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1.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(3): 360-368, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic options are currently emerging but none with universal consensus or proven efficacy. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 because of their immunosuppressed conditions due to chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs). It is therefore likely that solid organ transplant recipients will be treated with these experimental antivirals. METHODS: This article is not intended to provide a systematic literature review on investigational treatments tested against COVID-19; rather, the authors aim to provide recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring of ISDs in transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 based on a review of existing data in the literature. RESULTS: Management of drug-drug interactions between investigational anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and immunosuppressants is a complex task for the clinician. Adequate immunosuppression is necessary to prevent graft rejection while, if critically ill, the patient may benefit from pharmacotherapeutic interventions directed at limiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Maintaining ISD concentrations within the desired therapeutic range requires a highly individualized approach that is complicated by the pandemic context and lack of hindsight. CONCLUSIONS: With this article, the authors inform the clinician about the potential interactions of experimental COVID-19 treatments with ISDs used in transplantation. Recommendations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustments in the context of COVID-19 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(3): 285-292, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the increased COVID-19 risk shown in transplant recipients, the prevalence, clinical course, and outcomes of COVID-19 infections among liver transplant recipients were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and used to survey medical services for liver transplant recipients seen at our center in terms of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients infected with COVID-19 were identified from 265 liver transplant recipients. Most patients were male and had COVID-19 despite quarantine at home. All patients received modified immunosuppressive drugs during infection with COVID-19 with minor changes in routine immunosuppressive therapy. Among the identified patients, 21 recovered and 4 patients died. One of the dead patients, in addition to having a liver transplant, had brain cancer with metastasis to the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: In liver transplant recipients infected with COVID-19, immunosuppressive drugs seemed to cause only mild to moderate illnesses or even helped them recover from the disease. However, more evidence is needed to prove this hypothesis. It is also recommended that transplant recipients should be warned about personal hygiene and be monitored closely by organ transplant centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
4.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(7): 744-748, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323413

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome remains the main cause of death among people with COVID-19. Although many immunomodulatory and antiviral drug therapies have been tested, the only effective therapy against severe COVID-19 pneumonia among the general population is a regimen of high-dose corticosteroids for cases of severe associated inflammation. In solid-organ transplant recipients with long-term immunosuppression, data on disease presentation and evolution are scarce, and the benefit of high-dose corticosteroids remains uncertain for cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we report 2 cases of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome that occurred in lung transplant recipients in March and April 2020, respectively. Both cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in patients with long-term azithromycin treatment prescribed to prevent chronic allograft dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with severe inflammation and was cured after early administration of high-dose corticosteroids in both cases, with progressive and complete resolution of lung lesions evidenced on thoracic computed tomography scan. Our findings support the benefit of early high-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome with hyperinflammation in patients with long-term immunosuppression such as lung transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung Transplantation , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/virology , Remission Induction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
5.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 617-629, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288744

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in late 2019. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to more than 200 countries in the world, and a global pandemic has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). At present, no vaccines or therapeutic regimens with proven efficacy are available for the management of COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19. Transplant patients receiving immunosuppressant medications are at the highest risk of severe illness from COVID-19. At the same time, with regard to receiving polypharmacy and immunosuppressants, treatment options should be chosen with more attention in this population. Considering drug-drug interactions and adverse effects of medications used for the treatment of COVID-19, such as QT prolongation, the dose reduction of some immunosuppressants or avoidance is recommended in transplant recipients with COVID-19. Thus, this narrative review describes clinically important considerations about the treatment of COVID-19 and immunosuppressive regimens regarding modifications, side effects, and interactions in adult kidney or liver allograft recipients.

