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2.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1743-1747, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196459

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of COVID-19 reported in late December of 2019 in Wuhan, China, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused approximately 20 million infections and 732 thousand deaths around the world by 11 August 2020. Although the pathogen generally infects the respiratory system, whether it is present in the bloodstream and whether it poses a threat to the blood supply during the period of the outbreak is of serious public concern. In this study, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 2199 blood donors, who had donated blood at the Guangzhou Blood Center during the epidemic. The Ig-reactive samples were further characterized for IgA, IgG, and IgM subtypes by ELISA and viral nucleic acid by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among the 2199 plasma samples, seven were reactive under total antibodies' screening. Further testing revealed that none of them had detectable viral nucleic acid or IgM antibody, but two samples contained IgA and IgG. The IgG antibody titers of both positive samples were 1:16 and 1:4, respectively. Our results indicated a low prevalence of past SARS-CoV-2 infection in our blood donors, as none of the tests were positive for viral nucleic acid and only 2 out of 2199 (0.09%) of samples were positive for IgG and IgA. There would be a limited necessity for the implementation of such testing in blood screening in a COVID-19 low-risk area.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Young Adult
3.
Acta Haematol ; 144(5): 580-584, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194384

ABSTRACT

Recently, a significant cluster of pneumonia caused by a novel betacoronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) was described initially in China and then spread throughout the world. Like other coronaviridae, the viral transmission occurs mainly through droplets. In addition, the virus has been detected in different clinical specimens, suggesting a potential transmission by other routes, including blood transfusion. However, the potential risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via blood products is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors from South-Eastern Italy. Moreover, in the seropositive donors, we searched for the presence of the virus in nasopharyngeal swabs and in plasma samples. Overall, 1,797 blood donors from the Apulia region were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, using a commercially available assay. Only 18/1,797 donors (1.0%) tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; in none of them SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs and in plasma samples. Our results indicate that most of the blood donors in Apulia remained uninfected during this wave of the pandemic; further, none had detectable virus both in nasopharyngeal swabs and in blood samples. The risk to carry and transmit the virus by healthy and asymptomatic blood donors is probably very low.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Young Adult
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(6): 914.e1-914.e4, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To define the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood donors (referred to the first lockdown area (Lodi Red-Zone) of the Lombardy region and in a contiguous area that was not included in the first lockdown); to define the agreement between a commercial serological assay and a reference microneutralization assay; and to evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in a cohort of blood donors. METHODS: Blood donors referred to the first lockdown area in Lombardy Region and the neighbouring area were analysed for SARS-CoV-2 IgG-specific antibodies during the period 18 March to 24 June 2020. Serum samples were analysed using both a chemiluminescent immunoassay (LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, DiaSorin) for the quantitative characterization of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies and a neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) assay. RESULTS: In the period from 18 March to 24 June, 1922 blood donors were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG showing a prevalence of 378/1922 (19.7%). A subgroup of 1139 blood donors were tested in parallel with a SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and a microneutralization assay showing a prevalence of 22.2% and 21.6%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification was correlated with NT-Abs titres. In 78.2% of participants the NT-Abs titre was maintained, but in 15.8% it decreased by one four-fold dilution and in 6.0% it increased by one four-fold dilution. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of immunity of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the course of the pandemic and for this reason the monitoring of NT Abs is important. Despite a stable NT-Abs titre being observed in the majority of blood donors, our findings need to be validated in a long-term period of follow up.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 616106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145566

ABSTRACT

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has reached 28 million cases worldwide in 1 year. The serological detection of antibodies against the virus will play a pivotal role in complementing molecular tests to improve diagnostic accuracy, contact tracing, vaccine efficacy testing, and seroprevalence surveillance. Here, we aimed first to evaluate a lateral flow assay's ability to identify specific IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and second, to report the seroprevalence estimates of these antibodies among health care workers and healthy volunteer blood donors in Panama. We recruited study participants between April 30th and July 7th, 2020. For the test validation and performance evaluation, we analyzed serum samples from participants with clinical symptoms and confirmed positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, and a set of pre-pandemic serum samples. We used two by two table analysis to determine the test positive and negative percentage agreement as well as the Kappa agreement value with a 95% confidence interval. Then, we used the lateral flow assay to determine seroprevalence among serum samples from COVID-19 patients, potentially exposed health care workers, and healthy volunteer donors. Our results show this assay reached a positive percent agreement of 97.2% (95% CI 84.2-100.0%) for detecting both IgM and IgG. The assay showed a Kappa of 0.898 (95%CI 0.811-0.985) and 0.918 (95% CI 0.839-0.997) for IgM and IgG, respectively. The evaluation of serum samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients indicates a correlation between test sensitivity and the number of days since symptom onset; the highest positive percent agreement [87% (95% CI 67.0-96.3%)] was observed at ≥15 days post-symptom onset (PSO). We found an overall antibody seroprevalence of 11.6% (95% CI 8.5-15.8%) among both health care workers and healthy blood donors. Our findings suggest this lateral flow assay could contribute significantly to implementing seroprevalence testing in locations with active community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

