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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e792-e798, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic individuals early through serial testing is recommended to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes, both in response to an outbreak ("outbreak testing" of residents and healthcare personnel) and in facilities without outbreaks ("nonoutbreak testing" of healthcare personnel). The effectiveness of outbreak testing and isolation with or without nonoutbreak testing was evaluated. METHODS: Using published SARS-CoV-2 transmission parameters, the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions prevented through serial testing (weekly, every 3 days, or daily) and isolation of asymptomatic persons compared with symptom-based testing and isolation was evaluated through mathematical modeling using a Reed-Frost model to estimate the percentage of cases prevented (ie, "effectiveness") through either outbreak testing alone or outbreak plus nonoutbreak testing. The potential effect of simultaneous decreases (by 10%) in the effectiveness of isolating infected individuals when instituting testing strategies was also evaluated. RESULTS: Modeling suggests that outbreak testing could prevent 54% (weekly testing with 48-hour test turnaround) to 92% (daily testing with immediate results and 50% relative sensitivity) of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Adding nonoutbreak testing could prevent up to an additional 8% of SARS-CoV-2 infections (depending on test frequency and turnaround time). However, added benefits of nonoutbreak testing were mostly negated if accompanied by decreases in infection control practice. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with high-quality infection control practices, outbreak testing could be an effective approach to preventing COVID-19 in nursing homes, particularly if optimized through increased test frequency and use of tests with rapid turnaround.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Infection ; 49(4): 765-767, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220167

ABSTRACT

With COVID-19 spreading globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 swept many countries and regions worldwide. An effective response to COVID-19 requires newer and more creative tools. In this paper, we discussed the evolution of China's COVID-19 quarantine approach, compared the blanket quarantine in Wuhan and the distant centralized quarantine in rural areas of Shijiazhuang, and analyzed the important issues which authorities will have to pay attention to ensure success from the moment they begin to take close contacts to the single room isolation in a distant quarantine center. The large-scale distant centralized quarantine strategy in Shijiazhuang cut off the transmission of COVID-19 within 1 month. This strategy may inform other countries and regions of a feasible and effective approach to combat the global pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Humans
3.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 34(4): 670-678, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social isolation enforced as a result of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may impact families' lifestyle and eating habits. The present study aimed to assess the behaviour and dietary patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents during the social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present study was conducted using an online, anonymous cross-sectional survey with 589 children and 720 adolescents from Brazil during a nationwide social isolation policy. The Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis with the Dunn post-hoc method and a radar chart were used to compare the weekly consumption of each food by age group and isolation status. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted using R statistical software, version 4.0.2 (R Foundation for Statisitical Computing). RESULTS: We found that isolated families showed breakfast eating habits and the consumption of raw salad, vegetables, beans and soft drinks. Lower-class isolated families and those from the Northeast region consumed fruits, juices, vegetables and beans less frequently. Compared to children, adolescents were less isolated (p = 0.016), less active (p < 0.001), exposed to longer screen time (p < 0.001), showed an inadequate sleeping pattern (p = 0.002) and were from lower-class families (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Social isolation affected the eating habits of children and adolescents. Non-isolated families presented a lower consumption of healthy food, especially those among the lower class, from Northeast Brazil, as well as adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Brazil , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/psychology , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133690

ABSTRACT

In this work, a SEIR-type mathematical model of the COVID-19 outbreak was developed that describes individuals in compartments by infection stage and age group. The model assumes a close well-mixed community with no migrations. Infection rates and clinical and epidemiological information govern the transitions between stages of the disease. The impact of specific interventions (including the availability of critical care) on the outbreak time course, the number of cases and the outcome of fatalities were evaluated. Data available from the COVID-19 outbreak from Spain as of mid-May 2020 was used. Key findings in our model simulation results indicate that (i) universal social isolation measures appear effective in reducing total fatalities only if they are strict and the number of daily interpersonal contacts is reduced to very low numbers; (ii) selective isolation of only the elderly (at higher fatality risk) appears almost as effective as universal isolation in reducing total fatalities but at a possible lower economic and social impact; (iii) an increase in the number of critical care capacity directly avoids fatalities; (iv) the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) appears to be effective to dramatically reduce total fatalities when adopted extensively and to a high degree; (v) extensive random testing of the population for more complete infection recognition (accompanied by subsequent self-isolation of infected aware individuals) can dramatically reduce the total fatalities only above a high percentage threshold that may not be practically feasible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Models, Theoretical , Age Factors , Awareness , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology
5.
