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1.
Nurse Educ Today ; 104: 104985, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that increased learning satisfaction may encourage learning engagement in an online learning environment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the level of learning engagement and its relationship with students' perceived learning satisfaction in an online clinical nursing elective course. DESIGN: A prospective interventional study. SETTINGS: A nursing course was converted to an online format because of the coronavirus disease COVID pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Part-time post-registration nursing undergraduates enrolled in an elective online clinical course. METHODS: Related teaching and learning strategies were deployed in the course using the Community of Inquiry framework. All students who completed the course were invited to complete an online survey that included a validated Online Student Engagement questionnaire (OSE). Pearson's correlations were used to determine the association between perceived learning satisfaction and learning engagement. A logistic regression model was used to explore the associations of gender, age, working experience and perceived learning satisfaction with higher learning engagement. RESULTS: The questionnaires were completed by 56 of 68 students (82%). The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the mean perceived learning satisfaction and OSE scores was 0.75 (p < .001). Twenty-five students (45%) were identified as highly engaged, using a cut-off of ≥3.5 for the mean OSE score. The mean perceived learning satisfaction (SD) score differed significantly between highly engaged and not highly engaged students [4.02 (0.49) vs. 3.27 (0.62), p < .001]. The logistic regression model showed that a greater perceived learning satisfaction [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 17.2, 95% C.I.: 3.46-86.0, p = .001] was associated with an increased likelihood of higher learning engagement, and >1 year of working experience (adjusted OR: 0.11, 95% C.I.: 0.01-0.89, p = .0039) was associated with a decreased likelihood of higher learning engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that perceived learning satisfaction predicts learning engagement among nursing students in this online learning course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Nursing , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 343, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there are no approved treatments for early disease stages of COVID-19 and few strategies to prevent disease progression after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate administered within 72 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult individuals with pre-existing risk factors at higher risk of getting seriously ill with COVID-19. Camostat mesylate acts as an inhibitor of the host cell serine protease TMPRSS2 and prevents the virus from entering the cell. CP represents another antiviral strategy in terms of passive immunization. The working hypothesis to be tested in the RES-Q-HR study is that the early use of CP or camostat mesylate reduces the likelihood of disease progression to (modified) WHO stages 4b-8 in SARS-CoV-2-positive adult patients at high risk of moderate or severe COVID-19 progression. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a 4-arm (parallel group), multicenter, randomized (2:2:1:1 ratio), partly double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate with control or placebo in adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and high risk for progression to moderate/severe COVID-19. Superiority of the intervention arms will be tested. PARTICIPANTS: The trial is conducted at 10-15 tertiary care centers in Germany. Individuals aged 18 years or above with ability to provide written informed consent with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by PCR within 3 days or less before enrolment and the presence of at least one SARS-CoV-2 symptom (such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, headache, fatigue, smell/and or taste disorder, diarrhea, abdominal symptoms, exanthema) and symptom duration of not more than 3 days. Further inclusion criteria comprise: Presence of at least one of the following criteria indicating increased risk for severe COVID-19: Age > 75 years Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or pulmonary fibrosis BMI > 40 kg/m2 Age > 65 years with at least one other risk factor (BMI > 35 kg/m2, coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) BMI > 35 kg/m2 with at least one other risk factor (CAD, CKD with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) Exclusion criteria: 1. Age < 18 years 2. Unable to give informed consent 3. Pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers 4. Previous transfusion reaction or other contraindication to a plasma transfusion 5. Known hypersensitivity to camostat mesylate and/or severe pancreatitis 6. Volume stress due to CP administration would be intolerable 7. Known IgA deficiency 8. Life expectancy < 6 months 9. Duration SARS-CoV-2 typical symptoms > 3 days 10. SARS-CoV-2 PCR detection older than 3 days 11. SARS-CoV-2 associated clinical condition ≥ WHO stage 3 (patients hospitalized for other reasons than COVID-19 may be included if they fulfill all inclusion and none of the exclusion criteria) 12. Previously or currently hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 13. Previous antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 14. ALT or AST > 5 x ULN at screening 15. Liver cirrhosis > Child A (patients with Child B/C cirrhosis are excluded from the trial) 16. Chronic kidney disease with GFR < 30 ml/min 17. Concurrent or planned anticancer treatment during trial period 18. Accommodation in an institution due to legal orders (§40(4) AMG). 19. Any psycho-social condition hampering compliance with the study protocol. 20. Evidence of current drug or alcohol abuse 21. Use of other investigational treatment within 5 half-lives of enrolment is prohibited 22. Previous use of convalescent plasma for COVID-19 23. Concomitant proven influenza A infection 24. Patients with organ or bone marrow transplant in the three months prior to screening visit INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomized to the following 4 groups: 1) Convalescent plasma (CP), 2 units at screening/baseline visit (day 0) or day 1; CP is defined by the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with titers ≥ 1:160; individuals with body weight ≥ 150 kg will receive a third unit of plasma on day 3 2) Camostat mesylate (200 mg per capsule, one capsule taken each in the morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7) 3) Standard of care (SOC, control for CP) 4) Placebo (identical in appearance to camostat mesylate capsules, one capsule taken each morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7; for camostat mesylate control group) Participants will be monitored after screening/baseline on day 3, day 5, day 8, and day 14. On day 28 and day 56, telephone visits and on day 90, another outpatient visit are scheduled. Adverse events and serious adverse events will be monitored and reported until the end of the study. An independent data safety monitoring committee will review trial progression and safety. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of the study is the cumulative number of individuals who progress to or beyond category 4b on the modified WHO COVID-19 ordinal scale (defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and additional oxygen demand via nasal cannula or mask) within 28 days after randomization. RANDOMIZATION: Participants will be randomized using the Alea-Tool ( aleaclinical.com ) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to the treatment arms (1) CP, (2) camostat mesylate, (3) standard of care (SoC), and (4) placebo matching camostat mesylate. Randomization will be stratified by study center. BLINDING (MASKING): The camostat mesylate treatment arm and the respective placebo will be blinded for participants, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes. The treatment arms convalescent plasma and standard of care will not be blinded and thus are open-labeled, unblinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Overall, n = 994 participants will be randomized to the following groups: n = 331 to convalescent plasma (CP), n = 331 to camostat mesylate, n = 166 to standard of care (SoC), and n = 166 to placebo matching camostat mesylate. TRIAL STATUS: The RES-Q-HR protocol (V04F) was approved on the 18 December 2020 by the local ethics committee and by the regulatory institutions PEI/BfARM on the 2 December 2020. The trial was opened for recruitment on 26 December 2020; the first patient was enrolled on 7 January 2021 and randomized on 8 January 2021. Recruitment shall be completed by June 2021. The current protocol version RES-Q HR V05F is from 4 January 2021, which was approved on the 18 January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number 2020-004695-18 . Registered on September 29, 2020. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04681430 . Registered on December 23, 2020, prior to the start of the enrollment (which was opened on December 26, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (V05F) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Esters , Female , Germany , Guanidines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesylates , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(8): 835-842, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231014

