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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and cardiovascular damage is commonly observed in affected patients. We sought to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiac injury and hypertension during the current coronavirus pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The clinical data of 366 hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed patients were analyzed. The clinical signs and laboratory findings were extracted from electronic medical records. Two independent, experienced clinicians reviewed and analyzed the data. RESULTS: Cardiac injury was found in 11.19% (30/268) of enrolled patients. 93.33% (28/30) of cardiac injury cases were in the severe group. The laboratory findings indicated that white blood cells, neutrophils, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, lactate, and lactic dehydrogenase were positively associated with cardiac injury marker. Compared with healthy controls, the 190 patients without prior hypertension have higher AngⅡ level, of which 16 (8.42%) patients had a rise in blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, with a significantly increased level of the cTnI, procalcitonin, angiotensin-II (AngⅡ) than those normal blood pressure ones. Multivariate analysis indicated that elevated age, cTnI, the history of hypertension, and diabetes were independent predictors for illness severity. The predictive model, based on the four parameters and gender, has a good ability to identify the clinical severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients (area under the curve: 0.932, sensitivity: 98.67%, specificity: 75.68%). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, sometimes accompanied by elevated cTnI, may occur in COVID-19 patients and become a sequela. Enhancing Ang II signaling, driven by SARS-CoV-2 infection, might play an important role in the renin-angiotensin system, and consequently lead to the development of hypertension in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Injuries/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a clinical outcome ranging from mild to severe, including death. To date, it is unclear why some patients develop severe symptoms. Many authors have suggested the involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk of infections; thus, we retrospectively investigated the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients from Switzerland. In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.004) were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median value 11.1 ng/mL) patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL); this was also confirmed by stratifying patients according to age >70 years. On the basis of this preliminary observation, vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations and to confirm our preliminary observation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood
3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1039-1043, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A patient's infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients' oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients' inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients' stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients' urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients' stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients' stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Oral Microbiol ; 13(1): 1848135, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574293

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to spread is one of the determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic status. Until June 2020, global COVID-19 cases surpassed 10 million. Asymptomatic patients, with no respiratory impairment, are believed to be responsible for more than 80% of the transmission. Other viruses have been consistently detected in periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in periodontal tissue. Methods: We conducted video-endoscope minimally invasive post-mortem biopsy in seven fatal cases of COVID-19, using a regular endoscope video system associated with a smartphone to locate periodontal tissue. We analyzed the samples using RT-PCR, to identify the SARS-CoV-2 RNA and histopathological analysis. Results: The seven studied autopsies with positive laboratory tests for COVID-19 included 57.14% of female patients at the average age of 47.4 (range 8 to 74). In five cases, periodontal tissue was positive for SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR). Histopathologic analyses showed morphologic alterations in the keratinocytes of the junctional epithelium, a vacuolization of the cytoplasm and nucleus and nuclear pleomorphism. Conclusion: We presented a biomolecular analysis obtained from minimally invasive autopsies. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in periodontal tissue in COVID-19 positive patients.

5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(10): 1257-1259, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541092

ABSTRACT

We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 80(3): 714-717, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399547

