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1.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 28(1): 1-11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The National Neuropsychology Network (NNN) is a multicenter clinical research initiative funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; R01 MH118514) to facilitate neuropsychology's transition to contemporary psychometric assessment methods with resultant improvement in test validation and assessment efficiency. METHOD: The NNN includes four clinical research sites (Emory University; Medical College of Wisconsin; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); University of Florida) and Pearson Clinical Assessment. Pearson Q-interactive (Q-i) is used for data capture for Pearson published tests; web-based data capture tools programmed by UCLA, which serves as the Coordinating Center, are employed for remaining measures. RESULTS: NNN is acquiring item-level data from 500-10,000 patients across 47 widely used Neuropsychology (NP) tests and sharing these data via the NIMH Data Archive. Modern psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory) will specify the constructs measured by different tests and determine their positive/negative predictive power regarding diagnostic outcomes and relationships to other clinical, historical, and demographic factors. The Structured History Protocol for NP (SHiP-NP) helps standardize acquisition of relevant history and self-report data. CONCLUSIONS: NNN is a proof-of-principle collaboration: by addressing logistical challenges, NNN aims to engage other clinics to create a national and ultimately an international network. The mature NNN will provide mechanisms for data aggregation enabling shared analysis and collaborative research. NNN promises ultimately to enable robust diagnostic inferences about neuropsychological test patterns and to promote the validation of novel adaptive assessment strategies that will be more efficient, more precise, and more sensitive to clinical contexts and individual/cultural differences.


Subject(s)
Neuropsychology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychometrics , Wisconsin
2.
Rev Neurol ; 72(11): 384-396, 2021 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248581

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many patients with mild or severe COVID-19 do not make a full recovery and have a wide range of chronic symptoms for weeks or months after infection, often of a neurological, cognitive or psychiatric nature. The epidemiological evidence, diagnostic criteria and pathogenesis of post-COVID-19 syndrome are reviewed. DEVELOPMENT: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is defined by persistent clinical signs and symptoms that appear while or after suffering COVID-19, persist for more than 12 weeks and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. The symptoms can fluctuate or cause relapses. It is a heterogeneous condition that includes post-viral chronic fatigue syndrome, sequelae in multiple organs and the effects of severe hospitalisation/post-intensive care syndrome. It has been reported in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 and irrespective of the severity of the symptoms in the acute phase. Between 10% and 65% of survivors who had mild/moderate COVID-19 present symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome for 12 weeks or more. At six months, subjects report an average of 14 persistent symptoms. The most common symptoms are fatigue, dyspnoea, anxiety, depression, and impaired attention, concentration, memory and sleep. The underlying biological mechanisms are unknown, although an abnormal or excessive autoimmune and inflammatory response may play an important role. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations are diverse, fluctuating and variable, although fatigue and neurocognitive complaints predominate. There is no defined consensus on post-COVID-19 syndrome and its diagnostic criteria have not been subjected to adequate psychometric evaluation.