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated telehealth to deliver psychiatric services. Continuation of psychiatric services for individuals with high clinical acuity was critical. This study examined attendance to rapidly deployed telehealth services for psychiatrically high-risk individuals receiving intensive outpatient program (IOP), primarily group-based psychotherapy services for adults and adolescents by race/ethnicity, insurance, and clinical treatment program within a large hospital-based outpatient psychiatric setting. Methods: Chi-square tests compared whether attendance rates for telehealth versus in-person IOP services varied by population group, race, insurance, and clinical program, using observational data of adolescent and adult patients treated between October 1, 2019, and July 31, 2020. Results: Appointment attendance increased for telehealth versus in-person services for adolescents (χ2 (df = 1) = 27.49, p < 0.0001) and adults (χ2 (df = 1) = 434.37, p < 0.0001). For adults, increased appointment attendance for telehealth was observed across insurance type (Medicaid: +11.5%; Medicare: +13.79%; Commercial: +6.94%), race/ethnicity (+6.23% to +15.76% across groups), and for IOP groups across all five diagnostic treatment programs (between 7.59% and 15.9% increases across groups). Adolescent results were mixed; increased appointment attendance for telehealth was observed among commercially insured youth (+7.11%), but no differences were observed for Medicaid-insured youth. Non-Hispanic white youth had increased attendance for telehealth (+8.38%) and no differences were observed for non-Hispanic black youth. Decreases were found in telehealth attendance for Hispanic/Latinx youth (-13.49%). Discussion: Rapidly deployed telehealth increased attendance to intensive services for psychiatrically high-risk individuals, particularly among adults and for adolescents with commercial insurance and non-Hispanic white youth. Trends among racial/ethnic and Medicaid-insured youth warrant further investigation regarding the potential for special challenges or vulnerabilities and advocacy needs. Findings highlight telehealth as an important tool in supporting availability of services for individuals with high levels of psychiatric acuity, particularly for group-based services, during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , Hospitals , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 12301-12307, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220256