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a condition caused by a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease's course ranges from entirely asymptomatic to severely ill patients. Hypercoagulation is often a complication of this disease, worsening the prognosis, which is extremely important in patients at higher risk of thromboembolic events, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), where thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage (LAA) is frequent. LAA could be of various sizes, volumes, and shapes, distinguish several morphologies, from which the WindSock LAA is the most frequent. In contrast, thromboembolic complications occur most frequently in patients with AF and the Cactus LAA. We present a clinical case of a 70-year-old woman with an initial negative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, suspicion of device-related infection after dual pacemaker implantation, AF, and LAA without thrombus in the initial transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Despite apixaban treatment, spontaneous restoration of sinus rhythm, and WindSock LAA morphology, the sludge in LAA was diagnosed in control TEE. The patient did not present any typical clinical COVID-19 symptoms but re-checked the RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was positive. The described case presents echocardiographic evidence of hypercoagulation as the first and only feature of SARS-CoV-2 condition besides the usual morphological presentation of the WindSock LAA.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Thrombophilia , Aged , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology
7.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932321, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Subacute thyroiditis, myocarditis, and hepatitis are inflammatory disorders that may develop after viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. These entities may appear after resolution of the respiratory syndrome. CASE REPORT A previously healthy 64-year-old male patient came to the hospital reporting severe chest pain. He had a history of a COVID-19 pneumonia with PCR confirmation 4 weeks before. On admission to the Coronary Care Unit (CCU), the patient had a negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2; the following tests were performed: total T3 643.4 ng/dl (reference 35-193 ng/dl), total thyroxine 12.0 µg/dl (reference 4.8-11.7 µg/dl), free T4 1.85 ng/dl (reference 0.7-1.48 ng/dl), TSH 0.01 µIU/ml (reference 0.35-4.94 µIU/ml); total bilirubin 0.76 mg/dl (reference 0.0-1.5 mg/dl), alkaline phosphatase 185 U/L (reference 40-150 U/L), alanine aminotransferase 194.6 U/L (reference 6-66 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase 93.4 U/L (reference 9-55 U/L); on admission to the CCU high-sensitivity troponin I 548.3 pg/ml (reference 0.0-34.2 pg/ml), after 24 h in the CCU 801 pg/ml, and after 11 days (as an outpatient) 4.5 pg/ml. A thyroid gammagram revealed absent uptake of the radionuclide. Normal cardiac gammagraphy and cardiac enzymes ruled out myocardial ischemia and infarction. The following diagnoses were made: myocarditis, subacute thyroiditis, and reactive hepatitis due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 has been demonstrated to be a multisystemic inflammatory disorder. The serious illness that developed in our patient after relief of his pulmonary disease underlines this nature. We suggest close follow-up of patients even after apparent clinical resolution, and performing thyroid, myocardial, and liver tests if clinically indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Myocarditis , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Biomarkers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(12): 409-414, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389865

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) disease incidence has decreased steadily since 1993 (1), a result of decades of work by local TB programs to detect, treat, and prevent TB disease and transmission. During 2020, a total of 7,163 TB cases were provisionally reported to CDC's National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS) by the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), a relative reduction of 20%, compared with the number of cases reported during 2019.* TB incidence per 100,000 persons was 2.2 during 2020, compared with 2.7 during 2019. Since 2010, TB incidence has decreased by an average of 2%-3% annually (1). Pandemic mitigation efforts and reduced travel might have contributed to the reported decrease. The magnitude and breadth of the decrease suggest potentially missed or delayed TB diagnoses. Health care providers should consider TB disease when evaluating patients with signs and symptoms consistent with TB (e.g., cough of >2 weeks in duration, unintentional weight loss, and hemoptysis), especially when diagnostic tests are negative for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In addition, members of the public should be encouraged to follow up with their health care providers for any respiratory illness that persists or returns after initial treatment. The steep, unexpected decline in TB cases raises concerns of missed cases, and further work is in progress to better understand factors associated with the decline.


Subject(s)
Population Surveillance , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(6): 1146-1153, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384523