TITLE: Síndrome post-COVID-19: epidemiología, criterios diagnósticos y mecanismos patogénicos implicados.Introducción. Numerosos pacientes con COVID-19 leve o grave no tienen una recuperación completa y presentan una gran variedad de síntomas crónicos durante semanas o meses tras la infección, con frecuencia de carácter neurológico, cognitivo o psiquiátrico. Se revisan las evidencias epidemiológicas, los criterios diagnósticos y la patogenia del síndrome post-COVID-19. Desarrollo. El síndrome post-COVID-19 se define por la persistencia de signos y síntomas clínicos que surgen durante o después de padecer la COVID-19, permanecen más de 12 semanas y no se explican por un diagnóstico alternativo. Los síntomas pueden fluctuar o causar brotes. Es una entidad heterogénea que incluye el síndrome de fatiga crónica posvírica, la secuela de múltiples órganos y los efectos de la hospitalización grave/síndrome poscuidados intensivos. Se ha descrito en pacientes con COVID-19 leve o grave y con independencia de la gravedad de los síntomas en la fase aguda. Un 10-65% de los supervivientes que padeció COVID-19 leve/moderada presenta síntomas de síndrome post-COVID-19 durante 12 semanas o más. A los seis meses, los sujetos relatan un promedio de 14 síntomas persistentes. Los síntomas más frecuentes son fatiga, disnea, alteración de la atención, de la concentración, de la memoria y del sueño, ansiedad y depresión. Se desconocen los mecanismos biológicos que subyacen, aunque una respuesta autoinmunitaria e inflamatoria anómala o excesiva puede tener un papel importante. Conclusiones. Las manifestaciones clínicas son diversas, fluctuantes y variables, aunque predominan la fatiga y las quejas neurocognitivas. No existe un consenso definido sobre el síndrome post-COVID-19 y sus criterios diagnósticos no se han sometido a una evaluación psicométrica adecuada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoimmunity , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Hospitalization , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Organ Specificity , Pandemics , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 985, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, few studies in sub-Saharan Africa have examined its deleterious consequences on mental health. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and changes in boredom, anxiety and psychological well-being before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ghana. METHODS: Data for this study were drawn from an online survey of 811 participants that collected retrospective information on mental health measures including symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, boredom, and well-being. Additional data were collected on COVID-19 related measures, biosocial (e.g. age and sex) and sociocultural factors (e.g., education, occupation, marital status). Following descriptive and psychometric evaluation of measures used, multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and boredom, anxiety and psychological well-being scores during the pandemic. Second, we assessed the effect of anxiety on psychological well-being. Next, we assessed predictors of the changes in boredom, anxiety, and well-being. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, 63.5% reported better well-being, 11.6% symptoms of anxiety, and 29.6% symptoms of boredom. Comparing experiences before and during the pandemic, there was an increase in boredom and anxiety symptomatology, and a decrease in well-being mean scores. The adjusted model shows participants with existing medical conditions had higher scores on boredom (ß = 1.76, p < .001) and anxiety (ß = 1.83, p < .01). In a separate model, anxiety scores before the pandemic (ß = -0.25, p < .01) and having prior medical conditions (ß = -1.53, p < .001) were associated with decreased psychological well-being scores during the pandemic. In the change model, having a prior medical condition was associated with an increasing change in boredom, anxiety, and well-being. Older age was associated with decreasing changes in boredom and well-being scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first in Ghana to provide evidence of the changes in boredom, anxiety and psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings underscore the need for the inclusion of mental health interventions as part of the current pandemic control protocol and public health preparedness towards infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Boredom , Depression , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(5): e25520, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the rapid aging of the global population, experts anticipate a surge in the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia worldwide. It is argued that developing more sensitive, easy to administer, and valid MCI screening tools for use in primary care settings may initiate timely clinical and personal care planning and treatment, enabling early access to programs and services. Including functional competence measures in screening tests makes them more ecologically valid and may help to identify cognitive deficits at an earlier stage. OBJECTIVE: We aim to conduct a preliminary evaluative study comparing the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of the BrainFx Screen (referred to as SCREEN hereafter), a novel digital tool designed to assess functional competence and detect early signs of cognitive impairment, with the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment, a validated and highly sensitive tool that detects MCI in the older adult population. We will also investigate the perceived usefulness and integration of the SCREEN into primary care practice to identify demonstrable impacts on clinical workflow and health care providers' (HCP) perceptions of its success as a screening tool. Patients' perceptions of completing the SCREEN and its impact on their quality of life will also be explored. METHODS: This study has a concurrent, mixed methods, prospective, and quasi-experimental design. Participants will be recruited from 5 primary care family health teams (FHTs; defined by multidisciplinary practice and capitated funding) across southwestern Ontario, Canada. Participants will include HCPs, patients, care partners, and FHT administrative executives. Patients 55 years and older with no history of diagnoses for MCI, dementia, or Alzheimer disease rostered in one of the FHTs participating in the study will be eligible to participate. Their care partners will help triangulate the qualitative data collected from patients. Participating FHTs will identify an occupational therapist from their site to participate in the study; this HCP will both administer the research protocol and participate in semistructured in-depth interviews and questionnaires. Principal component analysis will be conducted on the SCREEN data to understand the test components better. Tests comparing sensitivity, specificity, and test-retest reliability will assess the validity of SCREEN as a screening tool for MCI. RESULTS: This paper describes the study protocol and its activities to date. Data collection was halted early because of COVID-19 restrictions on research activity, and data analysis is currently in progress. CONCLUSIONS: At the end of the project, we anticipate having an initial comparative evaluation of the SCREEN as a tool for early detection of MCI in primary care older adult patient populations. Resource constraints on this research study limit our ability to conduct a randomized controlled trial; however, the results will assist developers of the SCREEN in determining whether rigorous controlled testing is warranted. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/25520.

