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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 199-209, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to threaten public health globally. Patients with severe COVID-19 disease progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, with respiratory and multiple organ failure. It is believed that dysregulated production of proinflammatory cytokines and endothelial dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of severe diseases. However, the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the role of endothelial cells are poorly understood. METHODS: Well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells were used to explore cytokine and chemokine production after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We measured the susceptibility to infection, immune response, and expression of adhesion molecules in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) exposed to conditioned medium from infected epithelial cells. The effect of imatinib on HPMVECs exposed to conditioned medium was evaluated. RESULTS: We demonstrated the production of interleukin-6, interferon gamma-induced protein-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from the infected human airway cells after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Although HPMVECs did not support productive replication of SARS-CoV-2, treatment of HPMVECs with conditioned medium collected from infected airway cells induced an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and vascular adhesion molecules. Imatinib inhibited the upregulation of these cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in HPMVECs treated with conditioned medium. CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the role of endothelial cells in the development of clinical disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the importance of endothelial cell-epithelial cell interaction in the pathogenesis of human COVID-19 diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Communication , Endothelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans
3.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 69(1): 12-24, 2022 Jan.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We explored the experience of clinicians from the Spanish Society of Anesthesiology in airway management of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: An software-based survey including a 32-item questionnaire was conducted from April 18 to May 17, 2020. Participants who have been involved in tracheal intubations in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were included anonymously after obtaining their informed consent. The primary outcome was the preferred airway device for tracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included the variations in clinical practice including the preferred video laryngoscope, plans for difficult airway management, and personal protective equipment. RESULTS: 1125 physicians completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 40,9%. Most participants worked in public hospitals and were anesthesiologists.The preferred device for intubation was the video laryngoscope (5.1/6), with the type of device in decreasing order as follows: Glidescope, C-MAC, Airtraq, McGrath and King Vision. The most frequently used device for intubation was the video laryngoscope (70,5%), using them in descending order as follow: the Airtraq, C-MAC, Glidescope, McGrath and King Vision.Discomfort of intubating wearing personal protective equipment and the frequency of breaching a security step was statistically significant, increasing the risk of cross infection between patients and physicians. The opinion of senior doctors differed from younger physicians in the type of video-laryngoscope used, the number of experts involved in tracheal intubation and the reason that caused more stress during the airway management. CONCLUSIONS: Most physicians preferred using a video-laryngoscope with remote monitor and disposable Macintosh blade, using the Frova guide.

4.
J Healthc Qual ; 43(5): 275-283, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented numbers of patients with acute respiratory distress to medical centers. Hospital systems require rapid adaptation to respond to the increased demand for airway management while ensuring high quality patient care and provider safety. There is limited literature detailing successful system-level approaches to adapt to the surge of COVID-19 patients requiring airway management. METHODS: A deliberate system-level approach was used to expand a preexisting airway response service. Through a needs analysis (taking into account both existing resources and anticipated demands), we established priorities and solutions for the airway management challenges encountered during the pandemic. RESULTS: During our COVID-19 surge (March 10, 2020, through May 26, 2020), there were 619 airway consults, and the COVID airway response team (CART) performed 341 intubations. Despite a 4-fold increase in intubations during the surge, there was no increase in cardiac arrests or surgical airways and no documented COVID-19 infections among the CART. CONCLUSIONS: Our system-level approach successfully met the sudden escalation in demand in airway management incurred by the COVID-19 surge. The approach that addressed staffing needs prioritized provider protection and enhanced quality and safety monitoring may be adaptable to other institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
5.
Anesth Analg ; 133(4): 876-890, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412364

