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Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 734-738, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089035


PURPOSE: The study uses principles of liquid and gas mechanics to verify and quantify the generation of aerosols in oculoplastic procedures, namely surgery using a scalpel, electrosurgical device, and a mechanized drill. METHODS: Surgical techniques were performed ex vivo using the electrosurgical device, scalpel, and mechanized drill on the muscle and bone of commercially available chicken. The liquid and gas dynamics were observed using a high-speed high-resolution Photron SA5 camera (0.125 to 8 ms temporal resolution, 0.016 to 0.054 mm/pixel spatial resolution) and stroboscopic lighting (Veritas 120 E LED Constellation). The analysis was performed using in-house algorithms and ImageJ software. RESULTS: The use of a mechanized drill at 35000 rpm and a 3 mm fluted burr generated aerosol with particle size 50 to 550 microns with a spread of 1.8 m radius. Surgical smoke was generated by an electrosurgical device in both cutting and coagulation modes. Dispersion of the smoke could be controlled significantly by the use of suction, mean smoke spread ratio being 0.065 without suction and 0.002 with use of suction within 2 cm. CONCLUSION: The quantification of the aerosol generation will help surgeons take practical decisions in their surgical techniques in the pandemic era.

Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Plastic Surgery Procedures/adverse effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Comorbidity , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/surgery , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(3): 614-618, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061071


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine contamination from otolaryngologic procedures involving high-speed drilling, specifically mastoid surgery, and to assess the adequacy of PPE in such procedures. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mastoid surgery was simulated in a dry laboratory using a plastic temporal bone, microscope and handheld drill with irrigation and suction. Comparisons of distance of droplet and bone dust contamination and surgeon contamination were made under differing conditions. Irrigation speed, use of microscope and drill burr size and type were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurement of the distance of field contamination while performing simulated mastoidectomy and location of surgeon contamination. RESULTS: There was a greater distance field contamination and surgeon contamination without the use of the microscope. Contamination was reduced by using a smaller drill burr and by using a diamond burr when compared to a cutting burr. The use of goggles and a face mask provided good protection for the surgeon. However, the microscope alone may provide sufficient protection to negate the need for goggles. CONCLUSIONS: While the risks of performing mastoid surgery during the coronavirus pandemic cannot be completely removed, they can be mitigated. Such factors include using the microscope for all drilling, using smaller size drill burrs and creating a safe zone around the operating table.

COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mastoidectomy , Personal Protective Equipment , Dust , Humans , Models, Anatomic , Suction , Therapeutic Irrigation
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(6): 2133-2135, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739654


PURPOSE: Otolaryngologists have had to postpone the majority of surgical procedures in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Airborne transmission, beyond the projection of droplets from upper airways, expose healthcare workers to a risk of viral infection. Aerosol generating procedures (AGP) increase the risk of viral transmission to staff within the operating room. METHODS: Surgery of middle ear and mastoid is also considered an AGP, particularly mastoidectomy performed using a high-speed drill. The authors report their experience in endoscopic ear surgery as an alternative technique to reduce AGP in otologic procedures. RESULTS: Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery is a reliable technique used to manage many otologic conditions. CONCLUSION: The endoscopic approach may reduce the risk of viral transmission to operating room staff by reducing the need for mastoidectomy.

COVID-19 , Otologic Surgical Procedures , Ear, Middle/surgery , Endoscopy , Humans , Mastoidectomy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2