7.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 26(4): 381-389, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To define recent changes and future directions in the practice of pancreas transplantation (PT). Two major events have occurred in the past 18 months: COVID-19 pandemic, and the first world consensus conference on PT. Several innovative studies were published after the consensus conference. RECENT FINDINGS: During COVID-19 pandemic PT activity decreased. COVID-19 in transplant recipients increases mortality rates, but data from kidney transplantation show that mortality might be higher in waitlisted patients.The world consensus conference provided 49 jury deliberations on the impact of PT on management of diabetic patients and 110 practice recommendations.Recent evidence demonstrates that PT alone is safe and effective, that results of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) remain excellent despite older recipient age and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, that use of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive donors into HCV-negative recipients is associated with good outcomes, and that use of sirolimus as primary immunosuppressant and costimulation blockade does not improve results of SPK. SUMMARY: COVID-19 pandemic and the first world consensus conference on PT were major events. Although COVID-19 pandemic should not reduce PT activity in the future, a major positive impact on both volume and outcomes of PT is awaited from the proceedings of the world consensus conference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pancreas Transplantation/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Donor Selection , Graft Survival/physiology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/trends , Pancreas Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients
8.
Clin Transplant ; 35(12): e14370, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic has negatively impacted worldwide organ transplantation. However, there is limited information on recipients transplanted after SARS-CoV-2 infection. A full understanding of this scenario is required, as transplantation is a life-saving procedure and COVID-19 remains an ongoing threat. METHODS: Abdominal organ transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 prior to transplantation were identified by chart review and clinical data were collected. The primary outcome was the transplant outcome including graft loss, rejection and death, and reactivation of infection post-transplant. RESULTS: We identified 14 patients who received abdominal organ transplants after symptomatic PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; four patients had a positive PCR at the time of admission for transplantation. The median time of follow-up was 79 (22-190) days. One recipient with negative PCR before transplant tested positive 9 days after transplant. One of 14 transplanted patients developed disseminated mold infection and died 86 days after transplant. During the follow-up, only one patient developed rejection; thirteen patients had favorable graft outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to perform abdominal transplantation for patients with COVID-19 before transplant, even with positive PCR at the time of transplant. Larger studies are needed to determine the time to safe transplant after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(3): 173-178, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228434

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A barrier to using organs from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-viremic donors is the high cost of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and concerns about access for recipients after transplantation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate access, cost, and timing for HCV DAAs following transplantation. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of HCV-negative adult transplant recipients from June 2017 to December 2019 who received grafts from HCV-viremic and/or HCV-seropositive individuals and became HCV viremic after transplantation. RESULTS: Between June 2017 and December 2019, there were 60 HCV-negative transplant recipients who became viremic after receiving grafts from HCV-viremic or HCV-seropositive donors. Thirty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria (n = 25 with liver transplants, n = 6 with lung transplants, n = 4 with simultaneous liver and kidney transplants, and n = 3 with kidney transplants). Of these patients, 23 had commercial insurance, 13 had Medicare, and 2 had Medicaid. All patients ultimately received insurance coverage for treatment; however, 36 (95%) required prior authorization and 9 (24%) required appeals to obtain insurance coverage. The median time from DAA prescription to insurance approval was 6 days. The median time from transplantation to start of treatment was 29 days (range, 0-84 days). Patients with Medicaid insurance had a significantly longer time to insurance approval (31.5 vs 6 days, P = 0.007). The average out-of-pocket cost to patients was less than $10 a month after patient assistance. All patients who completed treatment and 12-week follow-up after treatment achieved a sustained virologic response (n = 36). CONCLUSION: In this study, all HCV-negative recipients who developed HCV following transplantation had access to DAA therapy, with the majority starting treatment in the first month after transplantation.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Medicare , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Transplant Recipients , United States
10.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 240, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric transplant outcomes and determine whether to continue pediatric transplant activity or not, and how policies intended our center has been effective in preventing COVID-19 among organ transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of hospitalized pediatrics after organ transplantation at Shiraz transplant center since March to August 2020. All liver and kidney transplanted children were included the study and their laboratory and clinical related COVID-19 characteristics were followed up till 3 months after transplantation during hospitalization period and then weekly by the transplant committee. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients underwent transplantation including 11 kidney and 40 liver recipients. The mean age of the pediatric cases was 6.72 ± 5.47 years. A total of 11 patients died due to post-transplant complications, while none of the patients presented any sign or symptoms in favor of COVID-19 in the hospital course after transplantation. Six transplants including 2 kidney and 4 liver were canceled when positive PCR tests were detected in their donors before the surgery. In the 3 months of follow up, two patients presented with symptoms including high grade fever, malaise, rhinorrhea, and GI symptoms. Both patients had two negative PCR, and no radiologic or laboratory results regarding COVID-19 were also detected. One had positive influenza PCR, while the second one had a positive serologic test for EBV; CT, computed tomography CONCLUSION: Transplant programs could continue their activities during the COVID-19 pandemic with specific case selection, accurate screening methods and following protective protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Pediatrics , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Liver , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1124-1133, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218670

