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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 245-250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100753

ABSTRACT

Deep emotion traumas in societies around the globe are overcome by extreme human catastrophes such as natural disasters, social crises, war conflicts and infectious virus induced pandemic diseases, etc., can lead to enormous stress-related disorders. The current ongoing pandemic known as COVID-19 caused by novel Corona virus first appeared in Wuhan, city of China and then rapidly spread in the whole world. It has affected various frontiers of lives and caused numerous psychiatric problems like nervousness, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear and uncertainty, panic attacks, depression, obsessive compulsory disorder, xenophobia and racism, etc. Globally COVID-19 has persuaded public mental health crisis. Furthermore, inadequate resources of public mental health services in several countries are discussed in this review, which will be further straighten by the upcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All mental health sciences including Psychiatry can play a very important role in the comfort of COVID-19 infected individuals and their relatives, healthcare providers and society. We need to learn more about psychological and psychiatric features of COVID-19 from the perceptions of public and global mental health in order to cope up the present deteriorating situation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Internationality , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans
2.
J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil ; 17(3): 256-269, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949684

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing world crisis and people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are vulnerable due to disparity in healthcare provision and physical and mental health multimorbidity. While most people will develop mild symptoms upon contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), some will develop serious complications. The aim of this study is to present guidelines for the care and treatment of people with IDs during the COVID-19 pandemic for both community teams providing care to people with IDs and inpatient psychiatric settings. The guidelines cover specific issues associated with hospital passports, individual COVID-19 care plans, the important role of families and carers, capacity to make decisions, issues associated with social distancing, ceiling of care/treatment escalation plans, mental health and challenging behavior, and caring for someone suspected of contracting or who has contracted SARS-CoV-2 within community or inpatient psychiatric settings. We have proposed that the included conditions recommended by Public Health England to categorize someone as high risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 should also include mental health and challenging behavior. There are specific issues associated with providing care to people with IDs and appropriate action must be taken by care providers to ensure that disparity of healthcare is addressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recognize that our guidance is focused upon healthcare delivery in England and invite others to augment our guidance for use in other jurisdictions.

3.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(1): e00176, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898651

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity accompanied by excess ectopic fat storage has been postulated as a risk factor for severe disease in people with SARS-CoV-2 through the stimulation of inflammation, functional immunologic deficit and a pro-thrombotic disseminated intravascular coagulation with associated high rates of venous thromboembolism. Methods: Observational studies in COVID-19 patients reporting data on raised body mass index at admission and associated clinical outcomes were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library up to 16 May 2020. Mean differences and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effects models. Results: Eight retrospective cohort studies and one cohort prospective cohort study with data on of 4,920 patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Comparing BMI ≥ 25 vs <25 kg/m2, the RRs (95% CIs) of severe illness and mortality were 2.35 (1.43-3.86) and 3.52 (1.32-9.42), respectively. In a pooled analysis of three studies, the RR (95% CI) of severe illness comparing BMI > 35 vs <25 kg/m2 was 7.04 (2.72-18.20). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were partly explained by age; BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was associated with an increased risk of severe illness in older age groups (≥60 years), whereas the association was weaker in younger age groups (<60 years). Conclusions: Excess adiposity is a risk factor for severe disease and mortality in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This was particularly pronounced in people 60 and older. The increased risk of worse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with excess adiposity should be taken into account when considering individual and population risks and when deciding on which groups to target for public health messaging on prevention and detection measures. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 2020: CRD42020179783.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100527, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, is a new dangerous childhood disease that is temporally associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to describe the typical presentation and outcomes of children diagnosed with this hyperinflammatory condition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to communicate the clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging results, and outcomes of individuals with MIS-C. We searched four medical databases to encompass studies characterizing MIS-C from January 1st, 2020 to July 25th, 2020. Two independent authors screened articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. This review was registered with PROSPERO CRD42020191515. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 39 observational studies (n = 662 patients). While 71·0% of children (n = 470) were admitted to the intensive care unit, only 11 deaths (1·7%) were reported. Average length of hospital stay was 7·9 ± 0·6 days. Fever (100%, n = 662), abdominal pain or diarrhea (73·7%, n = 488), and vomiting (68·3%, n = 452) were the most common clinical presentation. Serum inflammatory, coagulative, and cardiac markers were considerably abnormal. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were necessary in 22·2% (n = 147) and 4·4% (n = 29) of patients, respectively. An abnormal echocardiograph was observed in 314 of 581 individuals (54·0%) with depressed ejection fraction (45·1%, n = 262 of 581) comprising the most common aberrancy. INTERPRETATION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a new pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is dangerous and potentially lethal. With prompt recognition and medical attention, most children will survive but the long-term outcomes from this condition are presently unknown. FUNDING: Parker B. Francis and pilot grant from 2R25-HL126140. Funding agencies had no involvement in the study.

