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1.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(2)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most research evaluating telehealth psychiatric treatment has been conducted in outpatient settings. There is a great lack of research assessing the efficacy of telehealth treatment in more acute, intensive treatment settings such as a partial hospital. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, much of behavioral health treatment has transitioned to a virtual format. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the effectiveness of our partial hospital program (PHP). METHOD: The sample included 207 patients who were treated virtually from May 2020 to September 2020 and a comparison group of 207 patients who were treated in the in-person partial program a year earlier. Patients completed self-administered measures of patient satisfaction, symptoms, coping ability, functioning, and general well-being. RESULTS: For both the in-person and telehealth methods of delivering partial hospital level of care, patients were highly satisfied with treatment and reported a significant reduction in symptoms and suicidality from admission to discharge. On the modified Remission from Depression Questionnaire, the primary outcome measure, both groups reported a significant (P < .01) improvement in functioning, coping ability, positive mental health, and general well-being. A large effect size of treatment (Cohen d > 0.8) was found in both treatment groups. The only significant difference in outcome between the patients treated in the different formats was a greater length of stay (mean ± SD of 13.5 ± 8.1 vs 8.5 ± 5.0 days, t = 7.61, P < .001) and greater likelihood of staying in treatment until completion (72.9% vs 62.3%, χ2 = 5.34, P < .05) in the virtually treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth partial hospital treatment was as effective as in-person treatment in terms of patient satisfaction, symptom reduction, suicidal ideation reduction, and improved functioning and well-being. The treatment completion rate was higher in the telehealth cohort, and several patients who were treated virtually commented that they never would have presented for in-person treatment even if there was no pandemic. Telehealth PHPs should be considered a viable treatment option even after the pandemic has resolved.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy , COVID-19 , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Mental Disorders , Telemedicine , Adult , Behavior Therapy/methods , Behavior Therapy/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/methods , Emergency Services, Psychiatric/trends , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/trends , Patient Safety , Patient Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
3.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
4.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723548

ABSTRACT

Due to the urgent need of a therapeutic treatment for coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, a number of FDA-approved/repurposed drugs have been suggested as antiviral candidates at clinics, without sufficient information. Furthermore, there have been extensive debates over antiviral candidates for their effectiveness and safety against severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), suggesting that rapid preclinical animal studies are required to identify potential antiviral candidates for human trials. To this end, the antiviral efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed in the ferret infection model. While the lopinavir-ritonavir-, hydroxychloroquine sulfate-, or emtricitabine-tenofovir-treated group exhibited lower overall clinical scores than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated control group, the virus titers in nasal washes, stool specimens, and respiratory tissues were similar between all three antiviral-candidate-treated groups and the PBS-treated control group. Only the emtricitabine-tenofovir-treated group showed lower virus titers in nasal washes at 8 days postinfection (dpi) than the PBS-treated control group. To further explore the effect of immune suppression on viral infection and clinical outcome, ferrets were treated with azathioprine, an immunosuppressive drug. Compared to the PBS-treated control group, azathioprine-immunosuppressed ferrets exhibited a longer period of clinical illness, higher virus titers in nasal turbinate, delayed virus clearance, and significantly lower serum neutralization (SN) antibody titers. Taken together, all antiviral drugs tested marginally reduced the overall clinical scores of infected ferrets but did not significantly affect in vivo virus titers. Despite the potential discrepancy of drug efficacies between animals and humans, these preclinical ferret data should be highly informative to future therapeutic treatment of COVID-19 patients.IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, with rapidly increasing numbers of mortalities, placing increasing strain on health care systems. Despite serious public health concerns, no effective vaccines or therapeutics have been approved by regulatory agencies. In this study, we tested the FDA-approved drugs lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and emtricitabine-tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a highly susceptible ferret infection model. While most of the drug treatments marginally reduced clinical symptoms, they did not reduce virus titers, with the exception of emtricitabine-tenofovir treatment, which led to diminished virus titers in nasal washes at 8 dpi. Further, the azathioprine-treated immunosuppressed ferrets showed delayed virus clearance and low SN titers, resulting in a prolonged infection. As several FDA-approved or repurposed drugs are being tested as antiviral candidates at clinics without sufficient information, rapid preclinical animal studies should proceed to identify therapeutic drug candidates with strong antiviral potential and high safety prior to a human efficacy trial.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Load
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 597-603, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents and staff were included in the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in the United States. Because the primary trial endpoint was vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic disease, there are limited data on the extent to which vaccines protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the ability to infect others (infectiousness). Assumptions about VE against infection and infectiousness have implications for changes to infection prevention guidance for vaccinated populations, including testing strategies. METHODS: We use a stochastic agent-based Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious (Asymptomatic/Symptomatic)-Recovered model of a nursing home to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We model 3 scenarios, varying VE against infection, infectiousness, and symptoms, to understand the expected impact of vaccination in nursing homes, increasing staff vaccination coverage, and different screening testing strategies under each scenario. RESULTS: Increasing vaccination coverage in staff decreases total symptomatic cases in the nursing home (among staff and residents combined) in each VE scenario. In scenarios with 50% and 90% VE against infection and infectiousness, increasing staff coverage reduces symptomatic cases among residents. If vaccination only protects against symptoms, and asymptomatic cases remain infectious, increased staff coverage increases symptomatic cases among residents. However, this is outweighed by the reduction in symptomatic cases among staff. Higher frequency testing-more than once weekly-is needed to reduce total symptomatic cases if the vaccine has lower efficacy against infection and infectiousness, or only protects against symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Encouraging staff vaccination is not only important for protecting staff, but might also reduce symptomatic cases in residents if a vaccine confers at least some protection against infection or infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States , Vaccination
6.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 15: 61-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642571