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that has infected millions of people across the world. Given the compelling need to develop a therapeutic strategy, hydroxychloroquine has been advocated as an effective drug for the infection. However, multiple clinical trials conducted using hydroxychloroquine have yielded contrasting results. An electronic search using the primary databases from WHO, PubMed and Google Scholar was performed that yielded 21 studies eligible for inclusion. Among a total of 1,350 patients who received hydroxychloroquine, 689 (51.04%) were females. The most commonly reported comorbidities include hypertension (15.18%), diabetes mellitus (8.44%) and pulmonary disease (8.96%). Of the hydroxychloroquine-treated patients, 70% were virologically cured compared to 12.5% of the control group (p = 0.001). A good clinical outcome with virological cure was reported in 973 patients (91%) within 10 days out of 1,061 hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. A total of 29 (65%) renal transplant recipients achieved complete recovery following hydroxychloroquine administration. A total of 37 (2.7%) patients reported QT prolongation. Hydroxychloroquine was found to reduce mortality in healthy, SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and improve clinical recovery in renal transplant recipients. However, a definitive conclusion regarding its effect on viral clearance can only be reached by conducting more clinical trials involving bigger and diverse samples.

12.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(7): 893-896, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207486

ABSTRACT

AIM: We report two cases of endothelial corneal allograft rejection following immunisation with SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine BNT162b2 and describe the implications for management of transplant recipients postvaccination for COVID-19. METHODS: A 66-year-old woman with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and a unilateral Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) transplant received COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 14 days post-transplant. Seven days later, she presented with symptoms and signs of endothelial graft rejection. An 83-year-old woman with bilateral DMEK transplants for FECD 3 and 6 years earlier developed simultaneous acute endothelial rejection in both eyes, 3 weeks post second dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Rejection in both cases was treated successfully with topical corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: We believe this is the first report of temporal association between corneal transplant rejection following immunisation against COVID-19 and the first report of DMEK rejection following any immunisation. We hypothesise that the allogeneic response may have been initiated by the host antibody response following vaccination. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the potential of corneal graft rejection associated with vaccine administration and may wish to consider vaccination in advance of planned non-urgent keratoplasties. Patients should be counselled on the symptoms and signs that require urgent review to allow early treatment of any confirmed rejection episode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty , Endothelium, Corneal/pathology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Immunization/adverse effects , Administration, Ophthalmic , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allografts , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/genetics , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Corneal/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy/surgery , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/diagnostic imaging , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Humans , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Ophthalmic Solutions , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology
13.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201724

