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1.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2236, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573896

ABSTRACT

Modifications in HLA-I expression are found in many viral diseases. They represent one of the immune evasion strategies most widely used by viruses to block antigen presentation and NK cell response, and SARS-CoV-2 is no exception. These alterations result from a combination of virus-specific factors, genetically encoded mechanisms, and the status of host defences and range from loss or upregulation of HLA-I molecules to selective increases of HLA-I alleles. In this review, I will first analyse characteristic features of altered HLA-I expression found in SARS-CoV-2. I will then discuss the potential factors underlying these defects, focussing on HLA-E and class-I-related (like) molecules and their receptors, the most documented HLA-I alterations. I will also draw attention to potential differences between cells transfected to express viral proteins and those presented as part of authentic infection. Consideration of these factors and others affecting HLA-I expression may provide us with improved possibilities for research into cellular immunity against viral variants.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation , COVID-19/immunology , Clonal Anergy , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alleles , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Gene Expression , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/virology
2.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0080721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486516

ABSTRACT

The membrane fusion between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host cells is essential for the initial step of infection; therefore, the host cell membrane components, including sphingolipids, influence the viral infection. We assessed several inhibitors of the enzymes pertaining to sphingolipid metabolism, against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-mediated cell-cell fusion and viral infection. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), an inhibitor of dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1), suppressed cell-cell fusion and viral infection. The analysis of sphingolipid levels revealed that the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion and viral infection in 4-HPR-treated cells were consistent with an increased ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to total sphingolipids. We investigated the relationship of DES1 with the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion. The changes in the sphingolipid profile induced by 4-HPR were mitigated by the supplementation with exogenous cell-permeative ceramide; however, the reduced cell-cell fusion could not be reversed. The efficiency of cell-cell fusion in DES1 knockout (KO) cells was at a level comparable to that in wild-type (WT) cells; however, the ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to the total sphingolipids was higher in DES1 KO cells than in WT cells. 4-HPR reduced cell membrane fluidity without any significant effects on the expression or localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Therefore, 4-HPR suppresses SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion through a DES1-independent mechanism, and this decrease in membrane fluidity induced by 4-HPR could be the major cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Sphingolipids could play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion with host cells. We studied the cell-cell fusion using SARS-CoV-2 S-expressing cells and sphingolipid-manipulated target cells, with an inhibitor of the sphingolipid metabolism. 4-HPR (also known as fenretinide) is an inhibitor of DES1, and it exhibits antitumor activity and suppresses cell-cell fusion and viral infection. 4-HPR suppresses membrane fusion through a decrease in membrane fluidity, which could possibly be the cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is accumulating clinical data on the safety of 4-HPR. Therefore, it could be a potential candidate drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Fenretinide/pharmacology , Membrane Fluidity/drug effects , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Cell Membrane/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Fluidity/genetics , Oxidoreductases/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389523

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and poses a great threat to public health worldwide. Clinical data shows a disturbed type I interferon (IFN) response during the virus infection. In this study, we discovered that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in the inhibition of interferon beta (IFN-ß) production. N protein repressed IFN-ß production induced by poly(I:C) or upon Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We noted that N protein also suppressed IFN-ß production, induced by several signaling molecules downstream of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway, which is the crucial pattern recognition receptor (PRR) responsible for identifying RNA viruses. Moreover, our data demonstrated that N protein interacted with the RIG-I protein through the DExD/H domain, which has ATPase activity and plays an important role in the binding of immunostimulatory RNAs. These results suggested that SARS-CoV-2 N protein suppresses the IFN-ß response through targeting the initial step, potentially the cellular PRR-RNA-recognition step in the innate immune pathway. Therefore, we propose that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein represses IFN-ß production by interfering with RIG-I.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Immunologic , Signal Transduction
5.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0080721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381151

