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1.
ASAIO J ; 67(9): 982-988, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393493

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of patients with COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high risk of death. The efficacy of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) for COVID-19 on longer-term outcomes, unlike in other viral pneumonias, is unknown. In this study, we aimed to compare the 6 month mortality of patients receiving VV-ECMO support for COVID-19 with a historical viral ARDS cohort. Fifty-three consecutive patients with COVID-19 ARDS admitted for VV-ECMO to the Royal Brompton Hospital between March 17, 2020 and May 30, 2020 were identified. Mortality, patient characteristics, complications, and ECMO parameters were then compared to a historical cohort of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia. At 6 months survival was significantly higher in the COVID-19 than in the non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort (84.9% vs. 66.0%, p = 0.040). Patients with COVID-19 had an increased Murray score (3.50 vs. 3.25, p = 0.005), a decreased burden of organ dysfunction (sequential organ failure score score [8.76 vs. 10.42, p = 0.004]), an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (69.8% vs. 24.5%, p < 0.001) and in those who survived to decannulation longer ECMO runs (19 vs. 11 days, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that survival in patients supported with EMCO for COVID-19 are at least as good as those treated for non-COVID-19 viral ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Infect ; 83(2): 167-174, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Assess the feasibility and impact of nanopore-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Np16S) service on antibiotic treatment for acute severe pneumonia on the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Speciation and sequencing accuracy of Np16S on isolates with bioinformatics pipeline optimisation, followed by technical evaluation including quality checks and clinical-reporting criteria analysing stored respiratory samples using single-sample flow cells. Pilot service comparing Np16S results with all routine respiratory tests and impact on same-day antimicrobial prescribing. RESULTS: Np16S correctly identified 140/167 (84%) isolates after 1h sequencing and passed quality control criteria including reproducibility and limit-of-detection. Sequencing of 108 stored respiratory samples showed concordance with routine culture in 80.5% of cases and established technical and clinical reporting criteria. A 10-week same-day pilot Np16S service analysed 45 samples from 37 patients with suspected community (n=15) or hospital acquired (n=30) pneumonia. Np16S showed concordance compared with all routine culture or molecular tests for 27 (82%) of 33 positive samples. It identified the causative pathogen in 32/33 (97%) samples and contributed to antimicrobial treatment changes for 30 patients (67%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates feasibility of providing a routine same-day nanopore sequencing service that makes a significant contribution to early antibiotic prescribing for bacterial pneumonia in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Nanopores , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Intensive Care Units , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
3.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Data on the clinical outcome of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) affected by severe viral pneumonia are limited. We analysed morbidity and mortality of viral pneumonia and evaluated the association between medical conditions, medication, vaccination and outcome specifically in patients with CHD requiring hospitalisation for viral pneumonia. METHODS: Based on data from one of Germany's largest health insurers, all cases of viral pneumonia requiring hospital admission (2005-2018) were studied. Mortality, and composites of death, transplantation, mechanical circulatory support, ventilation or extracorporeal lung support served as endpoints. RESULTS: Overall, 26 262 viral pneumonia cases occurred in 24 980 patients. Of these, 1180 cases occurred in patients with CHD. Compared with patients without CHD, mortality rate was elevated in patients with CHD. As a group, patients with CHD aged 20-59 years even exceeded mortality rates in patients without CHD aged >60 years. No mortality was observed in patients with CHD with simple defects <60 years of age without associated cardiovascular risk factors. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, age, CHD complexity, chromosomal anomalies, cardiac medication, use of immunosuppressants and absence of vaccination for influenza emerged as risk factors of adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We present timely data on morbidity and mortality of severe viral pneumonia requiring hospital admission in patients with CHD. Need for mechanical ventilation and risk of death in CHD increase early in life, reaching a level equivalent to non-CHD individuals >60 years of age. Our data suggest that except for patients with isolated simple defects, patients with CHD should be considered higher-risk individuals when faced with severe viral pneumonia.