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a major impact on transplant recipients, with mortality rates up to 20%. Therefore, the effect of established messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have to be evaluated for solid organ transplant patients (SOT) since they are known to have poor responses after vaccination. We investigated the SARS-CoV-2 immune response via SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection in 23 renal transplant recipients after two doses of the mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 following the standard protocol. The antibody response was evaluated once with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG CLIA 15.8 +/- 3.0 days after the second dose. As a control, SARS-CoV-2 IgG was determined in 23 healthcare workers (HCW) and compared to the patient cohort. Only 5 of 23 (22%) renal transplant recipients were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies after the second dose of vaccine. In contrast, all 23 (100%) HCWs were tested positive for antibodies after the second dose. Thus, the humoral response of renal transplant recipients after two doses of the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, Kronach, Germany) is impaired and significantly lower compared to healthy controls (22% vs. 100%; p = 0.0001). Individual vaccination strategies might be beneficial in these vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Transplantation Immunology/immunology , Vaccination
14.
Nephron ; 145(4): 363-370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) pandemic is the major current health emergency worldwide, adding a significant burden also to the community of nephrologists for the management of their patients. Here, we analyzed the impact of COVID-19 infection in renal patients to assess the time to viral clearance, together with the production and persistence of IgG and IgM antibody response, in consideration of the altered immune capacity of this fragile population. METHODS: Viral clearance and antibody kinetics were investigated in 49 renal patients recovered from COVID-19 infection: 7 of them with chronic decompensated renal failure, 31 under dialysis treatment, and 11 kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS: The time span between the diagnosis of infection and recovery based on laboratory testing (2 negative nasopharyngeal swabs in consecutive days) was 31.7 ± 13.3 days. Three new positive cases were detected from 8 to 13 days following recovery. At the first serological determination after swab negativization, all the patients developed IgG and IgM antibodies. The semiquantitative analysis showed a progressive increase in IgG and a slow reduction in IgM. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In subjects with decompensated chronic kidney disease, under dialysis and in transplant recipients, viral clearance is lengthened compared to the general population. However, in spite of their common status of immunodepression, all of them were able to produce specific antibodies. These data might provide useful insights for monitoring and planning health-care activities in the weak category of patients with compromised renal function recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
15.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2719-2726, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189625

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. There are no efficacy data available regarding these patients with any of the available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We analyzed the humoral response following full vaccination with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in 136 kidney transplant recipients, and compared it to 25 controls. In order to exclude prior exposure to the virus, only participants with negative serology to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein were included. All controls developed a positive response to spike protein, while only 51 of 136 transplant recipients (37.5%) had positive serology (p < .001). Mean IgG anti-spike level was higher in the controls (31.05 [41.8] vs. 200.5 [65.1] AU/mL, study vs. control, respectively, p < .001). Variables associated with null humoral response were older age (odds ratio 1.66 [95% confidence interval 1.17-2.69]), high-dose corticosteroids in the last 12 months (1.3 [1.09-1.86]), maintenance with triple immunosuppression (1.43 [1.06-2.15]), and regimen that includes mycophenolate (1.47 [1.26-2.27]). There was a similar rate of side effects between controls and recipients, and no correlation was found between the presence of symptoms and seroconversion. Our findings suggest that most kidney transplant recipients remain at high risk for COVID-19 despite vaccination. Further studies regarding possible measures to increase recipient's response to vaccination are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
16.
Transplantation ; 105(10): 2170-2174, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied the safety and reactogenicity SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in transplant recipients because immunosuppressed patients were excluded from vaccine trials. METHODS: US transplant recipients were recruited into this prospective cohort study through social media; those who completed the full vaccine series between December 9, 2020 and March 1, 2021 were included. We collected demographics, medical history, and safety information within 7 d after doses 1 and 2 (D1, D2). Associations between characteristics and reactions were evaluated using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: We studied 741 transplant recipients who underwent BNT162b2 (54%) or mRNA-1273 (46%) vaccination. Median (interquartile range) age was 60 (44-69) y, 57% were female, and 10% were non-White. Although local site reactions decreased after D2 (85% D1 versus 78% D2, P < 0.001), systemic reactions increased (49% D1 versus 69% D2, P < 0.001). Younger participants were more likely to develop systemic symptoms after D1 (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] per 10 y = 0.850.900.94, P < 0.001) and D2 (aIRR per 10 y = 0.910.930.96, P < 0.001). Participants who experienced pain (aIRR = 1.111.662.47, P = 0.01) or redness (aIRR = 1.833.928.41, P < 0.01) were more likely to develop an antibody response to D1 of mRNA vaccines. No anaphylaxis, neurologic diagnoses, or SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses were reported. Infections were minimal (3% after D1, <0.01% after D2). One patient reported incident acute rejection post-D2. CONCLUSIONS: In solid organ transplant recipients undergoing mRNA vaccination, reactogenicity was similar to that reported in the original trials. Severe reactions were rare. These early safety data may help address vaccine hesitancy in transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Organ Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
18.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(Suppl 1): i21-i29, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160874