6.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 64(2): 107-113, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Immediately before the state of emergency was declared, there was an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among special training participants with severe physical stress. For promoting the optimization of infection prevention measures by identifying acts and situations with high risk of infection, we conducted a survey and analysis to understand the detailed process of infection spread in these cases. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted for the special training participants on their health status, changes in symptoms, training methods, and behavior history in their private lives. Additionally, a patrol of the training facility was carried out to understand the training environment, and antibody tests were conducted on the close contacts for more accurately grasping the spread of infection, by identifying subclinical infected persons. RESULTS: Within 10 days of COVID-19 onset in the first patient, 15 of the 19 original training participants developed symptoms, and 14 patients tested positive for RT-PCR. PCR tests were also performed on four patients who did not develop the disease - two were positive and negative, each. The two negatives turned positive on a later antibody test, suggesting that there was an asymptomatic infection. In addition, all five patients who participated in the training for only a day developed symptoms and tested positive for PCR in a few days. Of the 64 people who underwent testing for antibodies as close contacts, all but one who was living together with a patient were negative on antibody testing. CONCLUSIONS: The onset of COVID-19 occurred after the start of practice-based training continuously; therefore, the practice-based training was thought to be the main cause of the transmission. We speculate that the main factors behind the rapid spread of infection are as follows: during practice-based training, increased ventilation made it difficult to wear a mask; repeated loud vocalizations at close range; and the training pair was not fixed. Physical training without shouting and desk work, however, did not possess the risk of COVID-19, and avoiding certain situations at high risk of respiratory infections may have significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission. If personnel become infected with SARS-CoV-2, emergency measures should be devised by identifying patients and close contacts and facilitating the investigation of their behavioral history. Furthermore, evaluating and improving the effectiveness of infection control measures is necessary by ascertaining potentially infected persons by performing PCR tests, antigen tests, antibody tests, etc. in combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Inservice Training , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5310-5322, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733920

ABSTRACT

The most consequential challenge raised by coinfection is perhaps the inappropriate generation of recombinant viruses through the exchange of genetic material among different strains. These genetically similar viruses can interfere with the replication process of each other and even compete for the metabolites required for the maintenance of the replication cycle. Due to the similarity in clinical symptoms of most viral respiratory tract infections, and their coincidence with COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is recommended to develop a comprehensive diagnostic panel for detection of respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses through the evaluation of patient samples. Given the resulting changes in blood markers, such as coagulation factors and white blood cell count following virus infection, these markers can be of diagnostic value in the detection of mixed infection in individuals already diagnosed with a certain viral illness. In this review, we seek to investigate the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses to provide novel insights into the development of highly sensitive diagnostics and effective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Humans
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
9.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S111-S114, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726817

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is in the grip of COVID-19, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) since 26 February 2020, and the number of infected people and mortality is rising gradually. The health workers, doctors, pathologists and laboratory staff are front line fighters who are facing the risk. Few things are important for public and health workers, human behavior is at the core of preparedness and response i.e, personal protective measures, (handwashing, face masks, respiratory etiquette, surface and objects cleansing), social distancing and travel measures because the virus spreads through the respiratory channels, eyes, nose and mouth. While working in the Pathology labs, use the personal protection equipment (PPE), during the work in the duty. Avoiding the over duties and long shifts. It is good to keep the immune system healthy by taking a healthy balanced diet, vitamin supplements, and a night of proper sleep. It is also important to avoid taking food during duties and avoid making close contact without wearing safety dress.