4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 87, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone decreases mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has become the standard of care during the second wave of pandemic. Dexamethasone is an immunosuppressive treatment potentially increasing the risk of secondary hospital acquired infections in critically ill patients. We conducted an observational retrospective study in three French intensive care units (ICUs) comparing the first and second waves of pandemic to investigate the role of dexamethasone in the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and blood stream infections (BSI). Patients admitted from March to November 2020 with a documented COVID-19 and requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥ 48 h were included. The main study outcomes were the incidence of VAP and BSI according to the use of dexamethasone. Secondary outcomes were the ventilator-free days (VFD) at day-28 and day-60, ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Among the 151 patients included, 84 received dexamethasone, all but one during the second wave. VAP occurred in 63% of patients treated with dexamethasone (DEXA+) and 57% in those not receiving dexamethasone (DEXA-) (p = 0.43). The cumulative incidence of VAP, considering death, duration of MV and late immunosuppression as competing factors was not different between groups (p = 0.59). A multivariate analysis did not identify dexamethasone as an independent risk factor for VAP occurrence. The occurrence of BSI was not different between groups (29 vs. 30%; p = 0.86). DEXA+ patients had more VFD at day-28 (9 (0-21) vs. 0 (0-11) days; p = 0.009) and a reduced ICU length of stay (20 (11-44) vs. 32 (17-46) days; p = 0.01). Mortality did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive MV, dexamethasone was not associated with an increased incidence of VAP or BSI. Dexamethasone might not explain the high rates of VAP and BSI observed in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

5.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(12): 1553-1562, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238115

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-COV-2 pandemic is a worldwide public health problem due to the large medical burden and limited number of therapies available. Corticosteroids have a rather unclear efficacy in viral non-SARS-COV-2 pneumonias and therefore their use is not universally recommended. In SARS-COV-2 pneumonia however, it is expected that they can reduce the deleterious consequences of the virus-related systemic inflammation. AREAS COVERED: a MEDLINE search covering the period 1995-2020 was completed to identify relevant papers. SARS-COV-2 pathogenesis is very complex and is represented by the interplay of many cytokine-driven inflammation pathways. Its most severe form so called cytokine storm, is an exaggerate reaction of the host infected by the virus rapidly resulting in multiple organ dysfunction (MODS). Corticosteroids have the potential to blunt the inflammation response in such patients, but their efficacy is not the same for all patients. Further on the certainties and uncertainties regarding the efficacy of this therapy in SARS-COV-2 pneumonia are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: In patients with severe SARS-COV-2 pneumonia, corticosteroids can be efficacious, but it is still not clear if they can be safely used in patients with comorbid cardiovascular disease or how the optimal duration of therapy can be established.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 45, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematological comparison of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and other viral pneumonias can provide insights into COVID-19 treatment. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control single-center study, we compared the data of 126 patients with viral pneumonia during different outbreaks [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, influenza A (H1N1) in 2009, human adenovirus type 7 in 2018, and COVID-19 in 2020]. RESULTS: One of the COVID-19 characteristics was a continuous decline in the hemoglobin level. The neutrophil count was related to the aggravation of COVID-19 and SARS. Thrombocytopenia occurred in patients with SARS and severe COVID-19 even at the recovery stage. Lymphocytes were related to the entire course of adenovirus infection, recovery of COVID-19, and disease development of SARS. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic changes in hematological counts could provide a reference for the pathogenesis and prognosis of pneumonia caused by respiratory viruses in clinics.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/blood , COVID-19/blood , Influenza, Human/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Adenovirus Infections, Human/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Young Adult
7.
J Med Cases ; 11(7): 207-210, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227202

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly responsible for respiratory involvement but cardiac complications are also reported. Nevertheless, potential life-threatening conditions in young people have not been described. A 19-year-old male autistic patient was admitted with fever and cough. The chest radiography showed viral pneumonia and the nasopharyngeal swab detected SARS-CoV-2. He rapidly developed hypotension, oliguria and increased myocardial injury markers and was treated with adrenaline, antiviral drugs and mechanical ventilation. Echocardiography revealed diffuse myocardial hypo-akinesia and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After several days of treatment, the patient was weaned off mechanical ventilation, LVEF recovered to 50% and laboratory tests showed a decrease of markers of myocardial injury. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can therefore severely affect myocardium with life-threatening complications and even young people can be involved.