J Travel Med ; 28(2)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many countries, patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are told to self-isolate at home, but imperfect compliance and shared living space with uninfected people limit the effectiveness of home-based isolation. We examine the impact of facility-based isolation compared to self-isolation at home on the continuing epidemic in the USA. METHODS: We developed a compartment model to simulate the dynamic transmission of COVID-19 and calibrated it to key epidemic measures in the USA from March to September 2020. We simulated facility-based isolation strategies with various capacities and starting times under different diagnosis rates. Our primary model outcomes are new infections and deaths over 2 months from October 2020 onwards. In addition to national-level estimations, we explored the effects of facility-based isolation under different epidemic burdens in major US Census Regions. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying key model assumptions and parameters. RESULTS: We find that facility-based isolation with moderate capacity of 5 beds per 10 000 total population could avert 4.17 (95% credible interval 1.65-7.11) million new infections and 16 000 (8000-23 000) deaths in 2 months compared with home-based isolation. These results are equivalent to relative reductions of 57% (44-61%) in new infections and 37% (27-40%) in deaths. Facility-based isolation with high capacity of 10 beds per 10 000 population could achieve reductions of 76% (62-84%) in new infections and 52% (37-64%) in deaths when supported by expanded testing with an additional 20% daily diagnosis rate. Delays in implementation would substantially reduce the impact of facility-based isolation. The effective capacity and the impact of facility-based isolation varied by epidemic stage across regions. CONCLUSION: Timely facility-based isolation for mild COVID-19 cases could substantially reduce the number of new infections and effectively curb the continuing epidemic in the USA. Local epidemic burdens should determine the scale of facility-based isolation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e792-e798, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic individuals early through serial testing is recommended to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes, both in response to an outbreak ("outbreak testing" of residents and healthcare personnel) and in facilities without outbreaks ("nonoutbreak testing" of healthcare personnel). The effectiveness of outbreak testing and isolation with or without nonoutbreak testing was evaluated. METHODS: Using published SARS-CoV-2 transmission parameters, the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions prevented through serial testing (weekly, every 3 days, or daily) and isolation of asymptomatic persons compared with symptom-based testing and isolation was evaluated through mathematical modeling using a Reed-Frost model to estimate the percentage of cases prevented (ie, "effectiveness") through either outbreak testing alone or outbreak plus nonoutbreak testing. The potential effect of simultaneous decreases (by 10%) in the effectiveness of isolating infected individuals when instituting testing strategies was also evaluated. RESULTS: Modeling suggests that outbreak testing could prevent 54% (weekly testing with 48-hour test turnaround) to 92% (daily testing with immediate results and 50% relative sensitivity) of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Adding nonoutbreak testing could prevent up to an additional 8% of SARS-CoV-2 infections (depending on test frequency and turnaround time). However, added benefits of nonoutbreak testing were mostly negated if accompanied by decreases in infection control practice. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with high-quality infection control practices, outbreak testing could be an effective approach to preventing COVID-19 in nursing homes, particularly if optimized through increased test frequency and use of tests with rapid turnaround.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isolation form on the recovery of psychological distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after being discharged from hospital. METHODS: Baseline survey was conducted from February 10, 2020 to February 25, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital on the discharge day. After discharge, patients were free to choose whether isolate in a centralized isolation site (i.e. designated hotel) or their own home for another two weeks. A follow-up survey was conducted at the end of the 2-week post-discharge isolation. Depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health were assessed at both time points using the 9-item patient health questionnaire, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale and self-rated health scores, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty centrally isolated and 45 home isolated patients completed both the baseline and the follow-up assessments. Significant effects of time and time by isolation form were found on depression and anxiety levels, with a significant decrease in depression and anxiety shown in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. Besides, a significant time effect was identified on self-rated health with significant improvement found in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation is superior to centralized isolation in the recovery of COVID-19-associated depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health. More attention needs to be paid to the psychological well-being of centrally isolated patients. A sustained and integrated rehabilitation plan is warranted for patients with COVID-19 to achieve both physical and psychological recovery.