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1.
Curr Psychol ; 41(2): 1057-1064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

3.
Int J Womens Health ; 13: 509-523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sex workers, like others, are facing economic hardships and anxiety about their health and safety due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Universally, most sex work has largely reduced, moved online, or undertaken covertly because of lockdown measures and need for social distancing to break the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, the ability of sex workers to protect themselves against COVID-19 depends on their individual and interpersonal behaviors and work environment. In this study, we sought to determine the relationships between COVID-19 knowledge, awareness and prevention practice (KAP) among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to inform the development of prevention interventions for this vulnerable population. METHODS: Data used in this study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 604 FCSW operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to assess their socio-demographic characteristics and COVID-19 KAP adopted against the novel coronavirus. Latent class analysis was used to systematically classify participants' attributes and behaviors into the most likely distinct clusters or risk groups. RESULTS: The majority of the FCSW were singles (86.8%) of childbearing ages, 21-35 years (86.2%), with almost three quarters (73.2%) of them having sex with 3-4 clients per day during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, almost three quarters of the participants had both good knowledge and awareness about COVID-19 but less than half of them (41.1%) implemented good practice to prevent the spread of the disease. However, a highly significant and positive relationship was recorded between COVID-19 knowledge (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and awareness (r=0.65, p<0.0001), and preventive practice of FCSW, respectively. About 89.1% of the participants were not very familiar with the symptoms of COVID-19 (p<0.0001). Only 10.9% of the FCSW indicated that they wear facemask at all times, while 45.2% of them do not wear facemask during sexual intercourse with their clients (p<0.0001). Based on the FCSW attributes and behaviors, we identified three distinct clusters or risk groups (p<0.0001), namely, low-risk takers (Cluster 1), high-risk takers (Cluster 2) and very high-risk takers (Cluster 3) with latent class prevalence rates (γc) of 41.13% (95% CI: 37.26-45.10), 33.17% (95% CI: 29.53-37.02) and 25.71% (95% CI: 22.38-29.34), respectively. CONCLUSION: Sex work has high transmission potentials for SARS-CoV-2 because of its operational nature, which does not permit social distancing, and thus, renders certain preventive measures practically ineffective. This is a major challenge in the fight against COVID-19 in this high-risk group and calls for the development of operational guidelines and targeted intervention strategies to help reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the Niger Delta region.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 35: 100881, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As several COVID-19 vaccines are rolled-out globally, it has become important to develop an effective strategy for vaccine acceptance, especially in high-risk groups, such as elderly. Vaccine misconception was declared by WHO as one of the top 10 health issues in 2019. Here we test the effectiveness of applying debunking to combat vaccine misinformation, and reduce vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: Participants were recruited via a daily news show on Dutch Television, targeted to elderly viewers. The study was conducted in 980 elderly citizens during the October 2020 National Influenza Vaccination Campaign. Borrowing from the recent literature in behavioural science and psychology we conducted a two-arm randomized blinded parallel study, in which participants were allocated to exposure to a video containing social norms, vaccine information plus debunking of vaccination myths (intervention group, n = 505) or a video only containing vaccine information plus social norm (control group, n = 475). Participants who viewed either of the video's and completed both a pre- and post-intervention survey on vaccination trust and knowledge, were included in the analysis. The main outcomes of this study were improvement on vaccine knowledge and awareness. FINDINGS: Participants were recruited from the 13th of October 2020 till the 16th of October 2020 and could immediately participate in the pre-intervention survey. Subsequently, eligible participants were randomly assigned to an interventional video and the follow-up survey, distributed through email on the 18th of October 2020, and available for participation till the 24th of October 2020. We found that exposure to the video with addition of debunking strategies on top of social norm modelling and information resulted in substantially stronger rejection of vaccination misconceptions, including the belief that: (1) vaccinations can cause Autism Spectrum Disorders; (2) vaccinations weaken the immune system; (3) influenza vaccination would hamper the COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. Additionally, we observed that exposure to debunking in the intervention resulted in enhanced trust in government. INTERPRETATION: Utilizing debunking in media campaigns on top of vaccine information and social norm modeling is an effective means to combat misinformation and distrust associated with vaccination in elderly, and could help maximize grounds for the acceptance of vaccines, including the COVID-19 vaccines. FUNDING: Dutch Influenza Foundation.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9927, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225516