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients, including those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI), may be at increased risk for severe or prolonged infections with SARS-CoV-2 (Zhu et al. N Engl J Med. 382:727-33, 2020; Guan et al. 2020; Minotti et al. J Infect. 81:e61-6, 2020). While antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins are well described in healthy convalescent donors, adaptive humoral and cellular immunity has not yet been characterized in patients with antibody deficiency (Grifoni et al. Cell. 181:1489-1501 e1415, 2020; Burbelo et al. 2020; Long et al. Nat Med. 26:845-8, 2020; Braun et al. 2020). Herein, we describe the clinical course, antibody, and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in a cohort of adult and pediatric patients with antibody deficiencies (n = 5) and controls (related and unrelated) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Five patients within the same family (3 with antibody deficiency, 2 immunocompetent controls) showed antibody responses to nucleocapsid and spike proteins, as well as SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity at days 65-84 from onset of symptoms. No significant difference was identified between immunocompromised patients and controls. Two additional unrelated, adult patients with common variable immune deficiency were assessed. One did not show antibody response, but both demonstrated SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity when evaluated 33 and 76 days, respectively, following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. This report is the first to show robust T cell activity and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in some patients with antibody deficiency. Given the reliance on spike protein in most candidate vaccines (Folegatti et al. Lancet. 396:467-78, 2020; Jackson et al. N Engl J Med. 383:1920-31, 2020), the responses are encouraging. Additional studies will be needed to further define the timing of onset of immunity, longevity of the immune response, and variability of response in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Carrier State , Cells, Cultured , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 188-198, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have several risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), the reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections is low. We aimed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, and the incidence of VA-LRTI. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation > 48 h were eligible if they had: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection at ICU admission. VA-LRTI, including ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), were diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. All VA-LRTI were prospectively identified, and chest-X rays were analyzed by at least two physicians. Cumulative incidence of first episodes of VA-LRTI was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, and compared using Fine-and Gray models. RESULTS: 1576 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2, 482 in influenza, and 526 in no viral infection groups). VA-LRTI incidence was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 patients (287, 50.5%), as compared to influenza patients (146, 30.3%, adjusted sub hazard ratio (sHR) 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 2.04)) or patients with no viral infection (133, 25.3%, adjusted sHR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.39)). Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for a large proportion (82% to 89.7%) of VA-LRTI, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VA-LRTI is significantly higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection after statistical adjustment, but residual confounding may still play a role in the effect estimates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 918-922, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389847