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Public Health ; 191: 41-47, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. We estimated excess mortality in obesity, both 'direct', through infection, and 'indirect', through changes in health care, and also due to potential increasing obesity during lockdown. STUDY DESIGN: The study design of this study is a retrospective cohort study and causal inference methods. METHODS: In population-based electronic health records for 1,958,638 individuals in England, we estimated 1-year mortality risk ('direct' and 'indirect' effects) for obese individuals, incorporating (i) pre-COVID-19 risk by age, sex and comorbidities, (ii) population infection rate and (iii) relative impact on mortality (relative risk [RR]: 1.2, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0). Using causal inference models, we estimated impact of change in body mass index (BMI) and physical activity during 3-month lockdown on 1-year incidence for high-risk conditions (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease), accounting for confounders. RESULTS: For severely obese individuals (3.5% at baseline), at 10% population infection rate, we estimated direct impact of 240 and 479 excess deaths in England at RR 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, and indirect effect of 383-767 excess deaths, assuming 40% and 80% will be affected at RR = 1.2. Owing to BMI change during the lockdown, we estimated that 97,755 (5.4%: normal weight to overweight, 5.0%: overweight to obese and 1.3%: obese to severely obese) to 434,104 individuals (15%: normal weight to overweight, 15%: overweight to obese and 6%: obese to severely obese) would be at higher risk for COVID-19 over one year. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of obesity and promotion of physical activity are at least as important as physical isolation of severely obese individuals during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Electronic Health Records , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
J Travel Med ; 28(2)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many countries, patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are told to self-isolate at home, but imperfect compliance and shared living space with uninfected people limit the effectiveness of home-based isolation. We examine the impact of facility-based isolation compared to self-isolation at home on the continuing epidemic in the USA. METHODS: We developed a compartment model to simulate the dynamic transmission of COVID-19 and calibrated it to key epidemic measures in the USA from March to September 2020. We simulated facility-based isolation strategies with various capacities and starting times under different diagnosis rates. Our primary model outcomes are new infections and deaths over 2 months from October 2020 onwards. In addition to national-level estimations, we explored the effects of facility-based isolation under different epidemic burdens in major US Census Regions. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying key model assumptions and parameters. RESULTS: We find that facility-based isolation with moderate capacity of 5 beds per 10 000 total population could avert 4.17 (95% credible interval 1.65-7.11) million new infections and 16 000 (8000-23 000) deaths in 2 months compared with home-based isolation. These results are equivalent to relative reductions of 57% (44-61%) in new infections and 37% (27-40%) in deaths. Facility-based isolation with high capacity of 10 beds per 10 000 population could achieve reductions of 76% (62-84%) in new infections and 52% (37-64%) in deaths when supported by expanded testing with an additional 20% daily diagnosis rate. Delays in implementation would substantially reduce the impact of facility-based isolation. The effective capacity and the impact of facility-based isolation varied by epidemic stage across regions. CONCLUSION: Timely facility-based isolation for mild COVID-19 cases could substantially reduce the number of new infections and effectively curb the continuing epidemic in the USA. Local epidemic burdens should determine the scale of facility-based isolation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 24(6): 361-367, 2020 12 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949068