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), often results in severe hypoxemia requiring airway management. Because SARS-CoV-2 virus is spread via respiratory droplets, bag-mask ventilation, intubation, and extubation may place health care workers (HCW) at risk. While existing recommendations address airway management in patients with COVID-19, no guidance exists specifically for difficult airway management. Some strategies normally recommended for difficult airway management may not be ideal in the setting of COVID-19 infection. To address this issue, the Society for Airway Management (SAM) created a task force to review existing literature and current practice guidelines for difficult airway management by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. The SAM task force created recommendations for the management of known or suspected difficult airway in the setting of known or suspected COVID-19 infection. The goal of the task force was to optimize successful airway management while minimizing exposure risk. Each member conducted a literature review on specific clinical practice section utilizing standard search engines (PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar). Existing recommendations and evidence for difficult airway management in the COVID-19 context were developed. Each specific recommendation was discussed among task force members and modified until unanimously approved by all task force members. Elements of Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Reporting Checklist for dissemination of clinical practice guidelines were utilized to develop this statement. Airway management in the COVID-19 patient increases HCW exposure risk. Difficult airway management often takes longer and may involve multiple procedures with aerosolization potential, and strict adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) protocols is mandatory to reduce risk to providers. When a patient's airway risk assessment suggests that awake tracheal intubation is an appropriate choice of technique, and procedures that may cause increased aerosolization of secretions should be avoided. Optimal preoxygenation before induction with a tight seal facemask may be performed to reduce the risk of hypoxemia. Unless the patient is experiencing oxygen desaturation, positive pressure bag-mask ventilation after induction may be avoided to reduce aerosolization. For optimal intubating conditions, patients should be anesthetized with full muscle relaxation. Videolaryngoscopy is recommended as a first-line strategy for airway management. If emergent invasive airway access is indicated, then we recommend a surgical technique such as scalpel-bougie-tube, rather than an aerosolizing generating procedure, such as transtracheal jet ventilation. This statement represents recommendations by the SAM task force for the difficult airway management of adults with COVID-19 with the goal to optimize successful airway management while minimizing the risk of clinician exposure.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Adult , Advisory Committees/standards , Airway Extubation/methods , Airway Extubation/standards , Airway Management/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards
7.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 28, 2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Routine preoperative methods to assess airway such as the interincisor distance (IID), Mallampati classification, and upper lip bite test (ULBT) have a certain risk of upper respiratory tract exposure and virus spread. Condyle-tragus maximal distance(C-TMD) can be used to assess the airway, and does not require the patient to expose the upper respiratory tract, but its value in predicting difficult laryngoscopy compared to other indicators (Mallampati classification, IID, and ULBT) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe the value of C-TMD to predict difficult laryngoscopy and the influence on intubation time and intubation attempts, and provide a new idea for preoperative airway assessment during epidemic. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing general anesthesia and tracheal intubation were enrolled. IID, Mallampati classification, ULBT, and C-TMD of each patient were evaluated before the initiation of anesthesia. The primary outcome was intubation time. The secondary outcomes were difficult laryngoscopy defined as the Cormack-Lehane Level > grade 2 and the number of intubation attempts. RESULTS: Three hundred four patients were successfully enrolled and completed the study, 39 patients were identified as difficult laryngoscopy. The intubation time was shorter with the C-TMD>1 finger group 46.8 ± 7.3 s, compared with the C-TMD<1 finger group 50.8 ± 8.6 s (p<0.01). First attempt success rate was higher in the C-TMD>1 finger group 98.9% than in the C-TMD<1 finger group 87.1% (P<0.01). The correlation between the C-TMD and Cormack-Lehane Level was 0.317 (Spearman correlation coefficient, P<0.001), and the area under the ROC curve was 0.699 (P<0.01). The C-TMD < 1 finger width was the most consistent with difficult laryngoscopy (κ = 0.485;95%CI:0.286-0.612) and its OR value was 10.09 (95%CI: 4.19-24.28), sensitivity was 0.469 (95%CI: 0.325-0.617), specificity was 0.929 (95%CI: 0.877-0.964), positive predictive value was 0.676 (95%CI: 0.484-0.745), negative predictive value was 0.847 (95%CI: 0.825-0.865). CONCLUSION: Compared with the IID, Mallampati classification and ULBT, C-TMD has higher value in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and does not require the exposure of upper respiratory tract. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on October 21, 2019 in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1900026775 ).