8.
Kardiologiia ; 61(2): 15-27, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215790

ABSTRACT

Actuality The course of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is unpredictable. It manifests in some cases as increasing inflammation to even the onset of a cytokine storm and irreversible progression of acute respiratory syndrome, which is associated with the risk of death in patients. Thus, proactive anti-inflammatory therapy remains an open serious question in patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia, who still have signs of inflammation on days 7-9 of the disease: elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)>60 mg/dL and at least two of the four clinical signs: fever >37.5°C; persistent cough; dyspnea (RR >20 brpm) and/or reduced oxygen blood saturation <94% when breathing atmospheric air. We designed the randomized trial: COLchicine versus Ruxolitinib and Secukinumab in Open-label Prospective Randomized Trial in Patients with COVID-19 (COLORIT). We present here data comparing patients who received colchicine with those who did not receive specific anti-inflammatory therapy. Results of the comparison of colchicine, ruxolitinib, and secukinumab will be presented later.Objective Compare efficacy and safety of colchicine compared to the management of patients with COVID-19 without specific anti-inflammatory therapy.Material and Methods Initially, 20 people were expected to be randomized in the control group. However, enrollment to the control group was discontinued subsequently after the inclusion of 5 patients due to the risk of severe deterioration in the absence of anti-inflammatory treatment. Therefore, 17 patients, who had not received anti-inflammatory therapy when treated in the MSU Medical Research and Educational Center before the study, were also included in the control group. The effects were assessed on day 12 after the inclusion or at discharge if it occurred earlier than on day 12. The primary endpoint was the changes in the SHOCS-COVID score, which includes the assessment of the patient's clinical condition, CT score of the lung tissue damage, the severity of systemic inflammation (CRP changes), and the risk of thrombotic complications (D-dimer) [1].Results The median SHOCS score decreased from 8 to 2 (p = 0.017), i.e., from moderate to mild degree, in the colchicine group. The change in the SHOCS-COVID score was minimal and statistically insignificant in the control group. In patients with COVID-19 treated with colchicine, the CRP levels decreased rapidly and normalized (from 99.4 to 4.2 mg/dL, p<0.001). In the control group, the CRP levels decreased moderately and statistically insignificantly and achieved 22.8 mg/dL by the end of the follow-up period, which was still more than four times higher than normal. The most informative criterion for inflammation lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) increased in the colchicine group by 393 versus 54 in the control group (p = 0.003). After treatment, it was 60.8 in the control group, which was less than 100 considered safe in terms of systemic inflammation progression. The difference from 427 in the colchicine group was highly significant (p = 0.003).The marked and rapid decrease in the inflammation factors was accompanied in the colchicine group by the reduced need for oxygen support from 14 (66.7%) to 2 (9.5%). In the control group, the number of patients without anti-inflammatory therapy requiring oxygen support remained unchanged at 50%. There was a trend to shorter hospital stays in the group of specific anti-inflammatory therapy up to 13 days compared to 17.5 days in the control group (p = 0.079). Moreover, two patients died in the control group, and there were no fatal cases in the colchicine group. In the colchicine group, one patient had deep vein thrombosis with D-dimer elevated to 5.99 µg/mL, which resolved before discharge.Conclusions Colchicine 1 mg for 1-3 days followed by 0.5 mg/day for 14 days is effective as a proactive anti-inflammatory therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia. The management of such patients without proactive anti-inflammatory therapy is likely to be unreasonable and may worsen the course of COVID-19. However, the findings should be treated with caution, given the small size of the trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(574)2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207479