ABSTRACT

The membrane fusion between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host cells is essential for the initial step of infection; therefore, the host cell membrane components, including sphingolipids, influence the viral infection. We assessed several inhibitors of the enzymes pertaining to sphingolipid metabolism, against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-mediated cell-cell fusion and viral infection. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), an inhibitor of dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1), suppressed cell-cell fusion and viral infection. The analysis of sphingolipid levels revealed that the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion and viral infection in 4-HPR-treated cells were consistent with an increased ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to total sphingolipids. We investigated the relationship of DES1 with the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion. The changes in the sphingolipid profile induced by 4-HPR were mitigated by the supplementation with exogenous cell-permeative ceramide; however, the reduced cell-cell fusion could not be reversed. The efficiency of cell-cell fusion in DES1 knockout (KO) cells was at a level comparable to that in wild-type (WT) cells; however, the ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to the total sphingolipids was higher in DES1 KO cells than in WT cells. 4-HPR reduced cell membrane fluidity without any significant effects on the expression or localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Therefore, 4-HPR suppresses SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion through a DES1-independent mechanism, and this decrease in membrane fluidity induced by 4-HPR could be the major cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Sphingolipids could play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion with host cells. We studied the cell-cell fusion using SARS-CoV-2 S-expressing cells and sphingolipid-manipulated target cells, with an inhibitor of the sphingolipid metabolism. 4-HPR (also known as fenretinide) is an inhibitor of DES1, and it exhibits antitumor activity and suppresses cell-cell fusion and viral infection. 4-HPR suppresses membrane fusion through a decrease in membrane fluidity, which could possibly be the cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is accumulating clinical data on the safety of 4-HPR. Therefore, it could be a potential candidate drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Fenretinide/pharmacology , Membrane Fluidity/drug effects , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Cell Membrane/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Fluidity/genetics , Oxidoreductases/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0080721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350004

ABSTRACT

The membrane fusion between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host cells is essential for the initial step of infection; therefore, the host cell membrane components, including sphingolipids, influence the viral infection. We assessed several inhibitors of the enzymes pertaining to sphingolipid metabolism, against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-mediated cell-cell fusion and viral infection. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), an inhibitor of dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DES1), suppressed cell-cell fusion and viral infection. The analysis of sphingolipid levels revealed that the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion and viral infection in 4-HPR-treated cells were consistent with an increased ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to total sphingolipids. We investigated the relationship of DES1 with the inhibition efficiencies of cell-cell fusion. The changes in the sphingolipid profile induced by 4-HPR were mitigated by the supplementation with exogenous cell-permeative ceramide; however, the reduced cell-cell fusion could not be reversed. The efficiency of cell-cell fusion in DES1 knockout (KO) cells was at a level comparable to that in wild-type (WT) cells; however, the ratio of saturated sphinganine-based lipids to the total sphingolipids was higher in DES1 KO cells than in WT cells. 4-HPR reduced cell membrane fluidity without any significant effects on the expression or localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Therefore, 4-HPR suppresses SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion through a DES1-independent mechanism, and this decrease in membrane fluidity induced by 4-HPR could be the major cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Sphingolipids could play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 S-mediated membrane fusion with host cells. We studied the cell-cell fusion using SARS-CoV-2 S-expressing cells and sphingolipid-manipulated target cells, with an inhibitor of the sphingolipid metabolism. 4-HPR (also known as fenretinide) is an inhibitor of DES1, and it exhibits antitumor activity and suppresses cell-cell fusion and viral infection. 4-HPR suppresses membrane fusion through a decrease in membrane fluidity, which could possibly be the cause for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is accumulating clinical data on the safety of 4-HPR. Therefore, it could be a potential candidate drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Fenretinide/pharmacology , Membrane Fluidity/drug effects , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Cell Membrane/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Fluidity/genetics , Oxidoreductases/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10475, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233721

ABSTRACT

Infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 disease. Therapeutic antibodies are being developed that interact with the viral spike proteins to limit viral infection of epithelium. We have applied a method to dramatically improve the performance of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enhancing avidity through multimerization using simple engineering to yield tetrameric antibodies. We have re-engineered six anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using the human p53 tetramerization domain, including three clinical trials antibodies casirivimab, imdevimab and etesevimab. The method yields tetrameric antibodies, termed quads, that retain efficient binding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, show up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in neutralization of pseudovirus infection and retain potent interaction with virus variant of concern spike proteins. The tetramerization method is simple, general and its application is a powerful methodological development for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that are currently in pre-clinical and clinical investigation.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Chain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry
8.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178431