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy in COVID-19 disease may improve clinical outcome in severe disease. This pilot study was undertaken to inform feasibility and safety of further definitive studies. This was a prospective, interventional and randomized open label pilot trial in patients with severe COVID-19. Twenty COVID-19 patients received two 200 ml transfusions of convalescent patient CP over 24-h compared with 20 who received standard of care. The primary outcome was the requirement for ventilation (non-invasive or mechanical ventilation). The secondary outcomes were biochemical parameters and mortality at 28 days. The CP group were a higher risk group with higher ferritin levels (p < 0.05) though respiratory indices did not differ. The primary outcome measure was required in 6 controls and 4 patients on CP (risk ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.22-2.0, p = 0.72); mean time on ventilation (NIV or MV) did not differ. There were no differences in secondary measures at the end of the study. Two patients died in the control and one patient in the CP arm. There were no significant differences in the primary or secondary outcome measures between CP and standard therapy, although a larger definitive study is needed for confirmation. However, the study did show that CP therapy appears to be safe in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypoxia.Clinical trials registration NCT04356534: 22/04/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
6.
Appl Math Comput ; 408: 126364, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225115

ABSTRACT

The world is going through a critical period due to a new respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mathematical modeling is one of the most important tools that can speed up finding a drug or vaccine for COVID-19. COVID-19 can lead to death especially for patients having chronic diseases such as cancer, AIDS, etc. We construct a new within-host SARS-CoV-2/cancer model. The model describes the interactions between six compartments: nutrient, healthy epithelial cells, cancer cells, SARS-CoV-2 virus particles, cancer-specific CTLs, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We verify the nonnegativity and boundedness of its solutions. We outline all possible equilibrium points of the proposed model. We prove the global stability of equilibria by constructing proper Lyapunov functions. We do some numerical simulations to visualize the obtained results. According to our model, lymphopenia in COVID-19 cancer patients may worsen the outcomes of the infection and lead to death. Understanding dysfunctions in immune responses during COVID-19 infection in cancer patients could have implications for the development of treatments for this high-risk group.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201386

ABSTRACT

We describe the results of two vaccinations of a self-experimenting healthy volunteer with SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides performed in March and April 2020, respectively. The first set of peptides contained eight peptides predicted to bind to the individual's HLA molecules. The second set consisted of ten peptides predicted to bind promiscuously to several HLA-DR allotypes. The vaccine formulation contained the new TLR 1/2 agonist XS15 and was administered as an emulsion in Montanide as a single subcutaneous injection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from blood drawn before and after vaccinations were assessed using Interferon-γ ELISpot assays and intracellular cytokine staining. We detected vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses against six out of 11 peptides predicted to bind to HLA-DR after 19 days, following vaccination, for one peptide already at day 12. We used these results to support the design of a T-cell-inducing vaccine for application in high-risk patients, with weakened lymphocyte performance. Meanwhile, an according vaccine, incorporating T cell epitopes predominant in convalescents, is undergoing clinical trial testing.