ABSTRACT

To limit introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the United States restricted travel from China on February 2, 2020, and from Europe on March 13. To determine whether local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 could be detected, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) conducted deidentified sentinel surveillance at six NYC hospital emergency departments (EDs) during March 1-20. On March 8, while testing availability for SARS-CoV-2 was still limited, DOHMH announced sustained community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). At this time, twenty-six NYC residents had confirmed COVID-19, and ED visits for influenza-like illness* increased, despite decreased influenza virus circulation.† The following week, on March 15, when only seven of the 56 (13%) patients with known exposure histories had exposure outside of NYC, the level of community SARS-CoV-2 transmission status was elevated from sustained community transmission to widespread community transmission (2). Through sentinel surveillance during March 1-20, DOHMH collected 544 specimens from patients with influenza-like symptoms (ILS)§ who had negative test results for influenza and, in some instances, other respiratory pathogens.¶ All 544 specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at CDC; 36 (6.6%) tested positive. Using genetic sequencing, CDC determined that the sequences of most SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens resembled those circulating in Europe, suggesting probable introductions of SARS-CoV-2 from Europe, from other U.S. locations, and local introductions from within New York. These findings demonstrate that partnering with health care facilities and developing the systems needed for rapid implementation of sentinel surveillance, coupled with capacity for genetic sequencing before an outbreak, can help inform timely containment and mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sentinel Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis , Travel-Related Illness , Young Adult
12.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa521, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first documented outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome inducing Coronavirus in China at the end of 2019 the virus has spread to all continents, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. While this virus primarily targets the alveoli in the lungs, multiple authors have described an increased rate of thrombo-embolic events in affected patients. We present this case of a myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in an otherwise healthy 48-year-old patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 48-year-old female, presenting with chest pain radiating to her left shoulder with no cardiovascular risk factors other than genetic predisposition, was screened for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and tested positive. Although computed tomography angiography excluded obstructive coronary heart disease, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries of the inferior wall. The patient was treated with dual anti-platelet therapy, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and a statin, and assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation program. CONCLUSION: We report a serious thrombo-embolic event during an oligosymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthy, young patient. While these two diseases may have occurred simultaneously, by chance, it is possible that the pro-thrombotic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitated the infarction. This case further demonstrates the significant cardiovascular morbidity potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(7): 718-724, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has also resulted in substantial challenges for nephrology worldwide. Patients with chronic kidney diseases are a particularly vulnerable patient group in this context and in severe courses of COVID-19 the kidneys are most frequently affected by organ failure after the lungs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to reliably evaluate the prevalence and mortality of dialysis patients in Germany with respect to COVID-19, during the first wave in spring 2020 the German Society of Nephrology implemented a registry for dialysis patients. Weekly data on the number and course of dialysis patients affected by COVID-19 were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in dialysis patients in Germany developed in two waves, similar to the course of the pandemic in the general population. In spring the prevalence in dialysis patients reached 1.4% and considerably declined during the summer. In December during the second wave of the pandemic the prevalence again rose to 1.9%, despite comprehensively implemented hygiene measures in dialysis centers. Similar to other industrial nations, dialysis patients in Germany also showed a very high lethality of COVID-19 of up to 20%. CONCLUSION: Immediate consequences for hygiene measures in dialysis institutions as well as vaccination strategies and vaccination prioritization for this patient group and the personnel treating them can be derived from the high mortality in dialysis patients. A consequence of the frequent involvement of the kidneys during infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients who had not previously suffered from advanced kidney disease should be the consistent nephrological aftercare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nephrology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 498-510, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, only monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be effective for outpatients with COVID-19. Interferon lambda-1 is a type III interferon involved in innate antiviral responses with activity against respiratory pathogens. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of peginterferon lambda in the treatment of outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomly assigned to a single subcutaneous injection of peginterferon lambda 180 µg or placebo within 7 days of symptom onset or first positive swab if asymptomatic. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation list created with a randomisation schedule in blocks of four. At the time of administration, study nurses received a sealed opaque envelope with the treatment allocation number. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA on day 7 after the injection, analysed by a χ2 test following an intention-to-treat principle. Prespecified analysis of the primary endpoint, adjusted for baseline viral load, using bivariate logistic regression was done. The trial is now complete. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354259. FINDINGS: Between May 18, and Sept 4, 2020, we recruited 30 patients per group. The decline in SARS-CoV-2 RNA was greater in those treated with peginterferon lambda than placebo from day 3 onwards, with a difference of 2·42 log copies per mL at day 7 (p=0·0041). By day 7, 24 (80%) participants in the peginterferon lambda group had an undetectable viral load, compared with 19 (63%) in the placebo group (p=0·15). After controlling for baseline viral load, patients in the peginterferon lambda group were more likely to have undetectable virus by day 7 than were those in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 4·12 [95% CI 1·15-16·73; p=0·029). Of those with baseline viral load above 106 copies per mL, 15 (79%) of 19 patients in the peginterferon lambda group had undetectable virus on day 7, compared with six (38%) of 16 in the placebo group (OR 6·25 [95% CI 1·49-31·06]; p=0·012). Peginterferon lambda was well tolerated, and adverse events were similar between groups with mild and transient aminotransferase, concentration increases more frequently observed in the peginterferon lambda group. Two individuals met the threshold of grade 3 increase, one in each group, and no other grade 3 or 4 laboratory adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Peginterferon lambda accelerated viral decline in outpatients with COVID-19, increasing the proportion of patients with viral clearance by day 7, particularly in those with high baseline viral load. Peginterferon lambda has potential to prevent clinical deterioration and shorten duration of viral shedding. FUNDING: The Toronto COVID-19 Action Initiative, University of Toronto, and the Ontario First COVID-19 Rapid Research Fund, Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 , Interleukins , Polyethylene Glycols , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Interleukins/administration & dosage , Interleukins/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
16.
World J Clin Oncol ; 12(5): 309-322, 2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271031

ABSTRACT

Even though the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is related to SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), identifying effective and safe therapeutic strategies remains challenging. In search of finding effective treatments to eradicate the virus and improve disease symptoms, scientists are exploring possible therapies such as anti-viral, anti-malaria, immune therapy, and hormone treatments. However, the efficacy of these treatments was not validated on either SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV. In this study, we have reviewed synthetic evidence achieved through systematic and meta-analysis of therapeutics specific for SARS-CoV-2 and observed that the use of the above-mentioned therapies had no clinical benefits in coronavirus disease 2019 patients and, conversely, displayed side effects.