ABSTRACT

The spike glycoprotein attached to the envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to and exploits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as an entry receptor to infect pulmonary epithelial cells. A subset of integrins that recognize the arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence in the cognate ligands has been predicted in silico to bind the spike glycoprotein and, thereby, to be exploited for viral infection. Here, we show experimental evidence that the ß1 integrins predominantly expressed on human pulmonary epithelial cell lines and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells bind to this spike protein. The cellular ß1 integrins support adhesive interactions with the spike protein independently of ACE2, suggesting the possibility that the ß1 integrins may function as an alternative receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which could be targeted for the prevention of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Integrin beta1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Adhesion , Cell Line , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oligopeptides , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , THP-1 Cells , Virus Internalization
9.
EJHaem ; 2(2): 175-187, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162657

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, an infection capable of causing severe disease and death but which can also be asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic. We investigated whether ABO blood group or secretor status was associated with COVID-19 severity. We investigated secretor status because expression of ABO glycans on secreted proteins and non-erythroid cells are controlled by a fucosyltransferase (FUT2), and inactivating FUT2 mutations result in a non-secretor phenotype which protects against some viral infections. Data combined from healthcare records and our own laboratory tests (n = 275) of hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction positive patients confirmed higher than expected numbers of blood group A individuals compared to O (RR = 1.24, CI 95% [1.05, 1.47], p = 0.0111). There was also a significant association between group A and COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications (RR = 2.56, CI 95% [1.43, 4.55], p = 0.0011) which is independent of gender. Molecular analysis revealed that group A non-secretors are significantly less likely to be hospitalized than secretors. Testing of convalescent plasma donors, among whom the majority displayed COVID-19 symptoms and only a small minority required hospitalization, group A non-secretors were slightly over-represented. Our findings showed that group A non-secretors are not resistant to infection by SARS-CoV-2, but are more likely to experience a less severe form of associated disease.

10.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(3): e1240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144230

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a global pandemic and a severe public health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and shows high mortality rates, especially in elderly and patients with pre-existing medical conditions. At the current stage, no effective drugs are available to treat these patients. In this review, we analyse the rationale of targeting RGD-binding integrins to potentially inhibit viral cell infection and to block TGF-ß activation, which is involved in the severity of several human pathologies, including the complications of severe COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, we demonstrate the correlation between ACE2 and TGF-ß expression and the possible consequences for severe COVID-19 infections. Finally, we list approved drugs or drugs in clinical trials for other diseases that also target the RGD-binding integrins or TGF-ß. These drugs have already shown a good safety profile and, therefore, can be faster brought into a trial to treat COVID-19 patients.

11.
Arch Virol ; 166(7): 1819-1840, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141432

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has affected millions of people globally. To date, there are no highly efficient therapies for this infection. Probiotic bacteria can interact with the gut microbiome to strengthen the immune system, enhance immune responses, and induce appropriate immune signaling pathways. Several probiotics have been confirmed to reduce the duration of bacterial or viral infections. Immune fitness may be one of the approaches by which protection against viral infections can be reinforced. In general, prevention is more efficient than therapy in fighting viral infections. Thus, probiotics have emerged as suitable candidates for controlling these infections. During the COVID-19 pandemic, any approach with the capacity to induce mucosal and systemic reactions could potentially be useful. Here, we summarize findings regarding the effectiveness of various probiotics for preventing virus-induced respiratory infectious diseases, especially those that could be employed for COVID-19 patients. However, the benefits of probiotics are strain-specific, and it is necessary to identify the bacterial strains that are scientifically established to be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dysbiosis , Humans , Immunomodulation , Microbiota , Probiotics/classification , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Species Specificity
12.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 488-494, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level. METHODS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The frequency of influenza and other respiratory viruses (coxsackievirus A and B; echovirus; enterovirus; human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43; human metapneumovirus; human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, and 4; human parechovirus; human respiratory syncytial virus; human adenovirus; human bocavirus; human parvovirus B19; herpes simplex virus type 1; and varicella-zoster virus) was appreciably reduced among all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic except for that of rhinovirus in children younger than 10 years, which was appreciably increased. COVID-19 has not spread among this age group, suggesting an increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections should be continuously monitored to understand their increased risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and viral interference with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
13.
Noncoding RNA ; 7(1)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125479