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Predictive Value of Tests , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284661

ABSTRACT

Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the CDC recommended collection of a lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimen for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing in addition to the routinely recommended upper respiratory tract (URT) testing in mechanically ventilated patients. Significant operational challenges were noted at our institution using this approach. In this report, we describe our experience with routine collection of paired URT and LRT sample testing. Our results revealed a high concordance between the 2 sources, and that all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 were appropriately diagnosed with URT testing alone. There was no added benefit to LRT testing. Based on these findings, our institutional approach was therefore adjusted to sample the URT alone for most patients, with LRT sampling reserved for patients with ongoing clinical suspicion for SARS-CoV-2 after a negative URT test.

11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 654, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253994

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection of human airway epithelium activates genetic programs leading to progressive hyperinflammation in COVID-19 patients. Here, we report on transcriptomes activated in primary airway cells by interferons and their suppression by Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. Deciphering the regulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is paramount for understanding the cell tropism of SARS-CoV-2 infection. ChIP-seq for activating histone marks and Pol II loading identified candidate enhancer elements controlling the ACE2 locus, including the intronic dACE2 promoter. Employing RNA-seq, we demonstrate that interferons activate expression of dACE2 and, to a lesser extent, the genuine ACE2 gene. Interferon-induced gene expression was mitigated by the JAK inhibitors baricitinib and ruxolitinib, used therapeutically in COVID-19 patients. Through integrating RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data we provide an in-depth understanding of genetic programs activated by interferons, and our study highlights JAK inhibitors as suitable tools to suppress these in bronchial cells.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferons/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Transcriptional Activation/drug effects , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome/drug effects
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10627, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238013

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant number of healthcare workers have been infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, there remains little knowledge regarding large droplet dissemination during airway management procedures in real life settings. 12 different airway management procedures were investigated during routine clinical care. A high-speed video camera (1000 frames/second) was for imaging. Quantitative droplet characteristics as size, distance traveled, and velocity were computed. Droplets were detected in 8/12 procedures. The droplet trajectories could be divided into two distinctive patterns (type 1/2). Type 1 represented a ballistic trajectory with higher speed large droplets whereas type 2 represented a random trajectory of slower particles that persisted longer in air. The use of tracheal cannula filters reduced the amount of droplets. Respiratory droplet patterns generated during airway management procedures follow two distinctive trajectories based on the influence of aerodynamic forces. Speaking and coughing produce more droplets than non-invasive ventilation therapy confirming these behaviors as exposure risks. Even large droplets may exhibit patterns resembling the fluid dynamics smaller airborne aerosols that follow the airflow convectively and may place the healthcare provider at risk.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cough , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory System
13.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(9): 1358-1367, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222799

