriously affect human health. Influenza viruses can have frequent antigenic variation and changes, which can result in rapid and widespread transmission resulting in annual epidemics and outbreaks in places of public gathering such as schools, kindergartens and nursing homes. According to WHO estimation, seasonal influenza epidemics have caused an annually 3 to 5 million severe cases and 290 000 to 650 000 deaths globally. Pregnant women, young children, the elderly, and persons with chronic illnesses are at high risk for severe illness and death associated with influenza virus infection. Especially, COVID-19 pandemic might co-circulate with other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza in the coming winter-spring season. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) which includes split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine, quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) which is split, and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3) which was newly licensed. Except for a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients must pay for it. In 2018 and 2019, the China CDC issued the "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China" . In the past year, new research evidences home and abroad have been published, and new seasonal influenza vaccine has been licensed in China. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2019-2020 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2020-2021)" . The main updates in this version include the following: First, new research evidences especially studies of China, including disease burden, effectiveness, Vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. Second, policies and measures for influenza prevention and control issued by National Health Commission (PRC) in the past year. Thirdly, new type seasonal influenza vaccine licensed and issued in 2020-2021 in China. Fourth, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2020-2021 season which included trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine. Fifth, Influenza vaccination recommendations for 2020-2021 influenza season. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. Considering the situation of globally pandemic of COVID-19, to decrease the risk of influenza virus infection and minimize the impact on COVID-19 prevention and control, we recommend the following priority for seasonal influenza vaccination: healthcare workers, including clinical doctors and nurses, public health professionals, quarantine professionals; vulnerable groups living in nursing homes or welfare homes and staffs who take care those vulnerable groups; people work or stay in high population density places, such as teachers and students in kindergartens, primary and secondary school, prisoners and staffs of prisons; other high risk group of influenza, including adults ≥60 years of age, children aged 6-59 months, persons with specific chronic diseases, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. People whoever get IIV or LAIV all apply to the principle. If they were vaccinated in 2019-2020 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the CDCs at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. These guidelines will be updated periodically as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy
7.
Pathogens ; 9(12)2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963764

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus has the potential for being one of the deadliest viruses, as we know from the pandemic's history. The influenza virus, with a constantly mutating genome, is becoming resistant to existing antiviral drugs and vaccines. For that reason, there is an urgent need for developing new therapeutics and therapies. Despite the fact that a new generation of universal vaccines or anti-influenza drugs are being developed, the perfect remedy has still not been found. In this review, various strategies for using nanoparticles (NPs) to defeat influenza virus infections are presented. Several categories of NP applications are highlighted: NPs as immuno-inducing vaccines, NPs used in gene silencing approaches, bare NPs influencing influenza virus life cycle and the use of NPs for drug delivery. This rapidly growing field of anti-influenza methods based on nanotechnology is very promising. Although profound research must be conducted to fully understand and control the potential side effects of the new generation of antivirals, the presented and discussed studies show that nanotechnology methods can effectively induce the immune responses or inhibit influenza virus activity both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, with its variety of modification possibilities, nanotechnology has great potential for applications and may be helpful not only in anti-influenza but also in the general antiviral approaches.

8.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2453-2457, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935143

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has claimed many lives worldwide. To combat the pandemic, multiple types of vaccines are under development with unprecedented rapidity. Theoretically, future vaccination against COVID-19 may fall into long-term costly guerrilla warfare between SARS-CoV-2 and humans. Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 through vaccination to avoid the potential long-term costly guerrilla warfare, if possible, is highly desired and worth intensive consideration. Human influenza pandemics emerging in 1957, 1968, and 2009 established strong global herd immunity and led to the elimination of three human influenza viruses, which circulated worldwide for years before the pandemics. Moreover, both clade 7.2 of subtype H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and subtype H7N9 avian influenza virus circulated in poultry in China for years, and they have been virtually eliminated through mass vaccination in recent years. These facts suggest that the rapid establishment of global herd immunity through mass vaccination using an appropriate vaccine could eliminate SARS-CoV-2. The coming 2 years are a golden time for elimination through vaccination, which requires tremendous national and international collaboration. This review also prioritizes the efficacy of vaccines for COVID-19 and elucidates the importance of the development of more live vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Herd
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1035-1059, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902694