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing chronic diseases are more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet the underlying causes of increased risk are of infection remain unclear. Angiotensin-converting- enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell surface receptor that recognizes the coronavirus spike protein has protective effects against inflammation and chronic hyperglycemia in animal models. The roles of ACE2 in severe SARS-CoV-2 infections remains ambiguous due to contradictory findings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between human plasma ACE2 levels in diabetics and the high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. First, the medical records of 245 patients with SARS-CoV-2-positive who have chronic diseases were analyzed. We also recruited 404 elderly subjects with comorbid chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension and obesity, and investigated the ACE2 plasma levels. Plasma concentrations of ACE2 were much lower (2973.83±2196.79 pg/mL) in diabetics with chronic disease than in healthy controls (4308.21±2352.42 pg/ml), and the use of hypoglycemia drugs was associated with lower circulating concentrations of ACE2 (P=1.49E-08). Diabetics with lower plasma levels of ACE2 may be susceptible to severe COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the poor prognosis in patients with diabetes infected with SARS-CoV-2 may be due to low circulating ACE2 levels.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , COVID-19/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201386

ABSTRACT

We describe the results of two vaccinations of a self-experimenting healthy volunteer with SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides performed in March and April 2020, respectively. The first set of peptides contained eight peptides predicted to bind to the individual's HLA molecules. The second set consisted of ten peptides predicted to bind promiscuously to several HLA-DR allotypes. The vaccine formulation contained the new TLR 1/2 agonist XS15 and was administered as an emulsion in Montanide as a single subcutaneous injection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from blood drawn before and after vaccinations were assessed using Interferon-γ ELISpot assays and intracellular cytokine staining. We detected vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses against six out of 11 peptides predicted to bind to HLA-DR after 19 days, following vaccination, for one peptide already at day 12. We used these results to support the design of a T-cell-inducing vaccine for application in high-risk patients, with weakened lymphocyte performance. Meanwhile, an according vaccine, incorporating T cell epitopes predominant in convalescents, is undergoing clinical trial testing.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216468, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196363

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir for the treatment of high-risk outpatients with COVID-19 in developing countries are needed. Objective: To determine whether hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir reduces hospitalization among high-risk patients with early symptomatic COVID-19 in an outpatient setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Brazil. Recently symptomatic adults diagnosed with respiratory symptoms from SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled between June 2 and September 30, 2020. The planned sample size was 1476 patients, with interim analyses planned after 500 patients were enrolled. The trial was stopped after the interim analysis for futility with a sample size of 685 patients. Statistical analysis was performed in December 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to hydroxychloroquine (800 mg loading dose, then 400 mg daily for 9 days), lopinavir-ritonavir (loading dose of 800 mg and 200 mg, respectively, every 12 hours followed by 400 mg and 100 mg, respectively, every 12 hours for the next 9 days), or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death assessed at 90 days after randomization. COVID-19-associated hospitalization was analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards model. The trial included the following secondary outcomes: all-cause hospitalization, viral clearance, symptom resolution, and adverse events. Results: Of 685 participants, 632 (92.3%) self-identified as mixed-race, 377 (55.0%) were women, and the median (range) age was 53 (18-94) years. A total of 214 participants were randomized to hydroxychloroquine; 244, lopinavir-ritonavir; and 227, placebo. At first interim analysis, the data safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrollment of both hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir groups because of futility. The proportion of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 3.7% (8 participants) in the hydroxychloroquine group, 5.7% (14 participants) in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 4.8% (11 participants) in the placebo group. We found no significant differences between interventions for COVID-19-associated hospitalization (hydroxychloroquine: hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.30-1.88]; lopinavir-ritonavir: HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.53-2.56] as well as for the secondary outcome of viral clearance through day 14 (hydroxychloroquine: odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]; lopinavir-ritonavir: OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.94-1.16]). At the end of the trial, there were 3 fatalities recorded, 1 in the placebo group and 2 in the lopinavir-ritonavir intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, neither hydroxychloroquine nor lopinavir-ritonavir showed any significant benefit for decreasing COVID-19-associated hospitalization or other secondary clinical outcomes. This trial suggests that expedient clinical trials can be implemented in low-income settings even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04403100.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Early Medical Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Medical Futility , Middle Aged , Risk Adjustment/methods , Symptom Assessment/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108797, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179400

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the rate of antibiotic resistance and its main risk factors in a population of patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI) during the COVID-19 pandemic, in comparison with the population of 2019. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients with DFI were admitted in a tertiary care center from January 2019 to December 2020. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by microbiological examination of soft tissues' or bone's biopsy. RESULTS: Compared with 2019 group (n = 105), 2020 group (n = 120) had a significantly higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance [2019 vs 2020, 36% vs 63%, P <0.001] and more often was admitted with recent or current antibiotic therapy (18% vs 52%, P <0.001), which was frequently self-administered (5% vs 30%, P = 0.032). The risk of antibiotic resistance was also higher in 2020 group [OR 95% CI, 2.90 (1.68 to 4.99)]. Prior hospitalization, antibiotic self-administration and antibiotic prescription by general practitioners resulted as independent predictors of antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of people with DFI admitted in a tertiary care center during the COVID-19 pandemic the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was higher than 2019. Previous hospitalization, antibiotic self-administration /prescription by general practitioners were related to higher risk of antibiotic resistant infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(2): 99-105, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168171

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region established a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) temporary test centre at the AsiaWorld-Expo from March 2020 to April 2020, which allowed high-risk individuals to undergo early assessment of potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study reviewed the characteristics and outcomes of individuals who attended the centre for COVID-19 testing. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study collected epidemiological and clinical data. The primary outcome was a positive or negative SARS-CoV-2 test result, according to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs collected at the centre. The relationships of clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 positive test results were assessed by multivariable binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1258 attendees included in the analysis, 86 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (positivity rate=6.84%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.57%-8.37%). Of these 86 individuals, 40 (46.5%) were aged 15 to 24 years and 81 (94.2%) had a history of recent travel. Symptoms were reported by 86.0% and 96.3% of individuals with positive and negative test results, respectively. The clinical characteristics most strongly associated with a positive test result were anosmia (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=8.30; 95% CI=1.12-127.09) and fever ORadj=1.32; 95% CI=1.02-3.28). CONCLUSION: The temporary test centre successfully helped identify individuals with COVID-19 who exhibited mild disease symptoms. Healthcare providers should carefully consider the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 to arrange early testing to reduce community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Quick Diagnosis Units , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Quick Diagnosis Units/methods , Quick Diagnosis Units/organization & administration , Quick Diagnosis Units/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
9.
Psychiatriki ; 32(2): 165-166, 2021 Jul 10.
Article in Greek, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148407

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has led mental health systems to uncertainty regarding safe continuation of clozapine monitoring protocols. Clozapine is without doubt the only antipsychotic available with repeatedly proven efficacy in treatment resistant schizophrenia.1 Replacing clozapine with an alternative antipsychotic in patients stabilized with clozapine can potentially lead to higher risk of relapse or exacerbation of severity of illness.1 Clozapine, as already known, has a number of side effects, some of which can be serious, thus patients receiving clozapine require ongoing scheduled monitoring. Side effects of clozapine include neutropenia or agranulocytosis, myocarditis, fever, hypersalivation, weight gain and constipation. These side effects can be detected and treated when recognized on time decreasing the possibility of serious consequences making the implementation of an ongoing treatment monitoring protocol for patients on clozapine mandatory.2 Since it was advised for all mental health providers in most countries worldwide to limit non-urgent hospital visits and procedures to reduce the risk of contamination a challenge arose for patients' ability to access health care facilities for their routine clozapine monitoring. Nevertheless, the majority of Mental Health Care Authorities decided to ensure access for all patients on clozapine to their routine monitoring protocol.3,4 To date, no data exist on any potential relationship between antipsychotic use and the risk of contamination with SARS-CoV-2 or the development of severe symptoms of the infection. The literature suggests that patients receiving antipsychotics, especially clozapine, have an increased risk of developing pneumonia, leading to the assumption that patients receiving clozapine are at higher risk to develop COVID-19. 1 Balancing the importance of monitoring continuation against the increased risk for COVID-19, an International Consensus Statement was recently published addressing a monitoring protocol with reduced visits. The Consensus suggested reduced hematologic monitoring frequency of every 3 months with a prescription of 90 days clozapine supply (if safe). The above applies to patients receiving clozapine for at least one year without neutropenia. Τhe risk of neutropenia after 12 months of clozapine treatment falls significantly.4 Based on the above it is suggested to all clozapine clinics to implement a guidance monitoring protocol for all patients on clozapine to ensure safety during the pandemic. Besides hematological monitoring that requires physical contact with healthcare workers it is significant to implement a telemedicine appointment in frequent intervals to monitor symptoms of infection, symptoms of cardiovascular diseases and constipation. Patient should also be advised to regularly monitor one's blood pressure and pulses and ideally be educated on how by a member of the staff. If a patient is detected with any symptoms related to the above an emergency appointment for evaluation should be planned. Overall, since both the consequences and the duration of the pandemic are unknown, mental health services must work jointly to implement a clozapine monitoring plan to ensure safe continuation in such a vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clozapine , Drug Monitoring , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Mental Health Services , Risk Management/trends , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clozapine/administration & dosage , Clozapine/adverse effects , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Monitoring/standards , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Mental Health Services/standards , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
10.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(1): 44-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135914

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies on inflammation and cardiovascular involvement, the exact mechanism of cardiac injury among patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains uncertain. It was demonstrated that there is a high and significantly positive linear correlation between troponin T and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, biomarkers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation, respectively. Cardiac injury and inflammation is a relatively common association among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is related to higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In our literature search, we identified several potential mechanisms of myocardial tissue damage, namely, coronavirus-associated acute myocarditis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding affinity to the virus Spike protein, increased cytokine secretion, and hypoxia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Elucidation of the disease pathogenesis and prospective histopathological studies are crucial for future proper treatment in case of renewed outbreaks. Of interest is that with hundred of thousands of bodies available for autopsy studies, no prospective investigation has been reported so far. Strong efforts and continued research of the cardiovascular complications and identification of risk factors for poor prognosis in COVID-19 are steadily needed. The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, its monumental economic burden and social impact, the despair of a new pandemic outbreak, and the thread of potential utilization of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as biologic weapons make it a preponderant necessity to better comprehend the therapeutic management of this lethal disease. Emerging as an acute infectious disease, COVID-19 may become a chronic epidemic because of genetic recombination. Therefore, we should be ready for the reemergence of COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocarditis/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4954, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114727

ABSTRACT

The prophylactic vaccines available to protect against infections by HPV are well tolerated and highly immunogenic. People with HIV have a higher risk of developing HPV infection and HPV-associated cancers due to a lower immune response, and due to viral interactions. We performed a systematic review of RCTs to assess HPV vaccines efficacy and safety on HIV-infected people compared to placebo or no intervention in terms of seroconversion, infections, neoplasms, adverse events, CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load. The vaccine-group showed a seroconversion rate close to 100% for each vaccine and a significantly higher level of antibodies against HPV vaccine types, as compared to the placebo group (MD = 4333.3, 95% CI 2701.4; 5965.1 GMT EL.U./ml for HPV type 16 and MD = 1408.8, 95% CI 414.8; 2394.7 GMT EL.U./ml for HPV type 18). There were also no differences in terms of severe adverse events (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.2; 1.6) and no severe adverse events (RR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.9; 1.2) between vaccine and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes, such as CD4 + T-cell count and HIV viral load, did not differ between groups (MD = 14.8, 95% CI - 35.1; 64.6 cells/µl and MD = 0.0, 95% CI - 0.3; 0.3 log10 RNA copies/ml, respectively). Information on the remaining outcomes was scarce and that did not allow us to combine the data. The results support the use of the HPV vaccine in HIV-infected patients and highlight the need of further RCTs assessing the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine on infections and neoplasms.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Patient Safety , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Public Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
12.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 15(1): 664, 2020 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical face masks are integral personal protective equipment against infectious airborne disease and become scarce during epidemic outbreaks such as COVID-19. A novel, sustainably manufactured face mask with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties from oil of Folium Plectranthii amboinicii can be an effective alternative to internationally sold masks. METHODS: This prospective, randomized study assigned subjects (n=67) to either conventional surgical face mask or Lamdong Medical College (LMC) face mask for three hours. Fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FENO) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured before and after mask use. Subjective reporting on respiratory symptoms was also analyzed. Masks were then incubated and analyzed for microorganism growth. RESULTS: Subjects assigned the LMC mask had a lowered FENO (p<0.05) compared to conventional face masks after mask wearing. Subjects with LMC mask use reported higher comfortability (p<0.05), breathability (p<0.05), and lower allergy symptoms (p<0.05). The LMC mask has visually less microorganism growth in the cultured medium, measured by sterile ring radius. CONCLUSIONS: The LMC face mask is a renewably manufactured personal protective tool with antibacterial capacity that can serve as an effective alternative to internationally sold surgical face mask during shortage of mask due to COVID-19.

13.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 53(2): 171-179, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039836

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nurses have an increased risk for acquiring COVID-19 infection. This study assessed levels of risk for exposure to COVID-19 among nurses, and determined those at the greatest risk. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was used to assess risk for exposure to COVID-19 in nurses from five randomly selected governmental hospitals in the United Arab Emirates. Participants completed an online survey (including the World Health Organization survey) to assess their risk for exposure to COVID-19. Descriptive statistics were used to describe classes of risk for exposure, and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with greater risk. FINDINGS: Of the 552 participants, 284 nurses (51.4%) were classified at high risk for COVID-19 exposure as they did not report adherence to infection control and prevention (ICP) guidelines at all times during healthcare interactions and when performing aerosol procedures, or had accidental exposure to biological fluid and respiratory secretions. Compared with adherence to wearing medical masks, gloves, and hand hygiene practices, adherence to wearing face shields or goggles and disposable gowns and decontaminating high-touch surfaces was less frequent. Shifting to work in critical care units, not having adequate critical care experience, and reporting a need for training in ICP practices were factors that contributed to high-risk exposure (p values for Ex (Bs) = 2.60, 2.16, 1.75, ≤ 0.05, consecutively). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable number of nurses were classified at high risk for COVID-19 exposure. Critical care work experience and adequate evidence-based training in ICP practices related to COVID-19 must be considered to mitigate the risk for exposure to COVID-19 in nurses. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study provided a strong message regarding protecting nurses at high risk for exposure to COVID-19. Clinical leaders must stay vigilant to ensure nurses' adherence to ICP practices in the context of COVID-19, and to proactively address any related deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 33, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which patients with End-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk of COVID-19-related death is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the ESRD patients at increased risk of COVID-19 -related death and its associated factors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 74 patients with ESRD and 446 patients without ESRD hospitalized for COVID-19 in Alborz province, Iran, from Feb 20 2020 to Apr 26 2020. Data on demographic factors, medical history, Covid-19- related symptoms, and blood tests were obtained from the medical records of patients with confirmed COVID-19. We fitted univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to assess the association of underlying condition ESRD with the COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Results were presented as crude and adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the ESRD subgroup, demographic factors, medical history, symptoms, and blood parameters on the admission of survivors were compared with non-survivors to identify factors that might predict a high risk of mortality. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients with ESRD had in-hospital mortality of 37.8% compared to 11.9% for those without ESRD (P value < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, age, sex, and comorbidities, ESRD patients were more likely to experience in-hospital mortality compared to non-ESRD patients (Adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.59 (1.55-4.32)). The Log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between the ESRD and non-ESRD groups in terms of the survival distribution (χ2 (1) = 21.18, P-value < 0.001). In the ESRD subgroup, compared to survivors, non-survivors were older, and more likely to present with lack of consciousness or O2 saturation less than 93%; they also had lower lymphocyte but higher neutrophil counts and AST concentration at the presentation (all p -values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that the presence of ESRD would be regarded as an important risk factor for mortality in COVID-19 patients, especially in those who are older than age 65 years and presented with a lack of consciousness or O2 saturation less than 93%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Confidence Intervals , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Luteolysis , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
15.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-14, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977334

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), characterised by fluid imbalance and overload, is prevalent in severe disease phenotypes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The elderly immunocompromised patients with pre-existing comorbidities being more risk-prone to severe COVID-19, the importance of early diagnosis and intervention in AKI is imperative. Histopathological examination of COVID-19 patients with AKI reveals viral invasion of the renal parenchyma and evidence of AKI. The definitive treatment for AKI includes renal replacement therapy and renal transplant. Immunosuppressant regimens and its interactions with COVID-19 have to be further explored to devise effective treatment strategies in COVID-19 transplant patients. Other supportive strategies for AKI patients include hemodynamic monitoring and maintenance of fluid balance. Antiviral drugs should be meticulously monitored in the management of these high-risk patients. We have focussed on the development of renal injury provoked by the SARS-CoV-2, the varying clinical characteristics, and employment of different management strategies, including renal replacement therapy, alongside the emerging cytokine lowering approaches.

16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 599757, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955282

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus with high infectivity and has caused dramatic pressure on health systems all over the world. Appropriate personal protection for medical staffs is critical. For ocular protection, there is ongoing hot debate and concern for potential ocular transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Ocular manifestations and positive detection of viral RNA in ocular samples were only reported in very small number of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, health care workers need to face patients more closely and have higher risk of aerosol contamination. Thus, appropriate ocular protection for medical workers is still recommended by organizations such as WHO and American Academy of Ophthalmology. Although eye goggles provide excellent protection and are mandatory for medical practitioners with high risk of exposure, they are not ideal for common clinical practice, because they can disturb vision due to extensive formation of water droplets and frequently cause moderate to severe discomfort after longtime wearing, which have been reported to interfere with working status. For the majority of medical workers who don't deal with high risk patients, they are not advised to wear goggles in daily practice. However, they also face the risk of infection due to the presence of asymptomatic carriers. Especially in situations with high risk of ocular exposure, such as close physical examination, eye surgery, dental clinics and surgery, ocular protection may be needed. Griffithsin has been shown to directly bind to spike proteins and has anti-viral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses, including coronavirus. Griffithsin is found to inhibit the entry of SARS-CoV at relatively low concentration and is stable and non-toxic. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share the same entry receptors and their spike proteins are similar in conformation. We hypothesize that contact lenses containing nanoparticles loaded with griffithsin may provide sufficient ocular protection for medical staffs without high risk of exposure during the outbreak period of SARS-CoV-2. If proven effective, griffithsin-loaded contact lens can be considered as a supplementary ocular protective equipment for medical workers who can tolerate well. The daily disposable contact lens should be applied as needed and refrain from extended wearing in order to reduce potential side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Lenses/standards , Eye Protective Devices , Personal Protective Equipment , Humans , Medical Staff , Pandemics , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(1): 14-25, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922255