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Novel devices such as the barrier enclosure were developed in hopes of improving provider safety by limiting SARS-CoV-2 transmission during tracheal intubation. Nevertheless, concerns arose regarding a lack of rigorous efficacy and safety data for these devices. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of the barrier enclosure on time to tracheal intubation. METHOD: After Research Ethics Board approval, elective surgical patients with normal airway predictors were randomly allocated 1:1 to tracheal intubation with or without a barrier enclosure. The primary outcome was time to tracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included first-pass success rate, total time of airway manipulation, anesthesiologists' perception of intubation difficulty, likelihood of use in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, and patients' perception of comfort and acceptability. RESULTS: There were 48 participants in the barrier enclosure group and 46 participants in the control group. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) time to tracheal intubation was 62 (29) sec with barrier closure and 53 (27) sec without barrier enclosure (mean difference, 9 sec; 95% confidence interval, - 3 to 20; P = 0.14). Anesthesiologists rated the difficulty of intubation higher with barrier enclosure (mean [SD] visual analogue scale score, 27 [26] mm vs 9 [17] mm; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: In healthy surgical patients with normal airway predictors, the use of a barrier enclosure during tracheal intubation did not significantly prolong time to intubation or decrease first-pass intubation success. Nevertheless, there was an increase in difficulty of intubation perceived by the anesthesiologists with use of a barrier enclosure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04366141); registered 28 April 2020.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: De nouveaux dispositifs tels que des boîtes de protection ont été mis au point dans l'espoir d'améliorer la sécurité des fournisseurs de soins en limitant la transmission du SRAS-CoV-2 pendant l'intubation endotrachéale. Néanmoins, des inquiétudes ont été soulevées au sujet d'un manque de données rigoureuses sur l'efficacité et l'innocuité de ces dispositifs. Nous avons réalisé une étude randomisée contrôlée afin d'évaluer l'impact d'une boîte de protection sur le temps de l'intubation endotrachéale. MéTHODE: Après avoir reçu l'approbation du Comité d'éthique de la recherche, des patients de chirurgie élective présentant des prédicteurs des voies aériennes normales ont été aléatoirement répartis à un ratio de 1:1 pour une intubation endotrachéale avec ou sans boîte de protection. Le critère d'évaluation principal était le temps nécessaire à l'intubation endotrachéale. Les critères d'évaluation secondaires comprenaient le taux de réussite à la première tentative, le temps total de manipulation des voies aériennes, la perception par les anesthésiologistes de la difficulté d'intubation, la probabilité d'utilisation chez les patients atteints du SRAS-CoV-2, et la perception de confort et d'acceptabilité des patients. RéSULTATS: Il y avait 48 participants dans le groupe avec boîte et 46 participants dans le groupe témoin. Le temps moyen (écart type [ÉT]) pour l'intubation endotrachéale était de 62 (29) sec avec la boîte et de 53 (27) sec sans la boîte (différence moyenne, 9 sec; intervalle de confiance de 95 %, − 3 à 20; P = 0,14). Les anesthésiologistes ont estimé que la difficulté d'intubation était plus élevée avec une boîte de protection (score moyen sur l'échelle visuelle analogique [ÉT], 27 [26] mm vs 9 [17] mm; P < 0,001). Il n'y avait pas de différences pour les autres critères d'évaluation secondaires. CONCLUSION: Chez les patients chirurgicaux en bonne santé avec des prédicteurs de voies aériennes normales, l'utilisation d'une boîte de protection pendant l'intubation endotrachéale n'a pas prolongé de manière significative le temps d'intubation ni réduit le taux de réussite de l'intubation à la première tentative. Néanmoins, il y avait une augmentation de la difficulté d'intubation perçue par les anesthésiologistes avec l'utilisation d'une boîte de protection. ENREGISTREMENT DE L'éTUDE: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04366141); enregistrée le 28 avril 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anesthesiologists , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(4): 562-566, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the necessity, safety and feasibility of painless fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 33 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who received painless fiberoptic bronchoscopy in Wuhan First Hospital. The general demographic and clinical data of the patients including age, gender, and ASA classification were collected. The patients received intravenous anesthesia with topical airway anesthesia with lidocaine. The changes in the vital signs of the patients were recorded before, during and after the procedure. The cough intensity of the patients during bronchoscopy were evaluated, and the adverse reactions within 24 h after the procedure were observed. The health status of the medical staff carrying out the procedure was also monitored. OBJECTIVE: The 33 patients with ASA class Ⅱ to Ⅳ included 19 male and 14 female patients with an average age of 63.58±11.85 years. The lowest SpO2 of the patients during bronchoscopy was (94.8±4.3)%, which was significantly lower than that before the procedure [(99.1±1.3)%, P < 0.05] but was restored to more than 95% after such treatment as holding the jaw to open the airway or face mask positive-pressure ventilation. Bronchoscopy was completed successfully in all the patients, and 28 patients (84.85%) had mild cough during the procedure. None of the patients had obvious complications related to anesthesia. While performing the procedure, all the medical staff used third-level protection and facial protection with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR), and the patients' face were covered with single-use sterile medical plastic curtains that were originally intended for collecting flushing fluid during arthroscopic procedures. No medical personnel was diagnosed with COVID-19 at the end of the study. OBJECTIVE: For patients with COVID-19, painless techniques can be valuable during bronchoscopy, and this procedure can be safe and feasible under third-level protection.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , COVID-19 , Aged , Bronchi , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 211, 2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has become a health problem spreading worldwide with pandemic characteristics since March 2020. Post coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms are more frequent than initially expected, with fatigue as an often-mentioned issue. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We describe a 32-year-old white male and a 55-year-old white female who suffered from post coronavirus disease 2019 fatigue syndrome. On polysomnography, rapid eye movement associated sleep apnea with an increased hypopnea index during rapid eye movement phases of 36.8 and 19.5 events per hour was found. Based on the patients' burdensome fatigue symptoms, we initiated automatic positive airway pressure therapy, which diminished sleep apnea (rapid eye movement index: 0.0 in both patients) and, consequently, also the fatigue symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Since sleep apnea and coronavirus disease 2019 are both associated with fatigue, a screening for sleep apnea might be considered in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with fatigue syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/virology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep, REM
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3652-3658, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The management of laryngotracheal stenosis is challenging, as patients usually require in-time interventions. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has added unique challenges to this procedure. The presence of the virus in high concentrations in the aerodigestive tract and the need for an open airway during surgery can increase the risk of aerosolization of the virus and subsequent infection of the surgical, anesthetic, and operating room (OR) personnel. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who underwent airway interventions between March and October 2020. INTERVENTIONS: A protocolized strategy was initiated during the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate the consistent management of all patients undergoing airway interventions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During a seven-month period, 34 patients were managed with this policy. All threatened airways were managed successfully and no healthcare workers dealing with such procedures were infected. Priorities during the current novel coronavirus pandemic are ensuring the safety of healthcare professionals and offering urgent bronchoscopic and surgical airway interventions for patients with progressive symptoms and threatened airways. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical and bronchoscopic management of laryngotracheal stenosis presents a unique challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring careful consideration of patient triage and the development of protocols that minimize risk to patients and healthcare professionals. Close collaboration between thoracic surgeons and anesthesiology teams is essential to safely navigate and handle these threatened airways while mitigating the risk of viral aerosolization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Perioper Care Oper Room Manag ; 23: 100168, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) airway response teams concentrate equipment and expertise while minimizing the number of providers exposed to aerosol generating procedures. These airway teams were implemented in various hospitals around the world to respond to the acute increase of critical ill patients requiring ventilatory support. We created a financial model to estimate the costs for staffing and maintaining a dedicated COVID-19 airway response team based on the experience at an urban academic hospital in the Northeastern United States between March and June of 2020. METHODS: The institutional review board at Brigham and Women's Hospital approved this protocol and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The average reimbursement for 125 COVID-19 airway consultations was measured. Our team estimated the costs of consumable items for each airway based on previously published recommendations for equipment and personal protective equipment. A sensitivity analyses was performed for variable numbers of monthly airway consults and different staffing patterns based on a literature review of available COVID-19 airway team structures. RESULTS: Based on the average reimbursements and estimates of the consumable costs, each airway procedure represented a net loss of $34 to the institution. The overall estimated cost of staffing a dedicated airway team was between $109,472 and $204,575 per month. CONCLUSIONS: Development and implementation of a dedicated COVID-19 airway response teams represents a significant institutional expense. Institutions should establish necessary cost sharing, consider volume and team structure, and identify reimbursement opportunities that mitigate the necessary expense associated with airway response programs.