8.
Trials ; 22(1): 276, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of an inactivated and aluminium hydroxide adsorbed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Sinovac, China) in voluntary participants after 14 days of the second dose against RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 cases. The secondary objectives include evaluating the efficacy after at least one dose of the vaccine against RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 cases; the efficacy of two doses of the vaccine on the rates of hospitalization and death; the safety of the vaccine including adverse reactions up to one year after the 2nd dose of vaccination; and the immunogenicity of the vaccine and its duration up to 120 days. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled case driven clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the vaccine. The study is planned to be carried out within two separate cohorts in voluntary participants aged between 18-59 years old. The first cohort includes healthcare professionals actively working in healthcare units, who are assumed to have higher risk of acquiring COVID-19, and the second cohort includes other immunocompetent subjects in the same age group, who are at a regular risk for COVID-19 disease. In Cohort 1, healthcare professionals will be randomized to receive two intramuscular doses of investigational product or the placebo in a 1:1 ratio and they will be monitored for 12 months by active surveillance of COVID-19. In Cohort 2, immunocompetent subjects will be randomized to receive vaccine or the placebo in a 2:1 ratio. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare professionals of both genders, including medical doctors, nurses, cleaners, hospital technicians, and administrative personnel who work in any department of a healthcare unit and immunocompetent individuals of both genders are included. Pregnant (confirmed by positive beta-hCG test) and breastfeeding women as well as those intending to become pregnant within three months after vaccination are excluded. Other exclusion criteria include history of COVID-19 test positivity (PCR or immunoglobulin test results), any form of immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids within 6 months, history of bleeding disorders, asplenia, and administration of any form of immunoglobulins or blood products within 3 months. Exclusion criteria for the second dose include any serious adverse events related with the vaccine, anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity after vaccination, or any confirmed or suspected autoimmune or immunosuppressive disease (including HIV infection). Participants are only included after signing the voluntary informed consent form, ensuring cooperation in visits, undergoing screening for evaluation, and conforming to all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All clinical sites are located in Turkey. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The vaccine was manufactured by Sinovac Research & Development Co., Ltd. It is a preparation made from a novel coronavirus (strain CZ02) grown in the kidney cell cultures (Vero Cell) of the African green monkey and contains inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus, aluminium hydroxide, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and sodium chloride. A dose of 0.5 mL contains 600 SU of SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen. The placebo contains aluminium hydroxide, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and sodium chloride (0.5mL/dose). Scheduled visits and additional unscheduled weekly visits will be performed for the first 13 weeks and neutralizing antibody test, IgG test, T-Cell activation test, pregnancy test, and RT-PCR tests along with total antibody test will be performed. Adverse events and serious adverse events during the follow-up will be recorded on diary cards. Diary cards will collect information on the timing and severity of COVID-19 symptoms and solicited adverse events recorded by the subjects during one-year follow-up period. All serious adverse events will be managed and necessary treatment will be ensured according to the local regulations. All serious adverse events following vaccination will be reported to the ethics committee, the Ministry of Health, and the study sponsor within 24 hours of detection. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary efficacy endpoint is the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 disease confirmed by RT-PCR two weeks after the second dose of vaccination. Secondary efficacy endpoints are the incidence of hospitalization/mortality rates among one or two dose regimens, duration of immunogenicity rates up to 120 days, the seroconversion rate, the seropositivity rate, neutralizing antibody titer, and IgG levels 14 days after each dose of vaccination. The primary safety endpoint is the severity and frequency of local and systemic adverse reactions during the period of one week after vaccination. The study would be terminated if more than 15% of the subjects have grade ≥3 adverse events related to vaccination including local reactions. RANDOMISATION: Eligible subjects will be randomized at their Study Day 0 to two study groups using an Interactive Web Response System (IWRS; developed by Omega CRO, Ankara, Turkey) in both risk groups. The IWRS system customizes the randomization algorithm. After enrolment in the study, each participant will be randomly assigned to either of the two treatment arms at a ratio of 1:1 in the high-risk group and at a ratio of 2:1 in the normal risk group. Each enrolled participant will be assigned to a code and will receive the treatment labelled with the code. BLINDING (MASKING): The trial is a double-blind study to avoid introducing bias. The blinding may be broken by the investigator in the event of a medical emergency in which knowledge of the identity of the study vaccine is critical for management of the subject's immediate treatment. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board is to be contacted in case of breaking the blinding for a study object. The blood samples will be taken from both placebo and vaccinated groups, in order not to break the blinding. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The study is planned to be carried out with two separate cohorts. The Cohort 1 includes healthcare professionals working in healthcare units and the Cohort 2 consists of immunocompetent subjects having normal risk for COVID-19 disease. The Cohort 2 will be initiated after the evaluation of the interim safety report of the Cohort 1 by the Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Both cohorts will be followed-up via RT-PCR to confirm symptomatic COVID-19 cases. If the clinical efficacy of the vaccine is shown in the Cohort 1 or 2, the subjects randomized into the placebo arm will also be vaccinated. In the Cohort 1, 588 subjects should be included in both arms with the assumption that the risk of infection with COVID-19 will be 5% for the placebo arm and 2% for the vaccine arm in the high-risk group. Considering 10% of drop-out rate and 5% of seropositivity or PCR positivity at baseline, 680 subjects should be screened at both arms of the Cohort 1. Group sample sizes of 7545 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 3773 placebo suits at a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in population proportions with a width equal to 1.0%, when the estimated incidence rate for vaccinated group is 1.0% and the estimated incidence rate for placebo group is 2.0%. Drop-out rate is assumed to be 10% and seropositivity or PCR positivity at baseline is assumed to be 5%; accordingly, 13000 participants are needed to be enrolled totally in both cohorts. The remaining 11640 subjects will be screened in the Cohort 2 and eligible subjects will be randomized at a ratio of 2:1. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 6.0 - 15 October 2020. Recruitment started on 15.09.2020 and is expected to end on February 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04582344 . Registered 8 October 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol of the trial is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells
9.
J Public Health Res ; 10(3)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the published reports on COVID-19 emphasized that health care workers (HCWs) get infected more than the general population representing one of the most vulnerable groups. However, that the real percentage of HCWs infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Egypt remains unknown. The researchers conducted the current study to assess seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG among HCWs working in a hospital with no SARS-CoV-2 patients, and to identify the potential factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity. DESIGN AND METHODS: The current study is a cross-sectional study carried out among 455 HCWs at Cairo University Hospital. The researchers administered a questionnaire shortly before the SARS-CoV-2 rapid test is performed using closed-ended question format to obtain information on demographic data of the study participants including age, sex, specialty, clinical information including questions about medical conditions, and. history of previous exposure with a confirmed or suspected case of COVID-19, and history of COVID-19- compatible symptoms during the previous 14 days (cough, sore throat, runny nose, fatigue, shortness of breath, fever, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, anosmia, ageusia, and chills). RESULTS: We screened 455 HCWs for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 31.4% were in the high-risk group, and 68.6% in the low-risk group. The overall IgG seroprevalence was 36 (7.9%) (95% CI 5.8 to 10.8). The IgG seroprevalence was significantly higher in low-risk group 11% (35/312) versus high-risk group 0.7% (1/143), p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Low seropositivity rates for SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs is suggestive of lack of immunity and we are still far from herd immunity.