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic since early 2020. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already caused more than three million deaths worldwide and affected people's physical and mental health. COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms are generally required to self-isolate and monitor for symptoms at least for 14 days in the case the disease turns towards severe complications. In this work, we overviewed the impact of COVID-19 on the patients' general health with a focus on their cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health, and investigated several existing patient monitoring systems. We addressed the limitations of these systems and proposed a wearable telehealth solution for monitoring a set of physiological parameters that are critical for COVID-19 patients such as body temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and cough. This physiological information can be further combined to potentially estimate the lung function using artificial intelligence (AI) and sensor fusion techniques. The prototype, which includes the hardware and a smartphone app, showed promising results with performance comparable to or better than similar commercial devices, thus potentially making the proposed system an ideal wearable solution for long-term monitoring of COVID-19 patients and other chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Artificial Intelligence , Chronic Disease , Humans , Oxygen Saturation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2155-2162, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the duration of immunity following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a first priority to gauge the degree of protection following infection. Such knowledge is lacking, especially in the general population. Here, we studied changes in immunoglobulin isotype seropositivity and immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding strength of SARS-CoV-2-specific serum antibodies up to 7 months following onset of symptoms in a nationwide sample. METHODS: Participants from a prospective representative serological study in the Netherlands were included based on IgG seroconversion to the spike S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 (N = 353), with up to 3 consecutive serum samples per seroconverted participant (N = 738). Immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and IgG antibody concentrations to S1, and increase in IgG avidity in relation to time since onset of disease symptoms, were determined. RESULTS: While SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgA antibodies declined rapidly after the first month after disease onset, specific IgG was still present in 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89%-95%) of the participants after 7 months. The estimated 2-fold decrease of IgG antibodies was 158 days (95% CI, 136-189 days). Concentrations were sustained better in persons reporting significant symptoms compared to asymptomatic persons or those with mild upper respiratory complaints only. Similarly, avidity of IgG antibodies for symptomatic persons showed a steeper increase over time compared with persons with mild or no symptoms (P = .022). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies persist and show increasing avidity over time, indicative of underlying immune maturation. These data support development of immune memory against SARS-CoV-2, providing insight into protection of the general unvaccinated part of the population. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NL8473 (the Dutch trial registry).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
8.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 605-609, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556260

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 20 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to patient's antiviral treatment regimens, 178 patients were divided into 4 groups including LPV/r group (59 patients), arbidol group (36 patients), LPV/r plus arbidol combination group (25 patients) and the supportive care group without any antiviral treatment (58 patients). The primary end point was the negative conversion time of nucleic acid of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by pharyngeal swab. Results: The baseline parameters of 4 groups before treatment was comparable. The negative conversion time of viral nucleic acid was (10.20±3.49), (10.11±4.68), (10.86±4.74), (8.44±3.51) days in LPV/r group, arbidol group, combination group, and supportive care group respectively (F=2.556, P=0.058). There was also no significant difference in negative conversion rate of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the improvement of clinical symptoms, and the improvement of pulmonary infections by CT scan (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found in the changing rates from mild/moderate to severe/critical type at day 7 (χ(2)=9.311, P=0.017), which were 24%(6/25) in combination group, 16.7%(6/36) in arbidol group, 5.4%(3/56) in LPV/r group and 5.2%(3/58) in supportive care group. Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions in three antiviral groups was significantly higher than that in supportive care group (χ(2)=14.875, P=0.002). Conclusions: Antiviral treatment including LPV/r or arbidol or combination does not shorten the negative conversion time of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid nor improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, these antiviral drugs cause more adverse reactions which should be paid careful attention during the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Indoles , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 610745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554748