18.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 246-253, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe updates to pragmatic recommendations that were published during the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge, including the current thinking about whether pregnancy worsens the severity of COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Although a majority of pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic, pregnancy puts women at higher risk of severe COVID-19 and adverse birth outcomes. Pregnant and recently pregnant women are more likely to be admitted to intensive care units and receive mechanical ventilation than nonpregnant patients with COVID-19, although preexisting maternal comorbidities are significant risk factors.Early provision of neuraxial labor analgesia with a functional indwelling epidural catheter has been universally promoted, with the goal to reduce avoidable general anesthesia for cesarean delivery and mitigate risks for healthcare workers during airway manipulation. This recommendation, along with updated workflow models of anesthesia coverage, may contribute to a reduction in general anesthesia rates. SUMMARY: Initial recommendations to provide early neuraxial labor analgesia and avoid general anesthesia for cesarean delivery have not changed over time. Although workflows have significantly changed to allow continued patient and healthcare workers' safety, clinical anesthesia protocols for labor and delivery are essentially the same.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Anesthesiologists , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(3): 1517-1530, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic evolves, the need for recognizing the structural pulmonary changes of the disease during early convalescence has emerged. Most studies focus on parenchymal destruction of the disease; but little is known about whether the disease affects the airway. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in airway dimensions and explore the associated factors during early convalescence in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed quantitative computed tomography (CT)-based airway measures of 69 patients with COVID-19 from 5 February to 17 March 2020, and 32 non-COVID-19 participants from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 from Guangzhou, China. The well-established measures of wall area fraction and the square root of the wall area of a hypothetical bronchus with an inner perimeter of 10 mm, were used to describe airway wall dimensions. We described the characteristics of the dimensions and inner area of airways in 66 patients with COVID-19 at the initial and convalescent stages of the disease, and compared them with the non-COVID-19 group. Linear regression models were constructed to investigate the association of airway dimensions with duration of hospitalization or disease severity after recovery. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated to investigate whether inflammatory markers were related to airway dimensions. RESULTS: Among 66 patients with COVID-19, airway dimensions were greater during disease initiation than early convalescence, which was significantly greater than in non-COVID-19 participants. No significant difference was found between the patients with COVID-19 at the initial stage and the non-COVID-19 controls regarding the first to eighth generations of the inner area. In adjusted regression models, duration of hospitalization was negatively associated with wall area fraction of the first to the sixth generation of airways. No significant associations exist between airway dimensions and disease severity, or airway dimensions with inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Airway dimensions in patients with COVID-19 during disease initiation are greater than those in non-COVID-19 participants. Such structural airway changes continue to remain significantly greater during early convalescence. No evidence shows that disease severity or inflammatory markers are associated with airway dimensions, implying that the primary lesion attacked by COVID-19 might not be the airways.