10.
Early Hum Dev ; : 105215, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135310

ABSTRACT

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 22: 100757, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) is an intervention where incentives are provided in exchange for biochemically confirmed alcohol abstinence. CM is effective at initiating alcohol abstinence, but it is less effective at maintaining long-term abstinence. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), collected via a finger-stick, can detect alcohol use for 14-28 days. PEth allows for the development of a CM model that includes increasingly less frequent monitoring of abstinence to assist high risk groups, such as formerly homeless individuals, maintain long-term abstinence. AIMS: Investigate whether PEth-based CM intervention targeting alcohol abstinence in formerly homeless, currently housed individuals with alcohol use disorders is: (1) acceptable and feasible for housing program tenants and personnel; and is associated with increased (2) alcohol abstinence and (3) housing tenure. METHODS: Acceptability and feasibility will be assessed using a QUAL+quant mixed-methods design using qualitative interviews and quantitative measures of satisfaction and attrition. Effectiveness will be evaluated through a randomized pilot trial of 50 study participants who will receive 6 months of either treatment as usual (TAU) including incentives (e.g., gift cards) for providing blood samples (Control Condition) or TAU and incentives for negative PEth results (PEth-CM Condition). Outcomes will be assessed during the intervention and at a three-month follow-up visit. The trial will be conducted via telehealth as a result of COVID-19. DISCUSSION: This protocol seeks to utilize a novel alcohol biomarker to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and initial effectiveness of a CM model that encourages long-term abstinence in a high-risk group.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCW) treating COVID-19 patients are at high risk for infection and may also spread infection through their contact with vulnerable patients. Smell loss has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unknown whether monitoring for smell loss can be used to identify asymptomatic infection among high risk individuals. In this study we sought to determine if tracking smell sensitivity and loss using an at-home assessment could identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study tracking 473 HCW across three months to determine if smell loss could predict SARS-CoV-2 infection in this high-risk group. HCW subjects completed a longitudinal, behavioral at-home assessment of olfaction with household items, as well as detailed symptom surveys that included a parosmia screening questionnaire, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our main measures were the prevalence of smell loss in SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW versus SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW, and timing of smell loss relative to SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 17 (3.6%) of 473 HCW. HCW with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to report smell loss than SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW on both the at-home assessment and the screening questionnaire (9/17, 53% vs 105/456, 23%, P < .01). 6/9 (67%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW reporting smell loss reported smell loss prior to having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and smell loss was reported a median of two days before testing positive. Neurological symptoms were reported more frequently among SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW who reported smell loss compared to those without smell loss (9/9, 100% vs 3/8, 38%, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of HCW, self-reported changes in smell using two different measures were predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smell loss frequently preceded a positive test and was associated with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/trends , Adult , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report , Smell/physiology , United States/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110415