5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1286: 199-212, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135135

ABSTRACT

Recent events regarding the COVID-19 pandemic have demonstrated the importance of healthcare workers around the world and the stressful working conditions that are often associated with their profession. The severity of stress can be influenced by a number of factors such as age, seniority gender, family status, and position in the wards. Thus, it is important to monitor signs of stress and other psychiatric symptoms in order to understand the mediating factors and guide appropriate interventions. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study of 17,414 nurses from 31 Iranian cities carried out from 2011 to 2015, using a 22-item tool of work stressors. The tool examined interactive, managerial, and situational domains and the main objective was to identify the main background variables associated with the stress of nurses in critical care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
6.
Soc Indic Res ; 157(1): 393-415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130877

ABSTRACT

The first intelligent COVID-19 lockdown resulted in radical changes within the tertiary educational system within the Netherlands. These changes posed new challenges for university students and many social welfare agencies have warned that it could have adverse effects on the social wellbeing (SWB) of university students. Students may lack the necessary social study-related resources (peer- and lecturer support) (SSR) necessary to aid them in coping with the new demands that the lockdown may bring. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the trajectory patterns, rate of change and longitudinal associations between SSR and SWB of 175 Dutch students before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. A piecewise latent growth modelling approach was employed to sample students' experiences over three months. Participants to complete a battery of psychometric assessments for five weeks before the COVID-19 lockdown was implemented, followed by two directly after and a month follow-up. The results were paradoxical and contradicting to initial expectations. Where SSR showed a linear rate of decline before- and significant growth trajectory during the lockdown, SWB remained moderate and stable. Further, initial levels and growth trajectories between SSR and SWB were only associated before the lockdown.

7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(5): 1138-1143, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A high proportion of patients experience fatigue and impairment of cognitive functions after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore the activity of the main inhibitory intracortical circuits within the primary motor cortex (M1) in a sample of patients complaining of fatigue and presenting executive dysfunction after resolution of COVID-19 with neurological manifestations. METHODS: Twelve patients who recovered from typical COVID-19 pneumonia with neurological complications and complained of profound physical and mental fatigue underwent, 9 to 13 weeks from disease onset, a psychometric evaluation including a self-reported fatigue numeric-rating scale (FRS, Fatigue Rating Scale) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Intracortical activity was evaluated by means of well-established TMS protocols including short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), reflecting GABAA-mediated inhibition, long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), a marker of GABAB receptor activity, and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) that indexes central cholinergic transmission. TMS data were compared to those obtained in a control group of ten healthy subjects (HS) matched by age, sex and education level. RESULTS: Post-COVID-19 patients reported marked fatigue according to FRS score (8.1 ± 1.7) and presented pathological scores at the FAB based on Italian normative data (12.2 ± 0.7). TMS revealed marked reduction of SICI, and disruption of LICI as compared to HS. SAI was also slightly diminished. CONCLUSIONS: The present study documents for the first time reduced GABAergic inhibition in the M1 in patients who recovered from COVID-19 with neurological complications and manifested fatigue and dysexecutive syndrome. SIGNIFICANCE: TMS may serve as diagnostic tool in cognitive disturbances and fatigue in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , GABAergic Neurons/physiology , Motor Cortex/physiopathology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 627013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120739

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to develop a scale and evaluate this scale's validity and reliability to measure factors affecting people's knowledge and attitudes toward the pandemic breaking transmission chain. Methods: This exploratory mixed-method study was carried out in two phases: (1) item generation using literature reviews and interviews and, (2) item reduction by psychometric assessments of the developed scale. The face, content, construct (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), convergent, and discriminant validity of the scale were assessed in the Iranian population (n = 500) from March to June 2020. The Composite Reliability (CR) and the internal consistency correlation coefficient were estimated. Results: The Knowledge and Attitude Scale Toward COVID-19 Pandemic Breaking Transmission Chain (KA-C) among the Iranian population included 18 items. Two factors with a whole variance of 66.05% were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Factors were labeled as "health literacy" and "home health empowerment." The confirmatory factor analysis showed the goodness of fit. The CR of the scale for first and second factors were 0.965 and 0.833 receptively. The scale's internal consistency correlation coefficient was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.960 and 0.823, average interitem correlation = 0.643 and 0.635, McDonald's omega = 0.963 and 0.829, for the first and second factor, receptively). Conclusion: The KA-C scale can be exerted to screen the people's knowledge and attitude about the COVID-19 pandemic breaking the transmission chain as a valid and reliable scale for further policymaking, health care providers, and for a multi-dimensional psychosocial assessment of the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Datasets as Topic , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Health Literacy , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Psychometrics , Young Adult
9.
Virusdisease ; 32(1): 146-149, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092860

ABSTRACT

Neurological features of COVID-19 have been reported in addition to the respiratory manifestations, but cognitive dysfunction has been scarcely described. And cognitive assessment has not been studied in asymptomatic subjects. We compared the cognitive assessment scores between asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects with that of controls to detect mild cognitive impairment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Asymptomatic COVID-19 subjects secured lower scores in certain domains of the MoCA in comparison with the controls. The domains were visuoperception (2.4 ± 0.7 vs2.8 ± 0.7, p = 0.032), naming (3.6 ± 0.5 vs3.9 ± 0.2, p = 0.016) and fluency (0.9 ± 0.6 vs1.6 ± 0.7, p = < 0.001). Also, older aged COVID-19 positive subjects scored lower in the MoCA when compared to the younger people. Our study shows that even otherwise asymptomatic COVID-19 subjects have cognitive deficits in certain subdomains and suggests the need for a detailed psychometric assessment especially in the elderly population. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (10.1007/s13337-021-00663-w).

10.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(1): 39-43, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Apart from respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy and a range of central nervous system complications have been described in coronavirus disease 2019. However, there is a lack of published literature on the rehabilitative course and functional outcomes of severe coronavirus disease 2019 with encephalopathy. In addition, the presence of subclinical neurocognitive sequelae during postacute rehabilitation has not been described and may be underrecognized by rehabilitation providers. We report the rehabilitative course of a middle-aged male patient with severe coronavirus disease 2019 who required intensive care and mechanical ventilation. During postacute inpatient rehabilitation for severe intensive care unit-related weakness, an abnormal cognitive screen prompted brain magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed destructive leukoencephalopathy. Subsequently, detailed psychometric evaluation revealed significant impairments in the domains of processing speed and executive function. After 40 days of intensive inpatient rehabilitation, he was discharged home with independent function. This report highlights the need for an increased awareness of covert subclinical neurocognitive sequelae, the role of comprehensive rehabilitation, and value of routine cognitive screening therein and describes the neurocognitive features in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Critical Care , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/rehabilitation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge
11.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 8(1): 87-94, 2021 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Correctly understanding and evaluating the level of public risk perception toward public health emergencies not only helps experts and decision-makers understand the public's preventative health behaviors to these emergencies but also enhances their risk information communication with the public. The aim of this study was to develop a risk perception scale for public health emergencies and test its validity and reliability during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Guided by the theoretical model of risk perception, an initial scale was generated through literature review, group meetings, resident interviews, and expert consultation. A pretest and item screening were then conducted to develop a formal risk perception scale for public health emergencies. Finally, the reliability and validity of the scale were validated through a questionnaire survey of 504 Chinese adults. RESULTS: The final scale had 9 items. The content validity index of the scale was 0.968, and the content validity index of individual items ranged from 0.83 to 1.00. Three common factors, dread risk perception, severe risk perception, and unknown risk perception, were extracted for exploratory factor analysis, and together they explained 66.26% of the variance in the score. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the model had a satisfactory fit, where χ 2/df = 1.384, the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.989, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, root mean square residual (RMR) = 0.018, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.995, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.982, and non-normed fit index (NNFI) = 0.990. The correlations between dimensions ranged from 0.306 to 0.483 (P < 0.01). Cronbach's α was 0.793 for the total scale and ranged between 0.687 and 0.801 for the individual dimensions. The split-half coefficient was 0.861 for the total scale and ranged from 0.727 to 0.856 for induvial dimensions. The test-retest coefficient was 0.846 for the total scale and ranged from 0.843 to 0.868 for induvial dimensions. CONCLUSION: The developed scale for the risk perception of public health emergencies showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity, suggesting that it is suitable for evaluating residents' risk perception of public health emergencies.