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus infection is a respiratory infectious disease that can seriously affect human health. Influenza viruses can have frequent antigenic variation and changes, which can result in rapid and widespread transmission resulting in annual epidemics and outbreaks in places of public gathering such as schools, kindergartens and nursing homes. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that seasonal influenza epidemics have caused an annual 3 to 5 million severe cases, and 290000 to 650000 deaths globally. Pregnant women, young children, the elderly, and persons with chronic illnesses are at high risk for severe illness and death associated with influenza virus infection. Especially, COVID-19 pandemic might co-circulate with other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza in the coming winter-spring season. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) which includes split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine, quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) which is split, and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV3) which was newly licensed. Except for a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients must pay for it. In 2018 and 2019, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued the"Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China". In the past year, new research evidences home and abroad have been published, and new seasonal influenza vaccine has been licensed in China. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2019-2020 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2020-2021)". The main updates in this version include the following: First, new research evidences especially studies of China, including disease burden, effectiveness, Vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. Second, policies and measures for influenza prevention and control issued by National Health Commission(PRC)in the past year. Thirdly, new type seasonal influenza vaccine licensed and issued in 2020-2021 in China. Fourth, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2020-2021 season which included trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine. Fifth, Influenza vaccination recommendations for 2020-2021 influenza season. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. Considering the situation of globally pandemic of COVID-19, to decrease the risk of influenza virus infection and minimize the impact on COVID-19 prevention and control, we recommend the following priority for seasonal influenza vaccination: (1) healthcare workers, including clinical doctors and nurses, public health professionals, quarantine professionals; (2) Vulnerable groups living in nursing homes or welfare homes and staffs who take care those vulnerable groups; (3) People in some key places, such as teachers and students in kindergartens, primary and secondary school, prisoners and staffs of prisons; (4) Other high risk group of influenza, including adults ≥60 years of age, children aged 6-59 months, persons with specific chronic diseases, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. People whoever get IIV or LAIV all apply to the principle. If they were vaccinated in 2019-2020 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. These guidelines will be updated periodically as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cities , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States , Vaccination
10.
Vaccine ; 38(42): 6487-6499, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720733

ABSTRACT

The many carbohydrate chains on Covid-19 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its S-protein form a glycan-shield that masks antigenic peptides and decreases uptake of inactivated virus or S-protein vaccines by APC. Studies on inactivated influenza virus and recombinant gp120 of HIV vaccines indicate that glycoengineering of glycan-shields to present α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galß1-4GlcNAc-R) enables harnessing of the natural anti-Gal antibody for amplifying vaccine efficacy, as evaluated in mice producing anti-Gal. The α-gal epitope is the ligand for the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of immunoglobulins in humans. Upon administration of vaccines presenting α-gal epitopes, anti-Gal binds to these epitopes at the vaccination site and forms immune complexes with the vaccines. These immune complexes are targeted for extensive uptake by APC as a result of binding of the Fc portion of immunocomplexed anti-Gal to Fc receptors on APC. This anti-Gal mediated effective uptake of vaccines by APC results in 10-200-fold higher anti-viral immune response and in 8-fold higher survival rate following challenge with a lethal dose of live influenza virus, than same vaccines lacking α-gal epitopes. It is suggested that glycoengineering of carbohydrate chains on the glycan-shield of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 or on S-protein vaccines, for presenting α-gal epitopes, will have similar amplifying effects on vaccine efficacy. α-Gal epitope synthesis on coronavirus vaccines can be achieved with recombinant α1,3galactosyltransferase, replication of the virus in cells with high α1,3galactosyltransferase activity as a result of stable transfection of cells with several copies of the α1,3galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1), or by transduction of host cells with replication defective adenovirus containing this gene. In addition, recombinant S-protein presenting multiple α-gal epitopes on the glycan-shield may be produced in glycoengineered yeast or bacteria expression systems containing the corresponding glycosyltransferases. Prospective Covid-19 vaccines presenting α-gal epitopes may provide better protection than vaccines lacking this epitope because of increased uptake by APC.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Trisaccharides/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Genetic Engineering , HIV Core Protein p24/chemistry , HIV Core Protein p24/genetics , HIV Core Protein p24/immunology , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/chemistry , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/genetics , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trisaccharides/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis , Viral Vaccines/genetics
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 436-440, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis between novel coronavirus pneumonia patients (NCPP) and influenza patients (IP) remains a challenge in clinical practice. METHODS: Between January 2018 and March 2020, 1,027 NCPP and 1,140 IP were recruited from Tongji hospital. Routine blood examination, biochemical indicators and coagulation function analysis were simultaneously performed in all participants. RESULTS: There was no sex predominance in NCPP. The NCPP were frequently encountered in the sixth and seventh decades of life. The mean age of NCPP (56±16 years) was higher than IP (47±17 years), but without statistical difference. Although most results of routine laboratory tests between NCPP and IP had no significant differences, some laboratory tests showed an obvious change in NCPP. It was observed that NCPP had significantly decreased white blood cells, alkaline phosphatase and d-dimer compared with IP. However, the results of lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen were significantly increased in NCPP compared with IP. The diagnostic model based on a combination of 18 routine laboratory indicators showed an area under the curve of 0.796 (95% CI, 0.777-0.814), with a sensitivity of 46.93% and specificity of 90.09% when using a cut-off value of 0.598. CONCLUSIONS: Some routine laboratory results had statistical difference between NCPP and IP. A diagnostic model based on a combination of routine laboratory results provided an adjunct approach in the differential diagnosis between NCPP and IP.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL