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1.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(2): 123-131, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the psychological and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with established anxiety disorders during a period of stringent mandated social restrictions. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 individuals attending the Galway-Roscommon Mental Health Services with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of an anxiety disorder to determine the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions on anxiety and mood symptoms, social and occupational functioning and quality of life. RESULTS: Twelve (40.0%) participants described COVID-19 restrictions as having a deleterious impact on their anxiety symptoms. Likert scale measurements noted that the greatest impact of COVID-19 related to social functioning (mean = 4.5, SD = 2.9), with a modest deleterious effect on anxiety symptoms noted (mean = 3.8, SD = 2.9). Clinician rated data noted that 8 (26.7%) participants had disimproved and 14 (46.7%) participants had improved since their previous clinical review, prior to commencement of COVID-19 restrictions. Conditions associated with no 'trigger', such as generalised anxiety disorder, demonstrated a non-significant increase in anxiety symptoms compared to conditions with a 'trigger', such as obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatric or physical comorbidity did not substantially impact on symptomatology secondary to COVID-19 mandated restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological and social impact of COVID-19 restrictions on individuals with pre-existing anxiety disorders has been modest with only minimal increases in symptomatology or social impairment noted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 127, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to measure the efficacy of ionic-iodine polymer complex [1] for clinical and radiological improvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial will be closed label, randomized and placebo-controlled with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. PARTICIPANTS: All PCR confirmed COVID-19 adult patients including non-pregnant females, with mild to moderate disease, will be enrolled from Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). Patients with any pre-existing chronic illness will be excluded from the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this multi-armed study ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine will be given using three formulations to evaluate efficacy. Patients will be receiving either encapsulated iodine complex of 200 mg (arm A), iodine complex syrup form 40 ml (arm B), iodine complex throat spray of 2 puffs (arm C) or empty capsule (arm D) as placebo; all three times a day. All the 4 arms will be receiving standard care as per version 3.0 of the clinical management guidelines for COVID-19 established by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes will be viral clearance with radiological and clinical improvement. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and HRCT chest scans will be done on the admission day and then after every fourth day for 12 days or till the symptoms are resolved. RT-PCR will only be shown as positive or negative while HRCT chest scoring will be done depending on the area and severity of lung involvement [2]. Time taken for the alleviation of symptoms will be calculated by the number of days the patient remained symptomatic. 30-day mortality will be considered as a secondary outcome. RANDOMISATION: Stratification for initial COVID-19 status (or days from initial symptoms as a proxy), age groups, gender, baseline severity of symptoms and co-morbidities will be used to ensure that the study arms remain balanced in size for the 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio. Randomization will be done using the lottery method. As patients are being admitted at different times, they will be recruited after obtaining their voluntary written informed consent following all standard protocols of the infection, control and disinfection. BLINDING (MASKING): This is a quadruple (participants, care providers, investigators and outcomes assessors) blinded study where only the study's Primary Investigator will have information about the arms and their interventions. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 200 patients will be randomized into four groups with three experimental and one placebo arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version Number is 2.3 and it is approved from IRB Shaikh Zayed Hospital with ID SZMC/IRB/Internal0056/2020 on July 14th, 2020. The recruitment is in progress. It was started on July 30, 2020, and the estimated end date for the trial is August 15, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial has been retrospectively registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04473261 dated July 16, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Iodine Compounds/administration & dosage , Polymers/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Capsules , Female , Humans , Male , Oral Sprays , Pakistan/epidemiology , Patient Admission , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
3.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 23(8): 55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401082

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes, making it a potentially high-risk period for women with underlying cardiovascular disease. Echocardiography remains the preferred modality for diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease as it is widely available and does not require radiation. This paper reviews the role of echocardiography along the continuum of pregnancy in at-risk patients, with a focus on key cardiac disease states in pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: In the preconception stage, risk stratification scores such as CARPREG II, ZAHARA and the modified WHO remain central to counseling and planning. As such, echocardiography serves an important role in assessing the severity of pre-existing structural disease. Among women with pre-existing cardiovascular disease who become pregnant-as well as those who develop cardiovascular symptoms during pregnancy-echocardiography is a key imaging tool for assessment of hemodynamic and structural changes and is recommended as the first-line imaging modality when appropriate by both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, routine screening intervals during pregnancy for various cardiac lesions are not well defined, resulting in clinical heterogeneity in care. SUMMARY: Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for defining, risk stratifying, and monitoring cardiovascular changes throughout pregnancy. Once identified, at-risk patients should receive careful individual counseling and follow-up with a multidisciplinary team. Echocardiography serves as a widely available tool for serial monitoring of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period.