ABSTRACT

Background: Pneumonia is a prevalent and complicated disease among adults, elderly people in particular, and the debate on the optimal Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) is ongoing. Our objective is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of various CHIs strategies for elderly patients with pneumonia. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was executed to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by browsing through several databases from their inception to first, Feb 2020; All of the direct and indirect evidence included was rated by Network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework. Results: We ultimately identified 34 eligible randomized controlled trials that involved 3,111 elderly participants and investigated 4 CHIs combined with Western medicine (WM) (Xiyanping injection [XYP]+WM, Yanhuning injection [YHN]+WM, Tanreqing injection [TRQ]+WM, Reduning injection [RDN]+WM), contributing 34 direct comparisons between CHIs. Seen from the outcome of Clinical effective rate and time for defervescence, patients taking medicine added with CHIs [Clinical effective rate, XYP + WM(Odd ratio (OR): 0.74, 95%Credible intervals (CrIs):0.55-0.98), YHN + WM(OR: 0.66, 95%CrI: 0.45-0.95), TRQ + WM(OR: 0.65, 95%CrI: 0.50-0.83), RDN + WM(OR: 0.60, 95%CrI: 0.40-0.89); Time for defervescence, YHN + WM(Mean difference (MD): -2.11, 95%CrI: -3.26 to -0.98), XYP + WM(MD: -2.06, 95%CrI: -3.08 to -1.09), RDN + WM(MD: -1.97, 95%CrI: -3.61 to -0.35), TRQ + WM(MD: -1.69, 95%CrI: -2.27 to -1.04)] showed statistically better effect compared with participants in the Control group (CG) who only took WM. Meanwhile, based on the time for disappearance of cough, 3 out of 4 CHIs [TRQ + WM(MD: -2.56, 95%CrI: -3.38 to -1.54), YHN + WM(MD: -2.36, 95%CrI: -3.86 to -1.00) and XYP + WM(MD: -2.21, 95%CrI: -3.72 to -1.10)] strategies indicated improvement of clinical symptoms. Only XYP + WM(MD -1.78, 95%CrI: -3.29 to -0.27) and TRQ + WM (MD: -1.71, 95%CrI: -2.71 to -0.73) could significantly shorten the time for disappearance of pulmonary rales. Conclusion: According to the statistical effect size (The surface under the cumulative ranking), we found that XYP + WM was presumably to be the preferable treatment for treating elderly patients with pneumonia compared with WM alone in terms of clinical effective rate. Our findings were based on very limited evidence and thus should be interpreted with caution. The application of the findings requires further research.

10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547719

ABSTRACT

Boerhaave's syndrome is an uncommon syndrome characterized by spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus with a high mortality rate. While excessive alcohol intake and binge-eating are the classic precipitants of this syndrome, medication-induced vomiting causing Booerhave's is quite uncommon. Traditionally managed operatively, conservative management is being increasingly reported in selected cases. We report the case of 21-year-old male with who developed sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea after pentazocine induced vomiting. He was referred after lack of response to initial treatment for acute severe asthma. A chest CT scan showed pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and oesophageal tear. He was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy, nil per mouth and antibiotics with improvement of symptoms and discharge after 8 days.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pentazocine/adverse effects , Vomiting/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Chest Pain/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/therapy , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/etiology , Mediastinal Diseases/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pentazocine/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/chemically induced , Young Adult
11.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 11(4): 440-443, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: When people are dying and unable to take oral medication, injectable medication is commonly used, usually administered by healthcare professionals. There may be delays to symptom relief due to travel to the person's home. In a randomised controlled trial (RCT) previously reported, nasal fentanyl (NF) or buccal midazolam (BM) were administered by lay carers in a hospice. OBJECTIVE: (1) To report experiences of lay carers who administered NF and BM for symptom control and (2) To use feedback to develop guidance informing a future definitive RCT to determine whether NF and BM administered by lay carers can lead to timely, improved symptom control for people dying at home and fewer 'emergency' community nursing visits than standard breakthrough medication administered by healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semistructured interviews with lay carers who gave trial medication were conducted. Interview data were analysed using a stage by stage method to code and categorise transcripts. FINDINGS: The six themes were: (1) Participation-lay carers welcomed the opportunity to administer medication; (2) Ease of use-lay carers found preparations easy to use; (3) How things could have been done differently-lay carers would have liked access to trial drugs at home; (4) Training-lay carers were happy with the training they received; (5) Timing-lay carers liked the immediacy of trial drugs and (6) Evaluation-assessing symptom intensity and drug efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Participation was acceptable to patients and lay carers, and beneficial for symptom relief. The findings will inform planning for a future community-based study.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Midazolam , Fentanyl , Humans , Palliative Care , Qualitative Research
12.
Curr Psychol ; 40(12): 6249-6258, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525624