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of the Covid-19 epidemic in the fall of 2020 in France and in many countries around the world raises many questions. The situation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in France after the first epidemic wave in spring 2020 approximatively indicates more than 30,000 deaths, 3 to 4 millions people infected, 50% asymptomatic infections. These data encourage us to modify the initial perception of this infection, which was imagined to be benign, with massive, homogeneous and rapid distribution ("tsunamic"), and comprising a large majority of asymptomatic forms. This invites us to reassess the hypothesis of a major role of superspreaders in the spread of the infection, which would be more limited and discontinuous ("saltatory") than expected, as for SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. The role of viral load in the transmission and clinical expression of infection also needs to be assessed. To fight against the spread of the epidemic, generalized confinement a posteriori appears to have a disproportionate cost compared to its effectiveness, whereas the application of barrier gestures (breathing mask, hand hygiene, social distancing) should be promoted without any restriction, along with the diagnosis and temporary isolation of infected persons. While the Covid-19 epidemic is a medical challenge for human societies, it is also a moral challenge that they may not ignore.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Combined Modality Therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Masks , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seasons , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Social Change , Social Values , Virus Replication
11.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(4)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913773

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, there had been global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) supply due to the breakage of supply chain and also the forbidding of PPE exported by various countries. This situation had greatly affected the healthcare services in local hospitals of Hong Kong. To maintain the availability of PPE for healthcare workers in high-risk clinical settings, the cluster management of New Territories West Cluster, Hospital Authority, had implemented a bundle of interventions in controlling and managing the PPE consumption and ensuring its proper use. A Taskforce on Management of PPE was set up in February 2020 with the aim to monitor and manage the use of PPE in five local hospitals and eight general outpatient clinics of New Territories West Cluster, which were governed in a cluster basis, under the COVID-19 epidemic. Interventions including cutting down non-essential services, implementing telecare, monitoring PPE consumption at unit level and PPE stock at the Cluster Central Distribution Centre and forming mobile infection teams were implemented. The updated PPE standards and usage guidelines to clinical staff were promulgated through forums, newsletters and unit visits. The PPE consumption rates of individual unit were reviewed. Significant decrease in PPE consumption rates was noted when comparing with the baseline data. Comparing the data between 20 February and 1 June 2020, the overall PPE consumption rates were reduced by 64% (r=-0.841; p<0.001) while the PPE consumption rates in anaesthesia and operating theatres, and isolation and surveillance wards were reduced by 47% (r=-0.506; p=0.023) and 49% (r=-0.810; p<0.001), respectively. A bundled approach, including both administrative measures and staff education, is effective in managing PPE consumption during major infection outbreaks especially when PPE supply is at risk.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Advisory Committees , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Hong Kong , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013699, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reducing the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global priority. Contact tracing identifies people who were recently in contact with an infected individual, in order to isolate them and reduce further transmission. Digital technology could be implemented to augment and accelerate manual contact tracing. Digital tools for contact tracing may be grouped into three areas: 1) outbreak response; 2) proximity tracing; and 3) symptom tracking. We conducted a rapid review on the effectiveness of digital solutions to contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits, harms, and acceptability of personal digital contact tracing solutions for identifying contacts of an identified positive case of an infectious disease. SEARCH METHODS: An information specialist searched the literature from 1 January 2000 to 5 May 2020 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase. Additionally, we screened the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and modelling studies, in general populations. We preferentially included studies of contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks (including COVID-19, Ebola, tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome) as direct evidence, but considered comparative studies of contact tracing outside an outbreak as indirect evidence. The digital solutions varied but typically included software (or firmware) for users to install on their devices or to be uploaded to devices provided by governments or third parties. Control measures included traditional or manual contact tracing, self-reported diaries and surveys, interviews, other standard methods for determining close contacts, and other technologies compared to digital solutions (e.g. electronic medical records). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened records and all potentially relevant full-text publications. One review author extracted data for 50% of the included studies, another extracted data for the remaining 50%; the second review author checked all the extracted data. One review author assessed quality of included studies and a second checked the assessments. Our outcomes were identification of secondary cases and close contacts, time to complete contact tracing, acceptability and accessibility issues, privacy and safety concerns, and any other ethical issue identified. Though modelling studies will predict estimates of the effects of different contact tracing solutions on outcomes of interest, cohort studies provide empirically measured estimates of the effects of different contact tracing solutions on outcomes of interest. We used GRADE-CERQual to describe certainty of evidence from qualitative data and GRADE for modelling and cohort studies. MAIN RESULTS: We identified six cohort studies reporting quantitative data and six modelling studies reporting simulations of digital solutions for contact tracing. Two cohort studies also provided qualitative data. Three cohort studies looked at contact tracing during an outbreak, whilst three emulated an outbreak in non-outbreak settings (schools). Of the six modelling studies, four evaluated digital solutions for contact tracing in simulated COVID-19 scenarios, while two simulated close contacts in non-specific outbreak settings. Modelling studies Two modelling studies provided low-certainty evidence of a reduction in secondary cases using digital contact tracing (measured as average number of secondary cases per index case - effective reproductive number (R eff)). One study estimated an 18% reduction in R eff with digital contact tracing compared to self-isolation alone, and a 35% reduction with manual contact-tracing. Another found a reduction in R eff for digital contact tracing compared to self-isolation alone (26% reduction) and a reduction in R eff for manual contact tracing compared to self-isolation alone (53% reduction). However, the certainty of evidence was reduced by unclear specifications of their models, and assumptions about the effectiveness of manual contact tracing (assumed 95% to 100% of contacts traced), and the proportion of the population who would have the app (53%). Cohort studies Two cohort studies provided very low-certainty evidence of a benefit of digital over manual contact tracing. During an Ebola outbreak, contact tracers using an app found twice as many close contacts per case on average than those using paper forms. Similarly, after a pertussis outbreak in a US hospital, researchers found that radio-frequency identification identified 45 close contacts but searches of electronic medical records found 13. The certainty of evidence was reduced by concerns about imprecision, and serious risk of bias due to the inability of contact tracing study designs to identify the true number of close contacts. One cohort study provided very low-certainty evidence that an app could reduce the time to complete a set of close contacts. The certainty of evidence for this outcome was affected by imprecision and serious risk of bias. Contact tracing teams reported that digital data entry and management systems were faster to use than paper systems and possibly less prone to data loss. Two studies from lower- or middle-income countries, reported that contact tracing teams found digital systems simpler to use and generally preferred them over paper systems; they saved personnel time, reportedly improved accuracy with large data sets, and were easier to transport compared with paper forms. However, personnel faced increased costs and internet access problems with digital compared to paper systems. Devices in the cohort studies appeared to have privacy from contacts regarding the exposed or diagnosed users. However, there were risks of privacy breaches from snoopers if linkage attacks occurred, particularly for wearable devices. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of digital solutions is largely unproven as there are very few published data in real-world outbreak settings. Modelling studies provide low-certainty evidence of a reduction in secondary cases if digital contact tracing is used together with other public health measures such as self-isolation. Cohort studies provide very low-certainty evidence that digital contact tracing may produce more reliable counts of contacts and reduce time to complete contact tracing. Digital solutions may have equity implications for at-risk populations with poor internet access and poor access to digital technology. Stronger primary research on the effectiveness of contact tracing technologies is needed, including research into use of digital solutions in conjunction with manual systems, as digital solutions are unlikely to be used alone in real-world settings. Future studies should consider access to and acceptability of digital solutions, and the resultant impact on equity. Studies should also make acceptability and uptake a primary research question, as privacy concerns can prevent uptake and effectiveness of these technologies.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Privacy , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Secondary Prevention/methods , Secondary Prevention/statistics & numerical data , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
13.