10.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723544

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability across the three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes (human leukocyte antigen A [HLA-A], -B, and -C genes) may affect susceptibility to and severity of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a comprehensive in silico analysis of viral peptide-MHC class I binding affinity across 145 HLA-A, -B, and -C genotypes for all SARS-CoV-2 peptides. We further explored the potential for cross-protective immunity conferred by prior exposure to four common human coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome was successfully sampled and was represented by a diversity of HLA alleles. However, we found that HLA-B*46:01 had the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that individuals with this allele may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS (M. Lin, H.-T. Tseng, J. A. Trejaut, H.-L. Lee, et al., BMC Med Genet 4:9, 2003, https://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-4-9). Conversely, we found that HLA-B*15:03 showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting that it could enable cross-protective T-cell-based immunity. Finally, we reported global distributions of HLA types with potential epidemiological ramifications in the setting of the current pandemic.IMPORTANCE Individual genetic variation may help to explain different immune responses to a virus across a population. In particular, understanding how variation in HLA may affect the course of COVID-19 could help identify individuals at higher risk from the disease. HLA typing can be fast and inexpensive. Pairing HLA typing with COVID-19 testing where feasible could improve assessment of severity of viral disease in the population. Following the development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, individuals with high-risk HLA types could be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Environ Dev Sustain ; 23(5): 6681-6697, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681222

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, first identified in China and spread globally, resulting into pandemic. Transmission of virus takes place either directly through close contact with infected individual (symptomatic/asymptomatic) or indirectly by touching contaminated surfaces. Virus survives on the surfaces from few hours to days. It enters the human body through nose, eyes or mouth. Other sources of contamination are faeces, blood, food, water, semen etc. Parameters such as temperature/relative humidity also play an important role in transmission. As the disease is evolving, so are the number of cases. Proper planning and restriction are helping in influencing the trajectory of the transmission. Various measures are undertaken to prevent infection such as maintaining hygiene, using facemasks, isolation/quarantine, social/physical distancing, in extreme cases lockdown (restricted movement except essential services) in hot spot areas or throughout the country. Countries that introduced various mitigation measures had experienced control in transmission of COVID-19. Python programming is conducted for change point analysis (CPA) using Bayesian probability approach for understanding the impact of restrictions and mitigation methods in terms of either increase or stagnation in number of COVID-19 cases for eight countries. From analysis it is concluded that countries which acted late in bringing in the social distancing measures are suffering in terms of high number of cases with USA, leading among eight countries analysed. The CPA week in comparison with date of lockdown and first reported case strongly correlates (Pearson's r = - 0.86 to - 0.97) to cases, cases per unit area and cases per unit population, indicating earlier the mitigation strategy, lesser the number of cases. The overall paper will help the decision makers in understanding the possible steps for mitigation, more so in developing countries where the fight against COVID-19 seems to have just begun.

12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(2): 497-508, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669515