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been shown to detrimentally affect eating disorder symptoms, including increased dietary restriction and increased binge eating. However, research in this area is thus far limited. Additionally, as a result of the pandemic, many eating disorder treatments have converted to tele-health platforms, however, little is known about patient perceptions of this modality. The aim of the present, exploratory study was to qualitatively examine: (1) The impact of COVID-19 on binge eating spectrum disorder symptoms (2) Patient perceptions of tele-therapy, and (3) Ways to address COVID-19 in eating disorder treatment. Data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews (N = 11), conducted as part of a mid-program assessment for those undergoing individual, outpatient therapy for binge eating spectrum disorders. After thematic analysis, it was identified that patients reported both symptom deterioration and improvement during COVID-19. Factors surrounding social distancing and stay-at-home measures were found to both improve and worsen symptoms for different patients. Further, patients reported positive perceptions of tele-therapy, particularly appreciating the convenience of this modality. Finally, patients provided variable feedback on the incorporation of COVID-related concerns into their eating disorder treatment, with some participants wishing for this inclusion, and others viewing COVID-19 and their eating disorder as separate issues. Findings from the present study preliminarily identify ways in which binge eating spectrum disorder symptoms may have improved due to COVID-19 and indicate positive patient perceptions of tele-therapy. Our results may be used to inform the adaptation of future eating disorder treatment during COVID-19.

13.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(5): 473-477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that presents with severe symptoms which can lead to dangerous and lethal conditions if not diagnosed and treated properly. SARS-- CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that can occur in severe cases with acute pneumonia, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. In these cases, ICU admission is necessary. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old Caucasian man with septic shock and bilateral interstitial pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 and schizotypal personality disorder presented with catatonic behaviour manifested by soporous state, response to intense painful stimuli with the opening of the eyes, execution of simple verbal commands, maintenance of the same position, catalepsy, immobility, rigidity and mutism. At the same time, there were symptoms of septic shock and catatonic symptoms, causing greater difficulty in the correct formulation of the diagnosis. During the course of his hospitalization, he was treated with asenapine 20 mg/day. The catatonia responded rapidly and significantly to the asenapine. DISCUSSION: To date, the pathophysiology of catatonia is unclear, and few guidelines are available for the treatment of catatonia. In the literature, studies have reported the efficacy of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam and diazepam, GABAA agonists such as zolpidem, NMDA receptor antagonists such as memantine, antidepressant SSRIs such as fluoxetine and paroxetine, and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, clozapine and aripiprazole. We demonstrate that the antipsychotic asenapine is also effective in treating catatonic symptoms in psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSION: Asenapine produced a rapid and significant reduction in catatonic symptoms in our patient with schizotypal personality disorder.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Catatonia/drug therapy , Catatonia/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Dibenzocycloheptenes/therapeutic use , Schizotypal Personality Disorder/complications , Shock, Septic/complications , Shock, Septic/etiology , Catatonia/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
14.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3408-3424, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494605

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus behind the COVID-19 pandemic. Since its emergence, the global scientific community has mobilized to study this virus, and an overwhelming effort to identify COVID-19 treatments is currently ongoing for a variety of therapeutics and prophylactics. To better understand these efforts, we compiled a list of all COVID-19 vaccines undergoing preclinical and clinical testing using the WHO and ClinicalTrials.gov database, with details surrounding trial design and location. The most advanced vaccines are discussed in more detail, with a focus on their technology, advantages and disadvantages, as well as any available recent clinical findings. We also cover some of the primary challenges, safety concerns and public responses to COVID-19 vaccine trials, and consider what this can mean for the future. By compiling this information, we aim to facilitate a more thorough understanding of the extensive COVID-19 clinical testing vaccine landscape as it unfolds, and better highlight some of the complexities and challenges being faced by the joint effort of the scientific community in finding a prophylactic against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 571597, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488435

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease is an unprecedented international public health emergency and considerably impacts the global economy and health service system. While awaiting the development of an effective vaccine, searching for the therapy for severe or critical COVID-19 patients is essential for reducing the mortality and alleviating the tension of the health service system. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) induced by elevated interleukin-6 was recognized to underscore the pathology of severe COVID-19 patients. Inhibiting CRS by agents suppressing IL-6 may relieve symptoms, shorten the hospital stay and reduce the need for oxygen therapy. Although evidence from randomized, double-blinded clinical trials is still lacking, the IL-6R inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ) has shown some clinical benefits in the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients and have been included in clinical guidelines. In this review, we focused on the possible mechanisms of TCZ in the treatment of CRS and highlighted some significant considerations in the use of TCZ to treat COVID-19 patients.