12.
Death Stud ; 46(3): 595-602, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035804

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to adapt and explore the psychometric performance of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in the general Colombian population. The original FCV-19S is a 7-item scale that underwent an adaptation (Item 1 and 5 were deleted). From an online sample of 1,687 adults (59% female), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed for versions of the scale with 6 and 5 items. Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega were calculated. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 5-item scale (Fear of COVID-5) presented better indicators. In conclusion, the Fear of COVID-5 has acceptable performance in the Colombian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Colombia , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; 20(2): 1273-1288, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032849

ABSTRACT

Fear is a negative emotional reaction to or persistent worry over an imminent public health event like COVID-19. The COVID-Fear Scale was developed in many countries, but not in China. The current study aims to examine the psychometric properties of Chinese version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Translation into Chinese and back-translation into English were conducted firstly. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted in Sample 1, followed by validity tests in Sample 2. Likely, test-retest reliability was conducted in sample 3. A bifactor structure of Chinese version of FCV-19S with a general fear factor and two orthogonal group factors with fear thoughts and physical response was confirmed. Besides, it has good internal consistency reliability (α = .92), composite reliability (CR = .92), and validity correlation validity. The results of the present study confirmed that the Chinese version of FCV-19S has good psychometric properties in the Chinese communities. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11469-020-00441-7.