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdown measures were implemented in many countries to limit the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such restrictions could precipitate unintended negative consequences on lifestyle behaviors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of unhealthy behavior changes during the COVID-19 lockdown among residents of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey of adults residing in the UAE was carried out during lockdown (n = 2060). Using a multi-component questionnaire, the collected data included questions regarding the following lifestyle changes: Increased dietary intake, increased weight, decreased physical activity, decreased sleep, and increased smoking. An unhealthy lifestyle change score was calculated based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle changes each participant reported. In addition, sociodemographic and living conditions information was collected. Descriptive statistics as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence and determinants of the unhealthy lifestyle changes considered in this study. Results: Among the unhealthy lifestyle changes examined, increased food intake was the most common (31.8%), followed by decreased physical activity (30%), increased weight (29.4%), decreased sleep (20.8%), and increased smoking (21%). In addition to identifying the correlates of each of the aforementioned lifestyle changes, the results of the multiple regression linear analyses revealed the following correlates for the overall unhealthy lifestyle change score: females (ß = 0.32, CI: 0.22; 0.42), living in an apartment (ß = 0.12, CI: 0.003; 0.23) and being overweight/obese (ß = 0.24, CI: 0.15; 0.32) had higher scores, while older adults (>40 years) had lower scores (ß = -0.23, CI: -0.34; -0.12). Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown has resulted in a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and practices among UAE residents. The findings of this study provided the evidence base for officials to design interventions targeting high-risk groups and aiming to improve healthy lifestyle factors among residents during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Style , Pandemics , Adult , Archaeal Proteins , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Sedentary Behavior , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Weight Gain
14.
Cardiol Young ; 30(9): 1339-1342, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082976
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 607821, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000106

ABSTRACT

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been recommended as a suitable choice for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure before mechanical ventilation (MV); however, delaying MV with HFNC therapy is still a dilemma between the technique and clinical management during the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients treated with HFNC therapy from four hospitals of Wuhan, China. Demographic information and clinical variables before, at, and shortly after HFNC initiation were collected and analyzed. A risk-stratification model of HFNC failure (the need for MV) was developed with the 324 patients of Jin Yin-tan Hospital and validated its accuracy with 69 patients of other hospitals. Results: Among the training cohort, the median duration of HFNC therapy was 6 (range, 3-11), and 147 experienced HFNC failure within 7 days of HFNC initiation. Early predictors of HFNC failure on the basis of a multivariate regression analysis included age older than 60 years [odds ratio (OR), 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-3.44; p = 0.027; 2 points], respiratory rate-oxygenation index (ROX) <5.31 (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 2.96-9.20; p < 0.001; 5 points) within the first 4 h of HFNC initiation, platelets < 125 × 109/L (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.46-6.35; p = 0.003; 3 points), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) >7.0 pg/mL (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.79-6.23; p < 0.001; 3 points) at HFNC initiation. A weighted risk-stratification model of these predictors showed sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 71.2% and a better predictive ability than ROX index alone [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.807 vs. 0.779, p < 0.001]. Six points were used as a cutoff value for the risk of HFNC failure stratification. The HFNC success probability of patients in low-risk group (84.2%) was 9.84 times that in the high-risk group (34.8%). In the subsequent validation cohort, the AUC of the model was 0.815 (0.71-0.92). Conclusions: Aged patients with lower ROX index, thrombocytopenia, and elevated IL-6 values are at increased risk of HFNC failure. The risk-stratification models accurately predicted the HFNC failure and early stratified COVID-19 patients with HFNC therapy into relevant risk categories.

17.
Rambam Maimonides Med J ; 12(1)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937616

ABSTRACT

The world, as a global village, is currently taking part in a real-time public health, medical, socio-cultural, and economic experiment on how best to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Extraordinary times demand extraordinary measures. Depending on the time from the outbreak, strategies have ranged from minimal intervention to mitigation by quarantine for high-risk groups (elderly with chronic illnesses) to containment and lockdown. Adherence to such restrictions have depended on the individual and national psyche and culture. One can understand and forgive governments for being over-cautious, but not for being ill-prepared. It seems that Singapore after SARS (2003) and South Korea after MERS (2015) learnt from their experiences and have fared relatively well with minimal disruption to daily routines. Coping with the challenge of COVID-19 is an urgent global task. We use the Sociotype ecological framework to analyze different coping responses at three levels: Context (government and leadership, social context, health services, and media); Relationships; and the Individual. We describe the many negative outcomes (e.g. mortality [obviously], unemployment, economic damage, food insecurity, threat to democracy, claustrophobia) and the positive ones (e.g. new, remote teaching, working, and medical routines; social bonding and solidarity; redefining existential values and priorities) of this surreal situation, which is still evolving. We highlight the importance of humor in stress reduction. Regular and reliable communication to the public has to be improved, acknowledging incomplete data, and learning to deal with fake news, misinformation, and conspiracy theories. Excess mortality is the preferred statistic to follow and compare outcomes. When the health risks are over, the economic recovery responses will vary according to the financial state of countries. If world order is to be reshaped, then a massive economic aid plan should be launched by the rich countries-akin to the Marshall plan after the Second World War. It should be led preferably by the USA and China. The results of the tradeoffs between health and economic lockdowns will only become apparent in the months to come. The experiences and lessons learned from this emergency should be used as a rehearsal for the next epi-/pandemic, which will surely take place in the foreseeable future.