ABSTRACT

Sense-antisense interactions of long and short RNAs in human cells are integral to post-transcriptional gene regulation, in particular that of mRNAs by microRNAs. Many viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19), have RNA genomes, and interactions between host and viral RNAs, while known to be functional in other viral diseases, have not yet been investigated in COVID-19. To remedy this gap in knowledge, we present miRCOVID-19, a computational meta-analysis framework identifying the predicted binding sites of human microRNAs along the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. To highlight the potential relevance of SARS-CoV-2-genome-complementary miRNAs to COVID-19 pathogenesis, we assessed their expression in COVID-19-relevant tissues using public transcriptome data. miRCOVID-19 identified 14 high-confidence mature miRNAs that are highly likely to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 genome and are expressed in diverse respiratory epithelial and immune cell types that are relevant to COVID-19 pathogenesis. As a proof of principle, we have shown that human miR-122, a previously known co-factor of another RNA virus, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) whose genome it binds as a prerequisite for pathogenesis, was predicted to also bind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome with high affinity, suggesting the perspective of repurposing anti-HCV RNA-based drugs, such as Miravirsen, to treat COVID-19. Our study is the first to identify all high-confidence binding sites of human miRNAs in the SARS-CoV-2 genome using multiple tools. Our work directly facilitates experimental validation of the reported targets, which would accelerate RNA-based drug discovery for COVID-19 and has the potential to provide new avenues for treating symptomatic COVID-19, and block SARS-CoV-2 replication, in humans.

14.
Environ Res ; 196: 110984, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118427

ABSTRACT

Host nutrition is an important factor affecting disease progression. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for the human body with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune effects, and Se deficiency increases RNA-virus replication and virulent mutations, which lead to more severe tissue damage and symptoms. Low Se status in the host may be an important cause of health complications induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this article, we describe the metabolic mechanisms by which Se is involved in anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune effects, and review the role and clinical effects of Se in viral infection. We then discuss the potential relationship between Se and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The association between soil Se level and the incidence of COVID-19 was observed in different cities of Hubei Province. The incidence of COVID-19 was more than 10 times lower in Se-enriched cities (Enshi, Shiyan, and Xiangyang) than in Se-deficient cities (Suizhou and Xiaogan). Although the relationship between soil Se levels and the incidence of COVID-19 in Hubei still needs further study, these findings provide baseline information demonstrating the effect of Se levels on SARS-CoV-2, which could contribute to the prevention and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Virus Diseases , Humans , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(2): e170322191922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110180

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, associated with high morbidity and mortality, and represents a significant public health crisis worldwide. Despite recent efforts for developing novel antiviral agents, no specific drugs are approved for the management and treatment of COVID-19. The immune responses to viral infection followed by cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress syndrome are serious issues that may cause death in patients with severe COVID-19. Therefore, developing a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of COVID-19 is urgently needed to control the virus spread and to improve the patient survival rate and clinical outcomes. In this mini-review, we summarize the symptoms, pathogenesis, and therapeutic approaches currently being used to manage the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; 36(4): 416-426, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092844

ABSTRACT

Nutritional deficiency is associated with impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The complex interactions of trace elements with the macromolecules trigger the effective immune response against the viral diseases. The outcome of various viral infections along with susceptibility is affected by trace elements such as zinc, selenium, iron, copper, etc. due to their immuno-modulatory effects. Available electronic databases have been comprehensively searched for articles published with full text available and with the key words "Trace elements", "COVID-19", "Viral Infections" and "Immune Response" (i.e. separately Zn, Se, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mo, Cr, Li, Ni, Co) appearing in the title and abstract. On the basis of available articles we have explored the role of trace elements in viral infections with special reference to COVID-19 and their interactions with the immune system. Zinc, selenium and other trace elements are vital to triggerTH1 cells and cytokine-mediated immune response for substantial production of proinflammatory cytokines. The antiviral activity of some trace elements is attributed to their inhibitory effect on viral entry, replication and other downstream processes. Trace elements having antioxidants activity not only regulate host immune responses, but also modify the viral genome. Adequate dietary intake of trace elements is essential for activation, development, differentiation and numerous functions.