18.
Andrologia ; 53(8): e14136, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266303

ABSTRACT

The effect of COVID-19 on the male reproductive tract has been sparsely studied. This exploratory study was designed to determine the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen of men recovering from COVID-19. A systematic literature review was also performed as per PRISMA guidelines to gather perspective on this topic. The prospective study included men 21 years and older recovering from COVID-19 with nasopharyngeal swab negative for SARS-CoV-2 or at least two weeks from the last COVID RT-PCR positivity. After clinical evaluation, freshly ejaculated semen sample by masturbation was collected in a sterile container. Samples were processed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Twenty-one patients were contacted for the study, 11 of which consented to provide a semen sample. The mean age of the cohort was 29.72 ± 4.52 years. None of the patients gave a history of epididymo-orchitis or sexual dysfunction at the time of assessment. None of the semen samples demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR. Median duration of semen sample collection from the COVID positivity was 44 days (Range 19-59 days). Detailed literature review revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is not found in patients recovering from COVID-19 infection. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 is not found in the semen of patients recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Semen
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1142-1145, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of circulating respiratory viral pathogens other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first year of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with especially focusing on the effects of the national-based mitigation strategies. METHODS: This single-center study was conducted between March 11, 2020-March 11, 2021. All children who were tested by polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viral pathogens were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 995 children with suspected COVID-19 admitted to the study center. Of these, 513 patients who were tested by polymerase chain reaction for both SARS-CoV-2 and common respiratory viral pathogens were included in the final analysis. Two hundred ninety-five patients were (57.5%) male. The median age was 3 years of age (27 days-17 years). A total of 321 viral pathogens identified in 310 (n: 310/513, 60.4%) patients, and 11 of them (n: 11/310, 3.5%) had co-detection with more than 1 virus. The most common detected virus was rhinovirus (n: 156/513, 30.4%), and SARS-CoV-2 (n: 122/513, 23.8%) followed by respiratory syncytial virus (n: 18/513, 3.5%). The influenza virus was detected in 2 patients (0.4%). A total of 193 patients were negative for both SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: There is a decline in the frequency of all viral pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 in correlation with the national-based mitigation strategies against COVID-19 during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses , Adolescent , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics
20.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(7): 718-724, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has also resulted in substantial challenges for nephrology worldwide. Patients with chronic kidney diseases are a particularly vulnerable patient group in this context and in severe courses of COVID-19 the kidneys are most frequently affected by organ failure after the lungs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to reliably evaluate the prevalence and mortality of dialysis patients in Germany with respect to COVID-19, during the first wave in spring 2020 the German Society of Nephrology implemented a registry for dialysis patients. Weekly data on the number and course of dialysis patients affected by COVID-19 were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in dialysis patients in Germany developed in two waves, similar to the course of the pandemic in the general population. In spring the prevalence in dialysis patients reached 1.4% and considerably declined during the summer. In December during the second wave of the pandemic the prevalence again rose to 1.9%, despite comprehensively implemented hygiene measures in dialysis centers. Similar to other industrial nations, dialysis patients in Germany also showed a very high lethality of COVID-19 of up to 20%. CONCLUSION: Immediate consequences for hygiene measures in dialysis institutions as well as vaccination strategies and vaccination prioritization for this patient group and the personnel treating them can be derived from the high mortality in dialysis patients. A consequence of the frequent involvement of the kidneys during infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients who had not previously suffered from advanced kidney disease should be the consistent nephrological aftercare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nephrology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
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