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1.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 9465398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-879699

ABSTRACT

This new decade has started with a global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), precipitating a worldwide health crisis and economic downturn. Scientists and clinicians have been racing against time to find therapies for COVID-19. Repurposing approved drugs, developing vaccines and employing passive immunization are three major therapeutic approaches to fighting COVID-19. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) has the potential to be used as neutralizing antibody against respiratory infections, and its advantages include high avidity, low risk of adverse immune responses, and easy local delivery by intranasal administration. In this study, we raised antibody against the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in chickens and extracted IgY (called IgY-S) from egg yolk. IgY-S exhibited high immunoreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 S, and by epitope mapping, we found five linear epitopes of IgY-S in SARS-CoV-2 S, two of which are cross-reactive with SARS-CoV S. Notably, epitope SIIAYTMSL, one of the identified epitopes, partially overlaps the S1/S2 cleavage region in SARS-CoV-2 S and is located on the surface of S trimer in 3D structure, close to the S1/S2 cleavage site. Thus, antibody binding at this location could physically block the access of proteolytic enzymes to S1/S2 cleavage site and thereby impede S1/S2 proteolytic cleavage, which is crucial to subsequent virus-cell membrane fusion and viral cell entry. Therefore, the feasibility of using IgY-S or epitope SIIAYTMS-specific IgY as neutralizing antibody for preventing or treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is worth exploring.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitope Mapping , Immunoglobulins/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728129

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cattle , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Virion , Virus Replication
3.
Science ; 368(6494): 1016-1020, 2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45712

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite extensive efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to more than 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are unknown. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. Additionally, cats are susceptible to airborne transmission. Our study provides insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Ferrets , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cats , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dogs , Ducks , Feces/virology , Female , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Species Specificity , Sus scrofa , Virus Attachment , Virus Replication
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