17.
Platelets ; 32(1): 130-137, 2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066099

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable viral infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 utilizes metallocarboxyl peptidase angiotensin receptor (ACE) 2 to gain entry into human cells. Activation of several proteases facilitates the interaction of viral spike proteins (S1) and ACE2 receptor. This leads to cleavage of host ACE2 receptors. ACE2 activity counterbalances the angiotensin II effect, its loss may lead to elevated angiotensin II levels with modulation of platelet function, size and activity. COVID-19 disease encompasses a spectrum of systemic involvement far beyond respiratory failure alone. Several features of this disease, including the etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the hypercoagulable state, remain poorly understood. Here, we show that there is a high incidence of AKI (81%) in the critically ill adults with COVID-19 in the setting of elevated D-dimer, elevated ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Strikingly, there were unique features of platelets in these patients, including larger, more granular platelets and a higher mean platelet volume (MPV). There was a significant correlation between measured D-dimer levels and MVP; but a negative correlation between MPV and glomerular filtration rates (GFR) in critically ill cohort. Our data suggest that activated platelets may play a role in renal failure and possibly hypercoagulability status in COVID19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombophilia/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Thrombophilia/blood , Young Adult
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(20): 11270-11283, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060299

ABSTRACT

Specific elements of viral genomes regulate interactions within host cells. Here, we calculated the secondary structure content of >2000 coronaviruses and computed >100 000 human protein interactions with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The genomic regions display different degrees of conservation. SARS-CoV-2 domain encompassing nucleotides 22 500-23 000 is conserved both at the sequence and structural level. The regions upstream and downstream, however, vary significantly. This part of the viral sequence codes for the Spike S protein that interacts with the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Thus, variability of Spike S is connected to different levels of viral entry in human cells within the population. Our predictions indicate that the 5' end of SARS-CoV-2 is highly structured and interacts with several human proteins. The binding proteins are involved in viral RNA processing, include double-stranded RNA specific editases and ATP-dependent RNA-helicases and have strong propensity to form stress granules and phase-separated assemblies. We propose that these proteins, also implicated in viral infections such as HIV, are selectively recruited by SARS-CoV-2 genome to alter transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of host cells and to promote viral replication.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virulence/genetics , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
19.
Heliyon ; 7(1): e05957, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viruses are responsible for several diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome, a condition caused by today's pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A negotiated immune system is a common risk factor for all viral infections, including COVID-19. To date, no specific therapies or vaccines have been approved for coronavirus. In these circumstances, antiviral and immune boosting foods may ensure protection against viral infections, especially SARS-CoV-2 by reducing risk and ensuring fast healing of SARS-CoV-2 illness. SCOPE AND APPROACH: In this review, we have conducted an online search using several search engines (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct) to find out some traditional foods (plant, animal and fungi species), which have antiviral and immune-boosting properties against numerous viral infections, particularly coronaviruses (CoVs) and others RNA-virus infections. Our review indicated some foods to be considered as potential immune enhancers, which may help individuals to overcome viral infections like COVID-19 by modulating immune systems and reducing respiratory problems. Furthermore, this review will provide information regarding biological properties of conventional foods and their ingredients to uphold general health. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: We observed some foods with antiviral and immune-boosting properties, which possess bioactive compounds that showed significant antiviral properties against different viruses, particularly RNA viruses such as CoVs. Interestingly, some antiviral and immune-boosting mechanisms were very much similar to the antiviral drug of COVID-19 homologous SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus). The transient nature and the devastating spreading capability of COVID-19 lead to ineffectiveness of many curative therapies. Therefore, body shielding and immune-modulating foods, which have previous scientific recognition, have been discussed in this review to discern the efficacy of these foods against viral infections, especially SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 85(12): 1543-1553, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035276

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19 is the subject of active research around the world. COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 is a complex disease in which interaction of the virus with target cells, action of the immune system and the body's systemic response to these events are closely intertwined. Many respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19, cause death of the infected cells, activation of innate immune response, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. All these processes are associated with the development of oxidative stress, which makes an important contribution to pathogenesis of the viral infections. This review analyzes information on the oxidative stress associated with the infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. The review also focuses on involvement of the vascular endothelium in the COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium/cytology , Endothelium/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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