20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2057-2066, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) are common during newborn resuscitation. Neonates with respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may pose a risk to healthcare workers. International guidelines differ on methods to minimize the risk due to limited data. OBJECTIVE: We examined the expiratory airflow dispersion during common neonatal resuscitation AGMPs using infant simulators. METHODS: Expiratory airflow dispersion in term and preterm manikins was simulated (n = 288) using fine particle smoke at tidal volumes of 5 ml/kg. Using ImageJ, we quantified dispersion during common airway procedures including endotracheal tube (ETT) and T-piece ventilation. RESULTS: Maximal expiratory dispersion distances for the unsupported airway and disconnected uncuffed ETT scenarios were 30.2 and 22.7 cm (term); 22.1 and 17.2 cm (preterm), respectively. Applying T-piece positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) via an ETT (ETTPEEP ) generated no expiratory dispersion but increased tube leak during term simulation, while ventilation breaths (ETTVENT ) caused significant expiratory dispersion and leak. There was no measurable dispersion during face mask ventilation. For term uncuffed ETT ventilation, the particle filter eliminated expiratory dispersion but increased leak. No expiratory dispersion and negligible leak were observed when combining a cuffed ETT and filter. Angulated T-pieces generated the greatest median dispersion distances of 35.8 cm (ETTPEEP ) and 23.3 cm (ETTVENT ). CONCLUSIONS: Airflow dispersion during neonatal AGMPs is greater than previously postulated and potentially could contaminate healthcare providers during resuscitation of infants infected with contagious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. It is possible to mitigate this risk using particle filters and cuffed ETTs. Applicability in the clinical setting requires further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Exhalation , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Resuscitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Computer Simulation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intubation, Intratracheal , Manikins , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Pressure , Tidal Volume
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