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVD-19) emerged as a pandemic in December 2019. Infection has spread quickly and renal transplant recipients receiving chronic immunosuppression have been considered a population at high risk of infection, complications and infection-related death. During this year a large amount of information from nationwide registries, multicentre and single-centre studies have been reported. The number of renal transplant patients diagnosed with COVID-19 was higher than in the general population, but the lower threshold for testing may have contributed to its better identification. Major complications such as acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome were very frequent in renal transplant patients, with a high comorbidity burden, but further studies are needed to support that organ transplant recipients receiving chronic immunosuppression are more prone to develop these complications than the general population. Kidney transplant recipients experience a high mortality rate compared with the general population, especially during the very early post-transplant period. Despite the fact that some studies report more favourable outcomes in patients with a kidney transplant than in patients on the kidney waiting list, the higher mortality described in the very early post-transplant period would advise against performing a kidney transplant in areas where the spread of infection is high, especially in recipients >60 years of age. Management of transplant recipients has been challenging for clinicians and strategies such as less use of lymphocyte-depleting agents for new transplants or anti-metabolite withdrawal and calcineurin inhibitor reduction for transplant patients with COVID-19 are not based on high-quality evidence.

19.
Kidney Med ; 3(1): 54-59.e1, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065667

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: A number of serologic tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are now commercially available, including multiple lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs), which have the advantage of being inexpensive and easy to use, without the reliance on laboratory facilities. However, data on the development of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with kidney disease is limited, and the utility of an LFIA to test for antibodies in these patients has not been assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients (40 hemodialysis and 20 kidney transplant recipients) with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing and 88 historic negative-control samples (collected before September 2019). TEST: A commercially available LFIA to test for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with infection confirmed by viral RT-PCR testing. OUTCOMES: Sensitivity and specificity of the LFIA to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG in dialysis patients and transplant recipients. RESULTS: 56/58 (96.6%) patients (38/39 hemodialysis and 18/19 transplant recipients) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. 5/7 (71.4%) patients who were negative on preliminary testing had detectable IgG when retested more than 21 days postdiagnosis. Median times to first and second tests after diagnosis were 17 (interquartile range, 15-20) and 35 (interquartile range, 30-39) days, respectively. Calculation of test characteristics gave sensitivity of 96.6% (95% CI, 88.3%-99.4%) and specificity of 97.7% (95% CI, 92.0-99.6%). LIMITATIONS: Possible exposure to other beta-coronaviruses that may cross-react with the antigen used in the LFIA cannot be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic dialysis patients and transplant recipients commonly develop an immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection that can be detected using an LFIA. Used diligently, an LFIA could be used to help screen the dialysis populations or confirm exposure on a patient level, especially in facilities in which laboratory resources are limited.

20.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e13972, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is caused by a novel form of coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2. Patients can present with a wide variety of symptoms from fever to severe respiratory distress. Immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients, may present with atypical symptoms, making the diagnosis of COVID-19 more difficult to make. New reports have been emerging about the management of COVID-19 disease in adult renal transplant recipients. However, very little is known in pediatric renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Here, we describe a case report of four pediatric renal transplant recipients who presented with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disease. RESULTS: All patients presented with upper respiratory infection symptoms, with one requiring hospitalization for hypoxia. Patients were treated mostly with supportive care. Two of the patients developed AKI which resolved four to eight weeks after illness. All four patients developed COVID IgG antibodies one to two months after becoming infected. CONCLUSION: This case series demonstrates that immunocompromised renal transplant recipients have comparable outcomes compared with immunocompetent children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Fever , Humans , Hypoxia , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , Transplant Recipients , Young Adult
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