18.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(2): 127-137, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is an established modality in the diagnostic algorithm of small bowel (SB) pathology. Its use has expanded for investigation of upper and lower gastrointestinal diseases with similar prototypes. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the role and recent advances of CE, as a non-invasive investigative tool. EXPERT OPINION: The use of upper gastrointestinal CE is useful in patients who require surveillance for varices particularly in the current era of the COVID-19 pandemic. It has also shown high accuracy in the detection of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients presenting with a suspicion of hemorrhage. Findings on CE help to guide further management by device-assisted enteroscopy. The data on colon CE suggest comparable diagnostic accuracy to colonoscopy for polyp detection; however, more evidence is required in the high-risk group. Crohn's CE has become an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn's disease offering a comparative assessment tool post escalation of therapy. Artificial intelligence within CE has demonstrated similar if not better diagnostic yield compared to the human with a significantly shorter reading time. Artificial intelligence is likely to be in-built within CE reading platforms over the next few years minimizing reporting time and human error.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Capsule Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsule Endoscopy/instrumentation , Capsule Endoscopy/methods , Capsule Endoscopy/trends , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 145: 110333, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813777

ABSTRACT

Zinc and the combination with zinc ionophore have been reported in basic research and several clinical investigations as a potentially viable and economical preventive and therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatment. Zinc is a vital microelement that actively supports respiratory epithelium barrier integrity, innate and adaptive immune functions, and inflammatory regulations. Moreover, zinc may also prevent viral entry, suppress viral replication, and mitigate the damages due to oxidative stress and hyperinflammatory reaction in patients with respiratory infections. Hinokitiol (ß-thujaplicin) is a natural monoterpenoid and is considered as a safe zinc ionophore to help zinc transport into cells. It has been widely used in skin and oral care, and therapeutic products for its potent antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer applications. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the significant morbidity and mortality exist in the high-risk group of patients associated with other respiratory infections such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and dengue fever. There is an urgent need for the development of inexpensive, safe, and effective therapeutics to prevent and treat these viral infections. Considering that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the most studied zinc ionophore drug for COVID-19, is linked to potentially serious side effects, we propose the implementation of hinokitiol as a zinc ionophore and anti-infective agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Monoterpenes/therapeutic use , Tropolone/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Models, Theoretical , Risk , Tropolone/therapeutic use
20.
Am J Psychother ; 73(4): 144-148, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805970

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire globe with overwhelming speed and impact. The pandemic is both highly threatening and poorly understood, typical of deeply distressing conditions. Stress associated with uncertain recommendations from authorities, fear of illness and contagion for oneself and one's loved ones, extended periods of isolation, moral conflicts, financial instability, perception of discrimination and/or stigma, and ongoing loss and grief imperil mental health and resilience among the general population and high-risk groups. Health care workers (HCWs) face additional challenges that increase their vulnerability to distress and burnout. Bolstering resilience among HCWs can allow them to continue working with the intensity and focus their jobs require, which in turn supports the overall functioning of the health care system. Given their training in understanding wellness, distress, and psychotherapeutic treatment, mental health clinicians are well positioned to respond to this need. By studying the lessons from past and present experiences with public health emergencies and by incorporating principles from psychotherapeutic literature and training, clinicians can help facilitate an informed and effective response. The goal of this article is to discuss the development of a resilience coaching model that is rooted in principles from psychotherapeutic literature and practice to support psychological well-being among hospital-based HCWs. This model, developed to support the authors' health care colleagues working in a Toronto hospital, is generalizable, can be adapted for use by any mental health clinician, and makes explicit how previous training in psychotherapy may be applied to coaching and supporting frontline HCWs.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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