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that cause human respiratory infections. Zoonotic transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which led to over 2 million deaths worldwide. Elevated inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity in the lungs are associated with COVID-19 severity in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. Bats, which host pathogenic CoVs, operate dampened inflammatory responses and show tolerance to these viruses with mild clinical symptoms. Delineating the mechanisms governing these host-specific inflammatory responses is essential to understand host-virus interactions determining the outcome of pathogenic CoV infections. Here, we describe the essential role of inflammasome activation in determining COVID-19 severity in humans and innate immune tolerance in bats that host several pathogenic CoVs. We further discuss mechanisms leading to inflammasome activation in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and how bats are molecularly adapted to suppress these inflammasome responses. We also report an analysis of functionally important residues of inflammasome components that provide new clues of bat strategies to suppress inflammasome signaling and innate immune responses. As spillover of bat viruses may cause the emergence of new human disease outbreaks, the inflammasome regulation in bats and humans likely provides specific strategies to combat the pathogenic CoV infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Phylogeny
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2283-2293, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and thromboprophylaxis should be balanced against risk of bleeding. This study examined risks of VTE and major bleeding in hospitalized and community-managed SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with control populations. METHODS: Using nationwide population-based registries, 30-day risks of VTE and major bleeding in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were compared with those of SARS-CoV-2 test-negative patients and with an external cohort of influenza patients. Medical records of all COVID-19 patients at 6 departments of infectious diseases in Denmark were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: The overall 30-day risk of VTE was 0.4% (40/9460) among SARS-CoV-2 patients (16% hospitalized), 0.3% (649/226 510) among SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects (12% hospitalized), and 1.0% (158/16 281) among influenza patients (59% hospitalized). VTE risks were higher and comparable in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive (1.5%), SARS-CoV-2 negative (1.8%), and influenza patients (1.5%). Diagnosis of major bleeding was registered in 0.5% (47/9460) of all SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals and in 2.3% of those hospitalized. Medical record review of 582 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients observed VTE in 4% (19/450) and major bleeding in 0.4% (2/450) of ward patients, of whom 31% received thromboprophylaxis. Among intensive care patients (100% received thromboprophylaxis), risks were 7% (9/132) for VTE and 11% (15/132) for major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Among people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a population-based setting, VTE risks were low to moderate and were not substantially increased compared with SARS-CoV-2 test-negative and influenza patients. Risk of severe bleeding was low for ward patients, but mirrored VTE risk in the intensive care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
14.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 22, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557646