ABSTRACT

Lung transplantation can potentially be a life-saving treatment for patients with nonresolving COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. Concerns limiting lung transplantation include recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the allograft, technical challenges imposed by viral-mediated injury to the native lung, and the potential risk for allograft infection by pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in the native lung. Additionally, the native lung might recover, resulting in long-term outcomes preferable to those of transplant. Here, we report the results of lung transplantation in three patients with nonresolving COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. We performed single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) to detect both positive and negative strands of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in explanted lung tissue from the three patients and in additional control lung tissue samples. We conducted extracellular matrix imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing on explanted lung tissue from the three patients who underwent transplantation and on warm postmortem lung biopsies from two patients who had died from COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Lungs from these five patients with prolonged COVID-19 disease were free of SARS-CoV-2 as detected by smFISH, but pathology showed extensive evidence of injury and fibrosis that resembled end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. Using machine learning, we compared single-cell RNA sequencing data from the lungs of patients with late-stage COVID-19 to that from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and identified similarities in gene expression across cell lineages. Our findings suggest that some patients with severe COVID-19 develop fibrotic lung disease for which lung transplantation is their only option for survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Lung/surgery , Pulmonary Fibrosis/surgery , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Databases, Factual , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , RNA-Seq , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Treatment Outcome
10.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 262-268, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly related to interstitial pneumonia with frequent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The role of corticosteroids (CS) treatment in these patients is still controversial. Some studies evidenced a possible role of an early short-term course of CS treatment in the treatment of severe pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study considering the patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to our hospital between 9th March and 15th June 2020. Two groups were considered: early high-dose of methyl-prednisolone (eHDM; n â€‹= â€‹31) and the control group (n â€‹= â€‹52). Patients in the eHDM group received the dose of 5-8 â€‹mg/kg/day of methyl-prednisolone for 2 consecutive days. Primary outcome was the mortality evaluation; secondary outcomes were clinical improvement, side-effects and laboratory/radiographic changes. RESULTS: Significant differences between the two groups were: length of hospitalization (21.5 vs 28.4 days, p â€‹= â€‹0.026), length of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation (11.5 vs 14.5 days, p â€‹= â€‹0.031), death (5 vs 12, p â€‹= â€‹0.006) and clinical improvement (16 vs 11, p=0.018). The following factors were related to in-hospital mortality in the multivariate analysis: comorbidities (OR â€‹= â€‹2.919; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹1.515-16.705; p<0.001), days from the onset of symptoms and the hospital admission (OR â€‹= â€‹1.404; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹1.069-12.492; p â€‹= â€‹0.011), PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio (OR â€‹= â€‹3.111; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹2.334-16.991; p â€‹= â€‹0.009) and eHDM treatment (OR â€‹= â€‹0.741; 95%CI â€‹= â€‹0.129-0.917; p â€‹= â€‹0.007). CONCLUSION: The eHDM is an interesting and promising approach in the ARDS related to COVID-19 pneumonia, which reduces mortality, length of hospitalization and the need for mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Duration of Therapy , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 49-53, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188016

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) signaling is involved in innate immune responses and regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can contribute to COVID-19 immunopathology. Clinical trials with BTK inhibitors in COVID-19 treatment have been proposed, and previous studies have attempted to investigate the therapeutic effects of ibrutinib and underlying mechanisms in treating viral pneumonia. These attempts, however, did not consider potential off target effect of BTK inhibitors on T cell differentiation, function, and survival, which may be beneficial in treatment for COVID-19. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of BTK/IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) signaling in immunopathology and lymphopenia and discuss the potential of BTK/ITK dual inhibitors such as ibrutinib in modulating immunopathology and lymphopenia, for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lymphopenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/immunology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/enzymology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/immunology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
12.
Chest ; 159(6): 2309-2317, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with obesity are at higher risk for community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, no study has specifically evaluated the relationship between obesity and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RESEARCH QUESTION: Is obesity associated with an increased incidence of VAP? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of the Impact of Early Enteral vs Parenteral Nutrition on Mortality in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation and Catecholamines (NUTRIREA2) open-label, randomized controlled trial performed in 44 French ICUs. Adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support for shock and parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition were included. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at ICU admission. VAP diagnosis was adjudicated by an independent blinded committee, based on all available clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic data. Only first VAP episodes were taken into account. Incidence of VAP was analyzed by using the Fine and Gray model, with extubation and death as competing risks. RESULTS: A total of 699 (30%) of the 2,325 included patients had obesity; 224 first VAP episodes were diagnosed (60 and 164 in obese and nonobese groups, respectively). The incidence of VAP at day 28 was 8.6% vs 10.1% in the two groups (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI 0.63-1.14; P = .26). After adjustment on sex, McCabe score, age, antiulcer treatment, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment at randomization, the incidence of VAP remained nonsignificant between obese and nonobese patients (hazard ratio, 0.893; 95% CI, 0.66-1.2; P = .46). Although no significant difference was found in duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay, 90-day mortality was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese patients (272 of 692 [39.3%] patients vs 718 of 1,605 [44.7%]; P = .02). In a subgroup of patients (n = 123) with available pepsin and alpha-amylase measurements, no significant difference was found in rate of abundant microaspiration of gastric contents, or oropharyngeal secretions between obese and nonobese patients. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that obesity has no significant impact on the incidence of VAP.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/complications , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Shock/therapy , Aged , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition, Total/methods , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends
13.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol ; 2021: 5591041, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169888