4.
Geroscience ; 43(1): 19-29, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290415

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high mortality in elderly patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases. The cellular receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), thereby implicating a link between cardiovascular diseases and SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Aortic stenosis (AS) represents a chronic inflammatory state with severe cardiovascular complications in the elderly, a prime condition for COVID-19 mortality. The circulating ACE2 levels were measured in 111 patients with severe AS and compared to patients with hypertension and healthy individuals. About 4 times higher circulating ACE2 activity was found in patients with severe AS than in hypertensives or healthy individuals (88.3 ± 61.6., n = 111, 20.6 ± 13.4, n = 540, and 16.1 ± 7.4 mU/L, n = 46, respectively). Patients with severe AS were older than patients with hypertension (80 ± 6 years vs. 60 ± 15 years, P < 0.05). Serum ACE2 activity correlated negatively with the left ventricular ejection fraction, aortic root area, TAPSE, and positively with the right ventricular systolic pressure, cardiac diameters in patients with AS. In contrast, circulating ACE2 activity was independent of the blood pressure, peak flow velocity at the aortic root, kidney function (GFR), and inflammatory state (CRP). We found no effect of RAAS inhibitory drugs on the serum ACE2 activity in this group of patients. Our results illustrate circulating ACE2 as a potential interface between chronic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and COVID-19 susceptibility. Elderly patients with AS have markedly elevated ACE2 levels together with altered left and right ventricular functions, which may pose higher risks during COVID-19. Our clinical data do not support a role for RAAS inhibitors in regulating circulating ACE2 levels.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis , COVID-19 , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers , Humans , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 16(4): 605-611, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275554

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we have witnessed a rise in the instances of mental health problems and the suicide-related mortality rates. This study aims to identify the suicide-related risk factors and stressors to determine the groups at a greater risk of attempting suicide during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: This retrospective study examined 29 cases of attempted suicide during the 3-month COVID-19 lockdown in KSA. The suicide risk factors were evaluated using specific instrument the modified (SAD PERSONS) scale. It is an acronym for sex, age, depression, previous attempt, excess alcohol, rational thinking loss, social status, organized plan, no social supports and stated future intent. RESULTS: The lockdown stressors that may have triggered suicidal behaviours were identified as follows: psychological distress, relationship problems, financial difficulties, and extreme fear of the COVID-19 infection. While all age groups carried the risk of attempting suicide during the lockdown, patients with psychiatric disorders and women accounted for 69% and 65.5% of the cohort, respectively. Factors like hopelessness and depression were highly related to suicide attempts, as well as the statement of future intent to repeat the attempt, at 72.4% and 65.5% respectively. Almost two-thirds of the attempts made were serious, and many women felt unsafe in their own homes during the lockdown. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders and women carry high risk of attempting suicide during the COVID-19 lockdown. This study offers insights on the greater outreach efforts that can be carried out for these patients by calling for the prioritization of mental health care, improvement of domestic violence services, and strengthening of suicide prevention strategies.

6.
World J Hepatol ; 13(5): 522-532, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271018

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented pressure on public health and healthcare. The pandemic surge and resultant lockdown have affected the standard-of-care of many medical conditions and diseases. The initial uncertainty and fear of cross transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have changed the routine management of patients with pre-existing liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, and patients either listed for or received a liver transplant. COVID-19 is best described as a multisystem disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and it can cause acute liver injury or decompensation of the pre-existing liver disease. There has been considerable research on the pathophysiology, infection transmission, and treatment of COVID-19 in the last few months. The pathogenesis of liver involvement in COVID-19 includes viral cytotoxicity, the secondary effect of immune dysregulation, hypoxia resulting from respiratory failure, ischemic damage caused by vascular endotheliitis, congestion because of right heart failure, or drug-induced liver injury. Patients with chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma are at high risk for severe COVID-19 and mortality. The phase III trials of recently approved vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 did not include enough patients with pre-existing liver diseases and excluded immunocompromised patients or those on immunomodulators. This article reviews the currently published research on the effect of COVID-19 on the liver and the management of patients with pre-existing liver disease, including SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