14.
Health Soc Care Community ; 29(5): e204-e213, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, which is characterised by life-threatening symptoms, difficulty in breathing, and pneumonia symptoms and requires global emergency intervention, may cause psychological problems such as phobia, fear and anxiety. This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in Turkish people and to determine the level of fear of COVID-19 among Turkish people. METHODS: The research was carried out between March and April 2020. A Personal Information Form and the FCV-19S were used to collect the research data. In the validity and reliability stage, 84 people were contacted randomly for data collection. After the validity and reliability analyses of the scale, a total of 431 Turkish people volunteered to participate in the study and answered the questions in the online questionnaire form using a convenience and snowball sampling method. Confirmatory factor analysis, item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were calculated for psychometric evaluation. Bivariate analysis was applied to determine the level of fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.89, which is stated to have high reliability. FCV-19S scores of participants were determined to be 21.47 ± 6.28. FCV-19S scores of females were determined as 20.48 ± 6.33 and FCV-19S scores of males were determined as 19.78 ± 7.34 according to the bivariate analysis (p < .05). Age, marital status, having children and living alone or with others, tobacco use and anxiety about going to the hospital during the pandemic did not affect on fear of COVID-19 (p > .05). Particularly being female, the presence of chronic disease requiring long-term medication and rarely taking protective measures recommended by the Ministry of Health and having a chronic disease had a significant effect on higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The FCV-19S is a valid and reliable tool for determining the fear of COVID-19. It was found that the fear level of COVID-19 infection was high in Turkish people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e23897, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Confirmed COVID-19 cases have been registered in more than 200 countries, and as of July 28, 2020, over 16 million cases have been reported to the World Health Organization. This study was conducted during the epidemic peak of COVID-19 in Italy. The early identification of individuals with suspected COVID-19 is critical in immediately quarantining such individuals. Although surveys are widely used for identifying COVID-19 cases, outcomes, and associated risks, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the capability of self-reported symptoms in discriminating COVID-19 to identify individuals who need to undergo instrumental measurements. We defined and validated a method for identifying a cutoff score. METHODS: Our study is phase II of the EPICOVID19 Italian national survey, which launched in April 2020 and included a convenience sample of 201,121 adults who completed the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. The Phase II questionnaire, which focused on the results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and serological tests, was mailed to all subjects who previously underwent NPS tests. RESULTS: Of 2703 subjects who completed the Phase II questionnaire, 694 (25.7%) were NPS positive. Of the 472 subjects who underwent the immunoglobulin G (IgG) test and 421 who underwent the immunoglobulin M test, 22.9% (108/472) and 11.6% (49/421) tested positive, respectively. Compared to NPS-negative subjects, NPS-positive subjects had a higher incidence of fever (421/694, 60.7% vs 391/2009, 19.5%; P<.001), loss of taste and smell (365/694, 52.6% vs 239/2009, 11.9%; P<.001), and cough (352/694, 50.7% vs 580/2009, 28.9%; P<.001). With regard to subjects who underwent serological tests, IgG-positive subjects had a higher incidence of fever (65/108, 60.2% vs 43/364, 11.8%; P<.001) and pain in muscles/bones/joints (73/108, 67.6% vs 71/364, 19.5%; P<.001) than IgG-negative subjects. An analysis of self-reported COVID-19 symptom items revealed a 1-factor solution, the EPICOVID19 diagnostic scale. The following optimal scores were identified: 1.03 for respiratory problems, 1.07 for chest pain, 0.97 for loss of taste and smell 0.97, and 1.05 for tachycardia (ie, heart palpitations). These were the most important symptoms. For adults aged 18-84 years, the cutoff score was 2.56 (sensitivity: 76.56%; specificity: 68.24%) for NPS-positive subjects and 2.59 (sensitivity: 80.37%; specificity: 80.17%) for IgG-positive subjects. For subjects aged ≥60 years, the cutoff score was 1.28, and accuracy based on the presence of IgG antibodies improved (sensitivity: 88.00%; specificity: 89.58%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a short diagnostic scale to detect subjects with symptoms that were potentially associated with COVID-19 from a wide population. Our results support the potential of self-reported symptoms in identifying individuals who require immediate clinical evaluations. Although these results come from the Italian pandemic period, this short diagnostic scale could be optimized and tested as a screening tool for future similar pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Health Surveys , Mass Screening/standards , Psychometrics , Self Report , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
16.
Trials ; 21(1): 929, 2020 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-925459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective: To determine the feasibility of delivering a protocolised, remote, online, Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) intervention, within 12-weeks of hospital discharge, for adult survivors of Covid-19 related critical illness. Secondary objectives: To investigate whether remotely delivered EMDR can improve psychological outcome following Covid-19 related critical illness, specifically Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single centre, randomised controlled cohort feasibility trial. PARTICIPANTS: Participants will be recruited following discharge from the Intensive Care Unit at University Hospital Southampton, United Kingdom. Eligible patients will have received mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 24 hours, tested Covid-19 positive by polymerase chain reaction, will be over the age of 18 years and have the capacity to provide informed consent. Patients will be excluded if they have pre-existing cognitive impairment, pre-existing psychotic diagnosis or are not expected to survive post-hospital discharge. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Group one: patients in the control arm will receive their standard package of prescribed care, following discharge home from hospital. If they experience any adverse physical or psychological health-conditions, they will access care through the usual available channels. Group two: patients randomly allocated to the intervention arm will receive their standard package of prescribed care, following discharge home from hospital. In addition, they will be referred to the Intensive Psychological Therapies Service in Poole, United Kingdom. They will receive an online appointment within 12-weeks of discharge home from hospital. They will receive a maximum of eight, weekly sessions of EMDR, delivered by a trained psychological therapist, following the Recent Traumatic Episode Protocol (R-TEP). Appendices 1 and 2 of the attached trial protocol contain a detailed description of the R-TEP intervention, written in accordance with the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome from this trial will be feasibility. Feasibility will be determined by recruitment rates, expressed as a percentage of eligible patients approached, completion of the EMDR intervention, completion of final assessment at 6-months, incidence of attributable adverse events and protocol adherence by the psychological therapists. Secondary, exploratory outcomes will be assessed by comparison between the control and intervention groups at 6-months post-hospital discharge. Psychometric evaluation will consist of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In addition, we will assess health-related quality of life using the EQ5D-5L, physical activity using wrist worn activity monitors and nutritional state using the Council of Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire. RANDOMISATION: Consenting participants will be randomly allocated to intervention or usual care using an internet-based system (ALEATM). Participants will be randomly assigned, on a 1:1 ratio, to receive either standard care (control) or the standard care plus online EMDR R-TEP (Intervention) BLINDING (MASKING): Due to the nature of the intervention, participants cannot be blinded to group allocation. 6-month patient reported outcome measures will be completed using an online, electronic case report form. Group allocation will be masked during data analysis. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): This is a feasibility study, the results of which will be used to power a definitive study if appropriate. We anticipate a 25% mortality /loss to follow-up. A total of 26 patients will be recruited to this study, 13 patients in each arm. TRIAL STATUS: CovEMERALD opened to recruitment on 23rd September 2020 with an anticipated recruitment period of 6-months. We are using protocol version number 1.2 (1st June 2020) TRIAL REGISTRATION: CovEMERALD was registered on clinicaltrials.gov NCT04455360 on 2nd July 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quality of Life , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/psychology , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Depression/etiology , Depression/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Female , Home Care Services, Hospital-Based , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychological Techniques , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys , Mobile Applications , Referral and Consultation , Resilience, Psychological , Self Care/methods , Self Care/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Checklist , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
18.
Int J Gen Med ; 13: 515-522, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the high incidence of coronavirus and the shortage of nurses in Iranian hospitals, nurses' intention to care for patients with COVID-19 is important. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the nurses' intention to care scale (NICS) by Iranian nurses who care for patients with COVID-19 in hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses (n= 400) at public and private Mazandaran hospitals. An online questionnaire was used that consisted of two parts: demographic variables and NICS. The scale was translated into Persian first and then validated using both construct and content validity. RESULTS: The findings from an exploratory factor analysis yielded six factors that explained 53.12% of the total variance of the NICS. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model had a good fit and the inter-item correlation values of the factors indicated good internal consistency. CONCLUSION: The Persian version of NICS in Iranian nurses had six factors. The results of our study add insight for nurse administrators and educators to further develop strategies to increase nurses' intention by improving positive attitudes and reducing their negative beliefs.