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) which causes severe viral pneumonia rapidly leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pregnant women are considered more vulnerable to severe viral respiratory infections owing to the physiological changes in pregnancy. In COVID-19, patient can present with a variety of symptoms of which dyspnoea is one that is also commonly seen in the late stages of pregnancy. The clinical presentation as well as response to therapy is highly variable, and since no conclusive proven treatment is available yet, prevention and symptomatic treatment remains the mainstay of management. Thus, we report a case series of four SARS-CoV-2-positive obstetric patients who presented with severe ARDS in a tertiary care hospital, posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to the clinician, and were managed with a holistic multidisciplinary stepwise approach. Through this, an effort has been made to sensitize the attending obstetrician on diverse presentation of COVID-19 disease and to emphasize the importance of prevention, early pick up, and timely optimal management of pneumonia in pregnant females with COVID-19. The clinical presentation of respiratory illness due to SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy can be mistaken for exaggerated physiological changes of pregnancy leading to delay in seeking medical care. During the current pandemic, high suspicion for COVID-19 should be kept. If found symptomatic, immediate care should be sought in a designated facility and managed accordingly preferably with a multidisciplinary approach.

14.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13733, 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168099

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is probably the most studied one in history from both clinical and molecular-epidemiological perspectives. Nonetheless, data on the correlation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral genotypes and COVID-19 symptoms caused by them are still scarce. In this report, we present a moderately severe COVID-19 case in a healthcare worker in Moscow, Russia, supplemented with the data on its causative agent's phenotype regarding in vitro and full-genome characterization. The 44-year-old male healthcare worker who had frequent professional contacts with COVID-19 patients was hospitalized with a viral pneumonia diagnosis and soon started to exhibit fever, dry paroxysmal cough, loss of smell, and typical ground-glass opacities found in both lungs on chest CT scans. The COVID-19 diagnosis was verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunochromatography, and immunochemiluminescent assays. The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, paracetamol, and enoxaparin, leading to his recovery after two weeks from the disease onset. The virus was successfully isolated from the nasopharyngeal swab sample taken on the fifth day of the disease onset using the Vero E6 cell line and exhibited a pronounced cytopathic effect (CPE) with a viral titer reaching 106 TCID50/ml in the cell culture medium. The full genome sequence of the viral isolate was obtained and 8 nucleotide and 5 amino acid mutations compared to the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference genome were identified. Viral isolate belonged to GR / 20B / B.1.1 genetic lineage (GISAID, Nextstrain, Pangolin nomenclatures, respectively) - the most prevalent genotype found in Russia to date.

15.
Infection ; 49(4): 607-616, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157020

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus frequently cause viral pneumonia, an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the extreme ages of life. During the last two decades, three outbreaks of coronavirus-associated pneumonia, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome, and the ongoing Coronavirus Infectious Disease-2019 (COVID-19) were reported. The rate of diagnosis of viral pneumonia is increasingly approaching 60% among children identified as having community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Clinical presentation ranges from mild to severe pneumonitis complicated by respiratory failure in severe cases. The most vulnerable patients, the elderly and those living with cancer, report a relevant mortality rate. No clinical characteristics can be useful to conclusively distinguish the different etiology of viral pneumonia. However, accessory symptoms, such as anosmia or ageusia together with respiratory symptoms suggest COVID-19. An etiologic-based treatment of viral pneumonia is possible in a small percentage of cases only. Neuraminidase inhibitors have been proven to reduce the need for ventilatory support and mortality rate while only a few data support the large-scale use of other antivirals. A low-middle dose of dexamethasone and heparin seems to be effective in COVID-19 patients, but data regarding their possible efficacy in viral pneumonia caused by other viruses are conflicting. In conclusion, viral pneumonia is a relevant cause of CAP, whose interest is increasing due to the current COVID-19 outbreak. To set up a therapeutic approach is difficult because of the low number of active molecules and the conflicting data bearing supportive treatments such as steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Age Factors , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2168-2183, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151991

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary infection is one of the main complications occurring in patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides traditional risk factors, dysregulation of lung immune defenses and microbiota may play an important role in ARDS patients. Prone positioning does not seem to be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary infection. Although bacteria associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ARDS patients are similar to those in patients without ARDS, atypical pathogens (Aspergillus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus) may also be responsible for infection in ARDS patients. Diagnosing pulmonary infection in ARDS patients is challenging, and requires a combination of clinical, biological and microbiological criteria. The role of modern tools (e.g., molecular methods, metagenomic sequencing, etc.) remains to be evaluated in this setting. One of the challenges of antimicrobial treatment is antibiotics diffusion into the lungs. Although targeted delivery of antibiotics using nebulization may be interesting, their place in ARDS patients remains to be explored. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the most severe patients is associated with a high rate of infection and raises several challenges, diagnostic issues and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics changes being at the top. Prevention of pulmonary infection is a key issue in ARDS patients, but there is no specific measure for these high-risk patients. Reinforcing preventive measures using bundles seems to be the best option.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Patient Positioning , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
17.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 53-57, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148387