7.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 224, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global status of the COVID-19 pandemic is not optimistic. This is a particularly vulnerable time for patients with pre-existing headache disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on headache patients in China. METHODS: A survey was conducted through an online survey platform on June 6, 2020. Demographic characteristics, the PHQ-9, the ISI, a COVID-19 questionnaire and a headache profile survey were included in the online questionnaire. RESULTS: Eventually, a total of 15,000 participants from China completed the online questionnaire. Among them, 2806 participants had pre-existing headache disorders. Our analysis showed reductions in the duration of headaches (3.414 ± 6.859 vs 4.033 ± 7.325 h, P<0.001), number of headache days per month (1.788 ± 2.989 vs 2.092 ± 3.694, P<0.001), and headache intensity (4.110 ± 1.609 vs 4.290 ± 1.680, P<0.001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Smoking (OR = 1.397, 95% CI 1.090 to 1.790, P = 0.008) and getting support from family members during social isolation (OR = 1.656, 95% CI 1.075 to 2.550, P = 0.022) were independent factors affecting the reduction in the duration of headaches. Education level (OR = 1.478, 95% CI 1.103 to 1.980, P = 0.009) and having a relative or acquaintance who contracted COVID-19 (OR = 0.643, 95% CI 0.458 to 0.902, P = 0.011) were the independent factors affecting the reduction in headache severity. Living in the Wuhan area, having symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19 and having relatives or acquaintances who had contracted COVID-19 were associated with the worsening of headaches. CONCLUSIONS: Participants experienced an overall trend towards the improvement of headaches during the COVID-19 pandemic. Family support might play an important role in the improvement of headaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Headache/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Psychiatr Q ; 93(1): 181-197, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260602

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19, face-to-face mental health service delivery has been interrupted by social distancing and stay-at-home orders. To abridge physical distance between patients and healthcare providers, while limiting exposure to COVID-19, telepsychiatry has been widely adopted to provide services to patients with pre-existing mental health disorders. Though telepsychiatry has become more mainstream in delivering mental health services during COVID-19, evaluation studies of the rapid conversion of care delivery from face-to-face to telepsychiatry have been limited. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the transition of mental health service delivery to telepsychiatry during COVID-19. The findings of the current review showed that a majority of patients and healthcare providers were satisfied with telepsychiatry services, and suggest that telepsychiatry is feasible and appropriate for supporting patients and healthcare providers during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans
9.
Cardiol Res ; 12(3): 149-155, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248440

ABSTRACT

Rampantly spreading around the globe and taking thousands of lives each day, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may present with varied cardiovascular manifestations. Those with evidence of myocardial injury have a worse prognosis too. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases or risk factors are at greater risk of adverse outcomes and mortality by this infection. Being highly contagious, measures to prevent cross-infection are of paramount importance. In this article, the authors summarize the various cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 and precautions needed while handling them and the long-term consequences of COVID-19 infection.

10.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 89-103, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has established an association between pandemic fears and the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms mainly in the general population. AIM: To explore whether COVID-19 pandemic fears are associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and vice versa in adolescents with preexisting mental and behavioural disorders. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among adolescents with pre-existing mental disorders. The extent of worrying related to the COVID-19 pandemic was measured using the COVID-19 inventory whereas obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed using the obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R). Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to explore the relationship between COVID-19 pandemic fears and the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients out of 63 participants (90.4%) had a COVID-19 inventory score of 12 or higher suggesting that a vast majority of young people with mental disorders had significant pandemic-related worries. Out of these 57 patients, over half (31) had an OCI-R modified score of 17 or higher indicating significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A positive correlation was found between the means of the two scores. This relationship was statistically significant - {r = 0.405, Sig. (two-tailed) = 0.001}. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with mental disorders can exhibit significant pandemic fears and this is likely to be associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1895-1896, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236110
12.
Pathog Immun ; 6(1): 31-54, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have historically had a complex relationship with autoimmune diseases. For patients with preexisting autoimmune disorders, often complicated by immunosuppressive therapies, there are numerous potential effects of COVID-19, a disease of complex immunobiology, including the potential for an altered natural history of COVID-19 when infected. In addition, individuals without recognized autoimmune disease may be vulnerable to virally induced autoimmunity in the forms of autoantibody formation, as well as the development of clinical immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Until quite recently in the pandemic, this relationship between COVID-19 and autoimmune diseases has been relatively underexplored; yet such investigation offers potential insights into immunopathogenesis as well as for the development of new immune-based therapeutics. Our review examines this relationship through exploration of a series of questions with relevance to both immunopathogenic mechanisms as well as some clinical implications.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 12301-12307, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220256

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing chronic diseases are more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet the underlying causes of increased risk are of infection remain unclear. Angiotensin-converting- enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell surface receptor that recognizes the coronavirus spike protein has protective effects against inflammation and chronic hyperglycemia in animal models. The roles of ACE2 in severe SARS-CoV-2 infections remains ambiguous due to contradictory findings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between human plasma ACE2 levels in diabetics and the high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. First, the medical records of 245 patients with SARS-CoV-2-positive who have chronic diseases were analyzed. We also recruited 404 elderly subjects with comorbid chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension and obesity, and investigated the ACE2 plasma levels. Plasma concentrations of ACE2 were much lower (2973.83±2196.79 pg/mL) in diabetics with chronic disease than in healthy controls (4308.21±2352.42 pg/ml), and the use of hypoglycemia drugs was associated with lower circulating concentrations of ACE2 (P=1.49E-08). Diabetics with lower plasma levels of ACE2 may be susceptible to severe COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the poor prognosis in patients with diabetes infected with SARS-CoV-2 may be due to low circulating ACE2 levels.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , COVID-19/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9679, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220211

ABSTRACT

There is not in Argentina publications regarding the presentation of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalized and emergency care in vulnerable populations (lower incomes and less education tend at greater risk for poor health status and healthcare access), and it has few reports in developing countries. The objective is to determine whether in the care of vulnerable patients, to succeed against COVID-19, multiple public health tools and interventions will be needed to minimize morbidity and mortality. The study is a prospective cohort investigation of patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19, who required to any of the Health Centers response from April 8, 2020, to August 18, 2020. In Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (AMBA), April 8, 2020 the virus was identified in patients hospitalized in the "Southeast Network" (SN), AMBA. SN covering an area of 661 square kilometers, with 1.8 million inhabitants residing in urban, and rural areas. A total of 14 health centers with different levels of care complexity provide care to patients in the region. The information of each patient with COVID-19 evaluated by SN, was incorporated in an Epidemiological Dashboard. The investigation was designed and reported with consideration of observational studies in epidemiology. We describe the hospitals presentation and care of persons who required SN response and were ultimately diagnosed with COVID-19. From April 8, 2020, to August 18, 2020, were included 1495 patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in SN. A total of 58% patients were men, and the mean age (SD) was 48.9 (15.59) years. Eighty one percent patients with pre-existing diseases, most frequent hypertension and diabetes, but hypertension, chronic lung disease, and cardiovascular disease presented higher risk. A total of 13% were hospitalized in Intensive Therapy Unit. The mortality of the cohort was 9.77%. Mortality was higher for patients aged 65 or more (OR 5.09), and for those had some pre-existing disease (OR 2.61). Our observations are consistent with reports demonstrating older persons, and those with comorbidities have the highest risk of mortality related to COVID-19. However, unlike other reports from developed or some developing countries, the mortality in our study is lower. This finding may be related to age of our cohort is younger than other published. Also, the health system was able to respond to the demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Public Health , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 272(1): 29-40, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212859

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic highly impacts mental health worldwide. Patients with psychiatric disorders are a vulnerable risk population for worsening of their condition and relapse of symptoms. This study investigates the pandemic-related course of psychosocial burden in patients with pre-existing mental disorders. With the newly developed Goettingen psychosocial Burden and Symptom Inventory (Goe-BSI) psychosocial burden has been traced retrospectively (1) before the pandemic (beginning of 2020), (2) at its beginning under maximum lockdown conditions (March 2020), and (3) for the current state after maximum lockdown conditions (April/May 2020). The Goe-BSI also integrates the Adjustment Disorder New Module (ADNM-20), assesses general psychiatric symptoms, and resilience. A total of 213 patients covering all major psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 F0-F9) were interviewed once in the time range from April, 24th until May 11th, 2020. Across all diagnoses patients exhibited a distinct pattern with an initial rise followed by a decline of psychosocial burden (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.09; Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons between all three time-points: p < 0.05 to 0.001). Female gender and high ADNM-20 scores were identified as risk factors for higher levels and an unfavorable course of psychosocial burden over time. Most psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. Trajectories of psychosocial burden vary in parallel to local lockdown restrictions and seem to reflect an adaptive stress response. For female patients with pre-existing mental disorders and patients with high-stress responses, timely and specific treatment should be scheduled. With the continuation of the pandemic, monitoring of long-term effects is of major importance, especially when long incubation times for the development of mental health issues are considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost of Illness , Mental Disorders , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Retrospective Studies
16.
Brain Behav Immun ; 96: 18-27, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210823

ABSTRACT

In this community-based cohort study, we investigated the relationship between combinations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality. Participants were 468,569 men and women (56.5 ± 8.1, 54.6% women) residing in the United Kingdom. Lifestyle indexes included traditional and emerging lifestyle risk factors based on health guidelines and best practice recommendations for: physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep quality, diet quality, alcohol consumption, and smoking status. The main outcome was mortality from infectious diseases, including pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Meeting public health guidelines or best practice recommendations among combinations of lifestyle risk factors was inversely associated with mortality. Hazard ratios ranged between 0.26 (0.23-0.30) to 0.69 (0.60-0.79) for infectious disease and pneumonia. Among participants with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer, hazard ratios ranged between 0.30 (0.25-0.34) to 0.73 (0.60-0.89). COVID-19 mortality risk ranged between 0.42 (0.28-0.63) to 0.75 (0.49-1.13). We found a beneficial dose-response association with a higher lifestyle index against mortality that was consistent across sex, age, BMI, and socioeconomic status. There was limited evidence of synergistic interactions between most lifestyle behaviour pairs, suggesting that the dose-response relationship among different lifestyle behaviours is not greater than the sum of the risk induced by each behaviour. Improvements in lifestyle risk factors and meeting public health guidelines or best practice recommendations could be used as an ancillary measure to ameliorate infectious disease mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Cohort Studies , Diet , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(4): e26955, 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adults with cardiovascular diseases were disproportionately associated with an increased risk of a severe form of COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to report the associated symptoms for COVID-19 cases, to estimate the proportion of contacts, and to describe the clinical signs and behaviors among individuals with and without myocardial infarction history among cases and contacts. METHODS: A 2-week cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted during the first lockdown period in France, from May 4 to 15, 2020. A total of 668 households participated, representing 703 individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease in the past 2 years and 849 individuals without myocardial infarction history. RESULTS: High rates of compliance with health measures were self-reported, regardless of age or risk factors. There were 4 confirmed COVID-19 cases that were registered from 4 different households. Based on deductive assumptions of the 1552 individuals, 9.73% (n=151) were identified as contacts, of whom 71.52% (108/151) were asymptomatic. Among individuals with a myocardial infarction history, 2 were COVID-19 cases, and the estimated proportion of contacts was 8.68% (61/703), of whom 68.85% (42/61) were asymptomatic. The cases and contacts presented different symptoms, with more respiratory signs in those with a myocardial infarction history. CONCLUSIONS: The telephone survey could be a relevant tool for reporting the number of contacts during a limited period and in a limited territory based on the presence of associated symptoms and COVID-19 cases in the households. This study advanced our knowledge to better prepare for future crises.

18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 158, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in high mortality worldwide. Information regarding cardiac markers for precise risk-stratification is limited. We aim to discover sensitive and reliable early-warning biomarkers for optimizing management and improving the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 2954 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were receiving treatment from the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital in China from February 4 to April 10 were included in this retrospective cohort. Serum levels of cardiac markers were collected after admission. Coronary artery disease diagnosis and survival status were recorded. Single-cell RNA-sequencing and bulk RNA-sequencing from different cohorts of non-COVID-19 were performed to analyze SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression. RESULTS: Among 2954 COVID-19 patients in the analysis, the median age was 60 years (50-68 years), 1461 (49.5%) were female, and 1515 (51.3%) were severe/critical. Compared to mild/moderate (1439, 48.7%) patients, severe/critical patients showed significantly higher levels of cardiac markers within the first week after admission. In severe/critical COVID-19 patients, those with abnormal serum levels of BNP (42 [24.6%] vs 7 [1.1%]), hs-TNI (38 [48.1%] vs 6 [1.0%]), α- HBDH (55 [10.4%] vs 2 [0.2%]), CK-MB (45 [36.3%] vs 12 [0.9%]), and LDH (56 [12.5%] vs 1 [0.1%]) had a significantly higher mortality rate compared to patients with normal levels. The same trend was observed in the ICU admission rate. Severe/critical COVID-19 patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease (165/1,155 [10.9%]) had more cases of BNP (52 [46.5%] vs 119 [16.5%]), hs-TNI (24 [26.7%] vs 9.6 [%], α- HBDH (86 [55.5%] vs 443 [34.4%]), CK-MB (27 [17.4%] vs 97 [7.5%]), and LDH (65 [41.9%] vs 382 [29.7%]), when compared with those without coronary artery disease. There was enhanced SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression in coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls. From regression analysis, patients with five elevated cardiac markers were at a higher risk of death (hazards ratio 3.4 [95% CI 2.4-4.8]). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease represented a higher abnormal percentage of cardiac markers, accompanied by high mortality and ICU admission rate. BNP together with hs-TNI, α- HBDH, CK-MB and LDH act as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients with or without pre-existing coronary artery disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods
19.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 50(2): 383-402, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201631

ABSTRACT

Nonhepatotropic viruses such as adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, flaviviruses, filoviruses, and human herpes virus, and bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii, can cause liver injury mimicking acute hepatitis. Most of these organisms cause a self-limited infection. However, in immunocompromised patients, they can cause severe hepatitis or in some cases fulminant hepatic failure requiring an urgent liver transplant. Hepatic dysfunction is also commonly seen in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. Patients with preexisting liver diseases are likely at risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may be associated with poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis/diagnosis , Hepatitis/virology , Herpes Simplex/complications , Q Fever/complications , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Flavivirus Infections/complications , Hepatitis/pathology , Hepatitis/therapy , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 16(1): 732, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200184

ABSTRACT

Cause and mechanisms of persistent dyspnoea after recovery from COVID-19 are not well described. The objective is to describe causal factors for persistent dyspnoea in patients after COVID-19. We examined patients reporting dyspnoea after recovery from COVID-19 by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. After exclusion of patients with pre-existing lung diseases, ten patients (mean age 50±13.1 years) were retrospectively analysed between May 14th and September 15th, 2020. On chest computed tomography, five patients showed residual ground glass opacities, and one patient showed streaky residua. A slight reduction of the mean diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was noted in the cohort. Mean peak oxygen uptake was reduced with 1512±232 ml/min (72.7% predicted), while mean peak work rate was preserved with 131±29 W (92.4% predicted). Mean alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO2) at peak exercise was 25.6±11.8 mmHg. Mean value of lactate post exercise was 5.6±1.8 mmol/l. A gap between peak work rate in (92.4% predicted) to peak oxygen uptake (72.3% pred.) was detected in our study cohort. Mean value of lactate post exercise was high in our study population and even higher (n.s.) compared to the subgroup of patients with reduced peak oxygen uptake and other obvious reason for limitation. Both observations support the hypothesis of anaerobic metabolism. The main reason for dyspnoea may therefore be muscular.

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