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented an unprecedented global challenge for the healthcare community. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to get transmitted during the asymptomatic phase, and its high infectivity have led to the rapid transmission of COVID-19 beyond geographic regions facilitated by international travel, leading to a pandemic. To guide effective control and interventions, primary data is required urgently, globally, including from low- and middle-income countries where documentation of cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 is limited. Objectives: This study aims to describe the cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: We propose to conduct an observational cohort study involving 5000 patients recruited from hospitals in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Eligible adult COVID-19 patients will be recruited from the participating hospitals and followed-up until 30 days post admission. The outcomes will be reported at discharge and includes the need of ICU admission, need of ventilator, death (with cause), major adverse cardiovascular events, neurological outcomes, acute renal failure, and pulmonary outcomes. Conclusion: Given the enormous burden posed by COVID-19 and the associated severe prognostic implication of CVD involvement, this study will provide useful insights on the risk factors for severe disease, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients particularly from low and middle income countries from where the data remain scant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Global Health , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3066-e3073, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports suggest that some persons previously infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lack detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. We aimed to determine the proportion IgG seronegative and predictors for seronegativity among persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed serologic data collected from healthcare workers and first responders in New York City and the Detroit metropolitan area with a history of a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test result and who were tested for IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at least 2 weeks after symptom onset. RESULTS: Of 2547 persons with previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 160 (6.3%) were seronegative. Of 2112 previously symptomatic persons, the proportion seronegative slightly increased from 14 to 90 days post symptom onset (P = .06). The proportion seronegative ranged from 0% among 79 persons previously hospitalized to 11.0% among 308 persons with asymptomatic infections. In a multivariable model, persons who took immunosuppressive medications were more likely to be seronegative (31.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.7%-64.7%), while participants of non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic White; 2.7%; 95% CI, 1.5%-4.8%), with severe obesity (vs under/normal weight; 3.9%; 95% CI, 1.7%-8.6%), or with more symptoms were less likely to be seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: In our population with previous RT-PCR-confirmed infection, approximately 1 in 16 persons lacked IgG antibodies. Absence of antibodies varied independently by illness severity, race/ethnicity, obesity, and immunosuppressive drug therapy. The proportion seronegative remained relatively stable among persons tested up to 90 days post symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cohort Studies , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2444-e2449, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue fever are difficult to distinguish given shared clinical and laboratory features. Failing to consider COVID-19 due to false-positive dengue serology can have serious implications. We aimed to assess this possible cross-reactivity. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data and serum samples from 55 individuals with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To assess dengue serology status, we used dengue-specific antibodies by means of lateral-flow rapid test, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, we tested SARS-CoV-2 serology status in patients with dengue and performed in-silico protein structural analysis to identify epitope similarities. RESULTS: Using the dengue lateral-flow rapid test we detected 12 positive cases out of the 55 (21.8%) COVID-19 patients versus zero positive cases in a control group of 70 healthy individuals (P = 2.5E-5). This includes 9 cases of positive immunoglobulin M (IgM), 2 cases of positive immunoglobulin G (IgG), and 1 case of positive IgM as well as IgG antibodies. ELISA testing for dengue was positive in 2 additional subjects using envelope protein directed antibodies. Out of 95 samples obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue before September 2019, SARS-CoV-2 serology targeting the S protein was positive/equivocal in 21 (22%) (16 IgA, 5 IgG) versus 4 positives/equivocal in 102 controls (4%) (P = 1.6E-4). Subsequent in-silico analysis revealed possible similarities between SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in the HR2 domain of the spike protein and the dengue envelope protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support possible cross-reactivity between dengue virus and SARS-CoV-2, which can lead to false-positive dengue serology among COVID-19 patients and vice versa. This can have serious consequences for both patient care and public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2086-e2094, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiological, virological, and serological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). METHODS: This population-based cohort study identified all COVID-19 cases among all PLWH in Wuhan, China, by 16 April 2020. The epidemiological, virological, and serological features were analyzed based on the demographic data, temporal profile of nucleic acid test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the disease, and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin (Ig) M and G after recovery. RESULTS: From 1 January to 16 April 2020, 35 of 6001 PLWH experienced COVID-19, with a cumulative incidence of COVID-19 of 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], .42-.81%). Among the COVID-19 cases, 15 (42.86) had severe illness, with 2 deaths. The incidence, case-severity, and case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in PLWH were comparable to those in the entire population in Wuhan. There were 197 PLWH who had discontinued combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 4 of whom experienced COVID-19. Risk factors for COVID-19 were age ≥50 years old and cART discontinuation. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding among confirmed COVID-19 cases in PLWH was 30 days (interquartile range, 20-46). Cases with high HIV viral loads (≥20 copies/mL) had lower IgM and IgG levels than those with low HIV viral loads (<20 copies/ml; median signal value divided by the cutoff value [S/CO] for IgM, 0.03 vs 0.11, respectively [P < .001]; median S/CO for IgG, 10.16 vs 17.04, respectively [P = .069]). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to maintain the persistent supply of antiretroviral treatment to elderly PLWH aged 50 years or above during the COVID-19 epidemic. The coinfection of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 might change the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Cohort Studies , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 39, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this cluster-randomised controlled study (CoV-Surv Study), four different "active" SARS-CoV-2 testing strategies for general population surveillance are evaluated for their effectiveness in determining and predicting the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in a given population. In addition, the costs and cost-effectiveness of the four surveillance strategies will be assessed. Further, this trial is supplemented by a qualitative component to determine the acceptability of each strategy. Findings will inform the choice of the most effective, acceptable and affordable strategy for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, with the most effective and cost-effective strategy becoming part of the local public health department's current routine health surveillance activities. Investigating its everyday performance will allow us to examine the strategy's applicability to real time prevalence prediction and the usefulness of the resulting information for local policy makers to implement countermeasures that effectively prevent future nationwide lockdowns. The authors would like to emphasize the importance and relevance of this study and its expected findings in the context of population-based disease surveillance, especially in respect to the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In Germany, but also in many other countries, COVID-19 surveillance has so far largely relied on passive surveillance strategies that identify individuals with clinical symptoms, monitor those cases who then tested positive for the virus, followed by tracing of individuals in close contact to those positive cases. To achieve higher effectiveness in population surveillance and to reliably predict the course of an outbreak, screening and monitoring of infected individuals without major symptoms (about 40% of the population) will be necessary. While current testing capacities are also used to identify such asymptomatic cases, this rather passive approach is not suitable in generating reliable population-based estimates of the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers to allow any dependable predictions on the course of the pandemic. To better control and manage the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, current strategies therefore need to be complemented by an active surveillance of the wider population, i.e. routinely conducted testing and monitoring activities to identify and isolate infected individuals regardless of their clinical symptoms. Such active surveillance strategies will enable more effective prevention of the spread of the virus as they can generate more precise population-based parameters during a pandemic. This essential information will be required in order to determine the best strategic and targeted short-term countermeasures to limit infection spread locally. TRIAL DESIGN: This trial implements a cluster-randomised, two-factorial controlled, prospective, interventional, single-blinded design with four study arms, each representing a different SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance strategy. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible are individuals age 7 years or older living in Germany's Rhein-Neckar Region who consent to provide a saliva sample (all four arms) after completion of a brief questionnaire (two arms only). For the qualitative component, different samples of study participants and non-participants (i.e. eligible for study, but refuse to participate) will be identified for additional interviews. For these interviews, only individuals age 18 years or older are eligible. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Of the four surveillance strategies to be assessed and compared, Strategy A1 is considered the gold standard for prevalence estimation and used to determine bias in other arms. To determine the cost-effectiveness, each strategy is compared to status quo, defined as the currently practiced passive surveillance approach. Strategy A1: Individuals (one per household) receive information and study material by mail with instructions on how to produce a saliva sample and how to return the sample by mail. Once received by the laboratory, the sample is tested for SARS-CoV-2 using Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP). Strategy A2: Individuals (one per household) receive information and study material by mail with instructions on how to produce their own as well as saliva samples from each household member and how to return these samples by mail. Once received by the laboratory, the samples are tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-LAMP. Strategy B1: Individuals (one per household) receive information by mail on how to complete a brief pre-screening questionnaire which asks about COVID-19 related clinical symptoms and risk exposures. Only individuals whose pre-screening score crosses a defined threshold, will then receive additional study material by mail with instructions on how to produce a saliva sample and how to return the sample by mail. Once received by the laboratory, the saliva sample is tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-LAMP. Strategy B2: Individuals (one per household) receive information by mail on how to complete a brief pre-screening questionnaire which asks about COVID-19 related clinical symptoms. Only individuals whose pre-screening score crosses a defined threshold, will then receive additional study material by mail with instructions how to produce their own as well as saliva samples from each household member and how to return these samples by mail. Once received by the laboratory, the samples are tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-LAMP. In each strategy, RT-LAMP positive samples are additionally analyzed with qPCR in order to minimize the number of false positives. MAIN OUTCOMES: The identification of the one best strategy will be determined by a set of parameters. Primary outcomes include costs per correctly screened person, costs per positive case, positive detection rate, and precision of positive detection rate. Secondary outcomes include participation rate, costs per asymptomatic case, prevalence estimates, number of asymptomatic cases per study arm, ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic cases per study arm, participant satisfaction. Additional study components (not part of the trial) include cost effectiveness of each of the four surveillance strategies compared to passive monitoring (i.e. status quo), development of a prognostic model to predict hospital utilization caused by SARS-CoV-2, time from test shipment to test application and time from test shipment to test result, and perception and preferences of the persons to be tested with regard to test strategies. RANDOMISATION: Samples are drawn in three batches of three continuous weeks. Randomisation follows a two-stage process. First, a total of 220 sampling points have been allocated to the three different batches. To obtain an integer solution, the Cox-algorithm for controlled rounding has been used. Afterwards, sample points have been drawn separately per batch, following a probability proportional to size (PPS) random sample. Second, for each cluster the same number of residential addresses is randomly sampled from the municipal registries (self-weighted sample of individuals). The 28,125 addresses drawn per municipality are then randomly allocated to the four study arms A1, A2, B1, and B2 in the ratio 5 to 2.5 to 14 to 7 based on the expected response rates in each arm and the sensitivity and specificity of the pre-screening tool as applied in strategy B1 and B2. Based on the assumptions, this allocation should yield 2500 saliva samples in each strategy. Although a municipality can be sampled by multiple batches and the overall number of addresses per municipality might vary, the number of addresses contacted in each arm is kept constant. BLINDING (MASKING): The design is single-blinded, meaning the staff conducting the SARS-CoV-2 tests are unaware of the study arm assignment of each single participant and test sample. SAMPLE SIZES: Total sample size for the trial is 10,000 saliva samples equally allocated to the four study arms (i.e. 2,500 participants per arm). For the qualitative component, up to 60 in-depth interviews will be conducted with about 30 study participants (up to 15 in each arm A and B) and 30 participation refusers (up to 15 in each arm A and B) purposefully selected from the quantitative study sample to represent a variety of gender and ages to explore experiences with admission or rejection of study participation. Up to 25 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive study participants will be purposefully selected to explore the way in which asymptomatic men and women diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 give meaning to their diagnosis and to the dialectic between feeling concurrently healthy and yet also being at risk for transmitting COVID-19. In addition, 100 randomly selected study participants will be included to explore participants' perspective on testing processes and implementation. TRIAL STATUS: Final protocol version is "Surveillance_Studienprotokoll_03Nov2020_v1_2" from November 3, 2020. Recruitment started November 18, 2020 and is expected to end by or before December 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is currently being registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS00023271 ( https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial . HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00023271). Retrospectively registered 30 November 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Health Care Costs , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Population Surveillance , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Single-Blind Method
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(5): 1469-1479, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic disrupted medical care for persons with cancer including those with lymphoma. Many professional societies recommend postponing, decreasing, or stopping anti-cancer therapy in selected persons during the pandemic. Although seemingly sensible, these recommendations are not evidence-based and their impact on anxiety and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) is unknown. METHODS: We surveyed 2532 subjects including 1060 persons with lymphoma, 948 caregivers, and 524 normals using a purposed-designed questionnaire on a patient organization website. Respondents also completed the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and patient respondents, the EORTC QLQ-C30 instruments to quantify anxiety, and HRQoL. We also evaluated caregiver support and an online education programme of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO). Data of HRQoL from a 2019 pre-pandemic online survey of 1106 persons with lymphoma were a control. RESULTS: 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30, 36%) of lymphoma patients and 31% (28, 34%) of caregivers but only 21% (17, 24%) of normals had any level of anxiety (both pair-wise P < 0.001). Among lymphoma respondents, physical exercise and better caregiver support were associated with less anxiety, whereas female sex, receiving therapy, and reduced therapy intensity were associated with more anxiety. Paradoxically, lymphoma respondents during the pandemic had better HRQoL than pre-pandemic controls. Reduced therapy intensity was associated with worse HRQoL, whereas respondents who scored caregiver support and the online patient education programme high had better HRQoL. CONCLUSION: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, lymphoma patients and their caregivers had significantly higher incidences of anxiety compared with normals. Lymphoma respondents reported better HRQoL compared with pre-pandemic controls. Reduced therapy intensity in persons with cancer may have unanticipated adverse effects on anxiety and HRQoL. Regular and intense support by caregivers and online education programmes alleviate anxiety and improve HRQoL.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Lymphoma/therapy , Quality of Life/psychology , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Lymphoma/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Psychosocial Support Systems , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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