ABSTRACT

The incidence of mediastinitis after median sternotomy makes up 1-3%. This complication results prolonged hospital-stay, significant increase in treatment cost and high mortality (up to 75%). Severe COVID-19 pneumonia is often manifested by coughing, that impairs sternum stability after osteosynthesis. Moreover, concomitant leukopenia increases the risk of mediastinitis. Viral pneumonia and mediastinitis are complicated by respiratory failure and mutually potentiate the negative effect. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with combined antibiotic therapy ensures a favorable outcome even in patients with postoperative mediastinitis and osteomyelitis combined with viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mediastinitis/therapy , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy/methods , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Sternum/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mediastinitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Postoperative Complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
18.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(1): 72-74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143743

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 diagnosis is usually based on PCR detection of viral RNA in airway specimens in a patient with typical clinical fea-tures. Histological features of the COVID-19 lung disease are reported from autopsies. Transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB) is an evolving technique usually performed in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. We report a TBCB in a 76-year-old female patient who had repeatedly tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathological examination revealed the presence of interstitial pneumonia with lymphocytic infiltration. The qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 from a pharyngeal swab was positive after performing the TBCB.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cryosurgery/methods , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Aged , Biopsy/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans
19.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 367-374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide and poses a great threat to human health. Among COVID-19 patients, those with hypertension have been reported to have higher morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of COVID-19 with hypertension. METHODS: A total of 623 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Wuhan's hospital were studied from January to March 2020. The epidemiology, clinical features, and laboratory data of hypertensive patients with COVID-19 were collected, retrospectively analyzed, and compared with a normotensive group. The use of antihypertensive drugs, general treatment, and clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients were also analyzed. RESULTS: The median ages in hypertensive patients with mild and severe COVID-19 were both significantly greater than the median age in the normotensive group. But there was no significant gender difference between the hypertensive and normotensive groups. All patients had lived in Wuhan area. Common symptoms of all patients included fever, cough, and fatigue. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. All (315 (100%)) of the hypertensive patients received antiviral therapy (Umifenovir was used alone or in combination with Ribavirin), antibiotic therapy (215 (68.3%)), and corticosteroids (118 (37.5%)). The results suggest that the combination of Umifenovir and Ribavirin as initial therapy for hypertensive patients with COVID-19 is effective and safe. There were no significant differences in laboratory data between the mild cases in the hypertensive and the normotensive groups. In the severe cases, the hypertensive patients had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the hypertensive patients who were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) were not represented in a statistically significant manner between the mild and severe groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrated that the hypertensive patients who were treated with ACEI/ARB did not have an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. Umifenovir and Ribavirin played an important role in the treatment of viral pneumonia. Hypertensive patients with severe viral pneumonia had stronger inflammatory responses than nonhypertensive patients.

20.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(4): 356, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136548

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious type of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly become a global pandemic. COVID-19, SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are all caused by members of the Coronaviridae family. As expected, emerging genetic and clinical evidence from patients with COVID-19 has indicated that the pathway of infection is similar to that of SARS and MERS. Additionally, much like SARS and MERS, chest imaging serves an important role in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of patients with COVID-19. Although these related viruses present a similar pneumonic pathogenesis, the imaging results have distinguishable features. The current review evaluated the imaging results of patients with SARS and MERS and explored the potential similarities and differences among patients with COVID-19, SARS and MERS at early, progressive, severe and recovery stages, with the aim of improving our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infections by comparing the features of COVID-19 images with those of SARS and MERS. The current review assessed whether imaging results had implications for the administration of corticosteroids as treatment for COVID-19. Whether corticosteroids can inhibit inflammatory cytokine storms and reduce the mortality of patients with viral pneumonia remains controversial. However, his review may help radiologists and clinicians to identify viral pneumonia and guide appropriate COVID-19 treatment.

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