ABSTRACT

Infection with respiratory viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and coronavirus provides a difficult immunological challenge for the host, where a balance must be established between controlling viral replication and limiting damage to the delicate lung structure. Although the genetic architecture of host responses to respiratory viral infections is not yet understood, it is clear there is underlying heritability that influences pathogenesis. Immune control of virus replication is essential in respiratory infections, but overt activation can enhance inflammation and disease severity. Cytokines initiate antiviral immune responses but are implicated in viral pathogenesis. Here, we discuss how host genetic variation may influence cytokine responses to respiratory viral infections and, based on our current understanding of the role that cytokines play in viral pathogenesis, how this may influence disease severity. We also discuss how induced pluripotent stem cells may be utilised to probe the mechanistic implications of allelic variation in genes in virus-induced inflammatory responses. Ultimately, this could help to design better immune modulators, stratify high risk patients and tailor anti-inflammatory treatments, potentially expanding the ability to treat respiratory virus outbreaks in the future.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Influenza A virus/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genetic Variation/immunology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Inflammation/pathology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(4): e13439, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation and a higher risk of cardiovascular and infectious disease, that could be prevented by the effects of vitamin D. We aimed at evaluating the impact of vitamin D levels on the biomarkers of acute-phase response, inflammation and glucose metabolism in a large cohort of diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were included. Diabetes mellitus was defined as previous diagnosis, specific treatment administration (oral drug or insulin), fasting glycaemia >6.99 mmol/L or HbA1c >48 mmol/L. Glucose parameters, white blood cells, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (MLR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and vitamin D were measured at admission. Vitamin D levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay kit LIAISON® Vitamin D assay (Diasorin Inc). RESULTS: We included 1472 diabetic patients and 2499 non-diabetic patients that were divided according to vitamin D tertiles. Among diabetic patients, lower levels of vitamin D were associated with female gender (P = .02), obesity (P = .004), active smoking and acute presentation (P < .001) and with a more atherogenic metabolic profile. The levels of white blood cells, leucocytes subfamilies, and inflammatory parameters significantly correlated with vitamin D levels in both patients with and without diabetes (diabetic: P = .012 for WBC, P = .004 for NLR and P < .001 for MLR and C-reactive protein, non-diabetic: P < .001 for WBC; NLR, MLR and C-reactive protein, respectively). Among diabetic patients, results were confirmed at multivariate analysis with no significant interaction according to glycaemic control. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that, among patients with cardiovascular disease, vitamin D deficiency is associated with metabolic dysregulation and with an elevation of cellular and humoural inflammatory parameters, especially among diabetics, although not being dependent from glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
Coronary Angiography , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Vitamin D/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angina, Stable/blood , Angina, Stable/diagnosis , Angina, Stable/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Heart Valve Diseases/blood , Heart Valve Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Valve Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Sex Factors , Smoking/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(1): 28-34, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal approach to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection among college students returning to campus is unknown. Recommendations vary from no testing to two tests per student. This research determined the strategy that optimizes the number of true positives and negatives detected and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests needed. METHODS: A decision tree analysis evaluated five strategies: (1) classifying students with symptoms as having COVID-19, (2) RT-PCR testing for symptomatic students, (3) RT-PCR testing for all students, (4) RT-PCR testing for all students and retesting symptomatic students with a negative first test, and (5) RT-PCR testing for all students and retesting all students with a negative first test. The number of true positives, true negatives, RT-PCR tests, and RT-PCR tests per true positive (TTP) was calculated. RESULTS: Strategy 5 detected the most true positives but also required the most tests. The percentage of correctly identified infections was 40.6%, 29.0%, 53.7%, 72.5%, and 86.9% for Strategies 1-5, respectively. All RT-PCR strategies detected more true negatives than the symptom-only strategy. Analysis of TTP demonstrated that the repeat RT-PCR strategies weakly dominated the single RT-PCR strategy and that the thresholds for more intensive RT-PCR testing decreased as the prevalence of infection increased. CONCLUSION: Based on TTP, the single RT-PCR strategy is never preferred. If the cost of RT-PCR testing is of concern, a staged approach involving initial testing of all returning students followed by a repeat testing decision based on the measured prevalence of infection might be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Trees , Mass Screening , Universities , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States , Universities/organization & administration , Universities/statistics & numerical data
20.
Front Genet ; 11: 942, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769201

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) has been an ongoing pandemic, resulting in an increase in people being infected globally. Understanding the potential risk of infection for people under different respiratory system conditions is important and will help prevent disease spreading. We explored and collected five published and one unpublished single-cell respiratory system tissue transcriptome datasets, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), aging lungs (mouse origin data), lung cancers, and smoked branchial epithelium, for specifically reanalyzing the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression profiles. Compared to normal people, we found that smoking and lung cancer increase the risk for COVID-19 infection due to a higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in lung cells. Aged lung does not show increased risk for infection. IPF patients may have a lower risk for original COVID-19 infection due to lower expression in AT2 cells but may have a higher risk for severity due to a broader expression spectrum of TMPRSS2. Further investigation and validation on these cell types are required. Nonetheless, this is the first report to predict the risk and potential severity for COVID-19 infection for people with different respiratory system conditions. Our analysis is the first systematic description and analysis to illustrate how the underlying respiratory system conditions contribute to a higher infection risk.

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