16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174143, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487708

ABSTRACT

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Concomitant use of DSF and central nervous system stimulants usually leads to harmful, undesirable effects. To date, there is still limited data regarding the detailed safety profile of DSF as a concomitant drug. In this review article, we outline the current state of knowledge about DSF, its broad pharmacological action, as well as therapeutic effects, with a particular emphasis on the molecular understanding of its potential pharmacodynamic interactions with common addictive substances (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, cannabinoids, opioids) supported by relevant examples.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Animals , Disulfiram/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Humans
17.
Front Neurol ; 12: 624968, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477844

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report a case series of dysautonomia associated with COVID-19 infection. Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated in the autonomic clinic at our institution with suspected signs and symptoms of dysautonomia who underwent formal evaluation, including autonomic testing. Results: Six patients were identified with signs and symptoms suggestive of dysautonomia who underwent autonomic testing. All patients had symptoms typical of COVID-19 infection, though none were hospitalized for these or other symptoms. All patients reported symptoms of postural lightheadedness and near-syncope, fatigue, and activity intolerance. Five patients reported the onset of autonomic symptoms concomitant with other COVID-19 symptoms, with the other patient reporting symptom onset 6 weeks following initial COVID-19 symptoms. Autonomic testing demonstrated an excessive postural tachycardia in 4 patients, a hypertensive response with head-up tilt in 3 patients, orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, and sudomotor impairment in 1 of the patients with excessive postural tachycardia. Conclusions: We present clinical features and results of autonomic testing in 6 patients with a history COVID-19 infection. While all patients reported typical features of orthostatic intolerance, fatigue, and activity intolerance, the results of autonomic testing were heterogenous, with orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, excessive postural tachycardia typical of postural tachycardia syndrome in 4 patients, and postural hypertension in 3 patients.

18.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
19.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(6): 870-880, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders can have far reaching negative impact on both maternal mental health and child growth and development. Multimodal group parenting programs have been shown to improve maternal mental health symptoms however, they are often costly to provide and not accessible to many mothers, especially those mothers suffering from mental health symptoms. Therefore, the authors sought to answer the following question by undertaking a systematic review of the literature: are parenting interventions aimed at improving maternal-child interaction also a way to address mental health symptoms (i.e. depression, anxiety, stress) in mothers? METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. An online platform that supports the systematic review process and quality assessment according to Cochrane guidelines, Covidence, was used in conjunction with an adapted extraction tool to identify relevant studies and extract data for analysis. RESULTS: 11 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. There was great heterogeneity between study interventions and measurement of outcomes for maternal mental health symptoms which precluded meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Studies reviewed did not demonstrate consistent evidence to recommend that parenting interventions leads to improvement in maternal mental health symptoms for depression, anxiety or stress. However, there was evidence that participating in parenting programs does not worsen these symptoms and some encouraging evidence that alternative delivery methods, beyond face to face, could, with more research, lead to more financially feasible and sustainable models of delivery of these types of interventions in the future.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Mothers , Parenting , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Mother-Child Relations , Mothers/psychology
20.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 77S: S143-S146, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To report a case of uterine preservation in pelvic organ prolapse robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient is a 42-year old Caucasian woman with pelvic organ prolapse. She previously had undergone a pelvic floor reconstruction with vaginal surgical approach, she had suffered from anorexia nervosa and she had two childbirths with vaginal deliveries. The woman was treated with robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy and retropubic colposuspension. DISCUSSION: Data suggest that abdominal surgery, typically with an abdominal sacralcolpopexy, provides better objective anatomic outcomes, than vaginal procedures, despite the longer operating times and grater delay in the resumption of activities which can be mitigated by the use of laparoscopic or robotic surgery. Several studies about vaginal approaches suggest that uterus-preserving surgery with vaginal procedures have similar success rates, less blood loss and shorter surgical time compared with hysterectomy. A multicenter study compared laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy with vaginal mesh hysteropexy reported similar one-year cure rates, improvement in pelvic floor symptoms, improvement in sexual function, and satisfaction rates. CONCLUSION: We found robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy to be a feasible and successful procedure. Combining robotic retropubic colposuspension to sacrohysteropexy is a safe and efficient approach for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Further studies are needed to define the standard surgical steps and confirm the efficacy and the advantages of this procedure.

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