19.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; 19(6): 2219-2232, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277054

ABSTRACT

Fear is a central emotional response to imminent threats such as the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) assesses the severity of fear towards COVID-19. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the FCV-19S. Using a forward-backward translation, the FCV-19S was translated into Arabic. An online survey using the Arabic versions of FCV-19S and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered. Reliability and concurrent and confirmatory validity were examined. The dataset consisted of 693 Saudi participants. The internal consistency of the Arabic FCV-19S was satisfactory (α = .88), with sound concurrent validity indicated by significant and positive correlations with HADS (r = .66). The unidimensional structure of the FCV-19S was confirmed. The Arabic version of the FCV-19S is psychometrically robust and can be used in research assessing the psychological impact of COVID-19 among a Saudi adult population.

20.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-10, 2020 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The advent of COVID-19 worldwide has led to consequences for people's health, both physical and psychological, such as fear and anxiety. This is the case in Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic. Given the heightened fear concerning COVID-19 in Italy., the present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). METHODS: The sample comprised 250 Italian participants who were administered Italian versions of the FCV-19S, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Severity Measure for Specific Phobia-Adult (SMSP-A). Several psychometric tests were performed to investigate the validity and reliability of the test including confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: Analysis of the data showed satisfactory psychometric characteristics and confirmed the scale's unidimensional properties. The seven FCV-19S items had acceptable correlations with the test total (from .443 to .784). Furthermore, the loadings on the factor were significant and strong (from .684 to .897). The internal consistency was very good (α = .871). Construct validity for the FCV-19S was supported by significant and positive correlations with the HADS (r=.649) and SMSP-A (r=.703). CONCLUSIONS: The Italian version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale is valid and reliable in assessing fear of COVID-19 among the general Italian population.

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