Ann Emerg Med ; 77(1): 1-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741041

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many emergency departments have been using passive protective enclosures ("intubation boxes") during intubation. The effectiveness of these enclosures remains uncertain. We sought to quantify their ability to contain aerosols using industry standard test protocols. METHODS: We tested a commercially available passive protective enclosure representing the most common design and compared this with a modified enclosure that incorporated a vacuum system for active air filtration during simulated intubations and negative-pressure isolation. We evaluated the enclosures by using the same 3 tests air filtration experts use to certify class I biosafety cabinets: visual smoke pattern analysis using neutrally buoyant smoke, aerosol leak testing using a test aerosol that mimics the size of virus-containing particulates, and air velocity measurements. RESULTS: Qualitative evaluation revealed smoke escaping from all passive enclosure openings. Aerosol leak testing demonstrated elevated particle concentrations outside the enclosure during simulated intubations. In contrast, vacuum-filter-equipped enclosures fully contained the visible smoke and test aerosol to standards consistent with class I biosafety cabinet certification. CONCLUSION: Passive enclosures for intubation failed to contain aerosols, but the addition of a vacuum and active air filtration reduced aerosol spread during simulated intubation and patient isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Equipment Design , Filtration/instrumentation , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Manikins , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacuum
14.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(2)2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-182627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical features, and medical care-seeking process of patients with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, to provide useful information to contain COVID-19 in other places with similar outbreaks of the virus. METHODS: We collected epidemiological and clinical information of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a makeshift Fangcang hospital between 7 and 26 February, 2020. The waiting time of each step during the medical care-seeking process was also analysed. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients with COVID-19 infection, 31% had presumed transmission from a family member. 10% of patients had hospital-related transmission. It took as long as a median of 6 days from the first medical visit to receive the COVID-19 nucleic acid test and 10 days from the first medical visit to hospital admission, indicating early recognition of COVID-19 was not achieved at the early stage of the outbreak, although these delays were shortened later. After clinical recovery from COVID-19, which took a mean of 21 days from illness onset, there was still a substantial proportion of patients who had persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic evaluation process of suspected patients needs to be accelerated at the epicentre of the outbreak and early isolation of infected patients in a healthcare setting rather than at home is urgently required to stop the spread of the virus. Clinical recovery is not an appropriate criterion to release isolated patients and as long as 4 weeks' isolation for patients with COVID-19 is not enough to prevent the spread of the virus.

15.
CMAJ ; 192(19): E489-E496, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Canada may create substantial demand for hospital admission and critical care. We evaluated the extent to which self-isolation of mildly ill people delays the peak of outbreaks and reduces the need for this care in each Canadian province. METHODS: We developed a computational model and simulated scenarios for COVID-19 outbreaks within each province. Using estimates of COVID-19 characteristics, we projected the hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) bed requirements without self-isolation, assuming an average number of 2.5 secondary cases, and compared scenarios in which different proportions of mildly ill people practised self-isolation 24 hours after symptom onset. RESULTS: Without self-isolation, the peak of outbreaks would occur in the first half of June, and an average of 569 ICU bed days per 10 000 population would be needed. When 20% of cases practised self-isolation, the peak was delayed by 2-4 weeks, and ICU bed requirement was reduced by 23.5% compared with no self-isolation. Increasing self-isolation to 40% reduced ICU use by 53.6% and delayed the peak of infection by an additional 2-4 weeks. Assuming current ICU bed occupancy rates above 80% and self-isolation of 40%, demand would still exceed available (unoccupied) ICU bed capacity. INTERPRETATION: At the peak of COVID-19 outbreaks, the need for ICU beds will exceed the total number of ICU beds even with self-isolation at 40%. Our results show the coming challenge for the health care system in Canada and the potential role of self-isolation in reducing demand for hospital-based and ICU care.


Subject(s)
Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
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