6.
iScience ; 24(4): 102311, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129054

ABSTRACT

We describe a physics-based learning model for predicting the immunogenicity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from diverse pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. The model was trained and optimized on the relative immunodominance of CTL epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Its accuracy was tested against experimental data from patients with COVID-19. Our model predicts that only some SARS-CoV-2 epitopes predicted to bind to HLA molecules are immunogenic. The immunogenic CTL epitopes across all SARS-CoV-2 proteins are predicted to provide broad population coverage, but those from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein alone are unlikely to do so. Our model also predicts that several immunogenic SARS-CoV-2 CTL epitopes are identical to seasonal coronaviruses circulating in the population and such cross-reactive CD8+ T cells can indeed be detected in prepandemic blood donors, suggesting that some level of CTL immunity against COVID-19 may be present in some individuals before SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 452-457, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serologic testing provides better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and its transmission. This study was an investigation of the prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in Saudi Arabia during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Serology results and epidemiological data were analyzed for 837 adult blood donors, with no confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, in Saudi Arabia from 20th to 25th May 2020. Seroprevalence was determined using electrochemical immunoassay to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 1.4% (12/837). Non-citizens had higher seroprevalence compared with citizens (OR 13.6, p = 0.001). Secondary education was significantly associated with higher seroprevalence compared with higher education (OR 6.8, p = 0.005). The data showed that the highest seroprevalence was in Makkah (8.1%). Uisng Makkah seroprevalence as the reference, the seroprevalence in other areas was: Madinah 4.1% (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.12-1.94), Jeddah 2.3% (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.31-2.25), and Qassim 2.9 % (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.04-2.89) and these were not statistically different from seroprevalence in the Makkah region. CONCLUSIONS: At the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia, the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors was low, but was higher among non-citizens. These findings may indicate that non-citizens and less educated individuals may be less attentive to preventive measures. Monitoring seroprevalence trends over time require repeated sampling.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
10.
Transfusion ; 61(3): 862-872, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Case detection underestimates the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the first COVID-19 wave, we estimated the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among blood donors across Canada. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This serial cross-sectional study was conducted between May 9 and July 21, 2020 from blood donors donating at all Canadian Blood Services locations. We used the Abbott Architect assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies from retention plasma. Seroprevalence was standardized to population-level demographics and assay characteristics were adjusted using the Rogan-Gladen equation. Results were stratified by region, age, ethnicity, ABO groups, and quantiles of material and social deprivation indices. Temporal trends were evaluated at 2-week intervals. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression compared SARS-CoV-2 reactive to non-reactive donors by sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Overall 552/74642 donors, had detectable antibodies, adjusted seroprevalence was 7.0/1000 donors (95% CI; 6.3, 7.6). Prevalence was differential by geography, Ontario had the highest rate, 8.8/1000 donors (7.8, 9.8), compared to the Atlantic region 4.5/1000 donors (2.6, 6.4); adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.2 (1.5, 3.3). Donors that self-identified as an ethnic minority were more likely than white donors to be sero-reactive aOR 1.5 (1.2, 1.9). No temporal trends were observed. DISCUSSION: Worldwide, blood services have leveraged their operational capacity to inform public health. While >99% of Canadians did not show humoral evidence of past infection, we found regional variability and disparities by ethnicity. Seroprevalence studies will continue to play a pivotal role in evaluating public health policies by identifying trends and monitor disparities.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(4): 653-655, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032960

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT), a potential therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), requires strict quality control of the donor blood. Whether to confirm the disappearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA (RNAemia) in convalescent donor blood or not is unclear. Reports recommending the proof of viral disappearance from the blood are controversial. Foreseeing CPT in treating COVID-19 patients in Japan, we investigated RNAemia in 100 convalescent donors with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19. METHODS: Between April 30 and July 30, 2020, we measured RNAemia in the plasma samples of donors with resolved COVID-19. Data on patients' demographics, comorbidities, pneumonia, treatment, and real-time polymerase chain reaction results for SARS-CoV-2 were collected. Date of onset of initial symptoms or date of positive testing (for asymptomatic patients) were self-reported by the patients. Disease severity was defined as: no, mild, moderate oxygen demand, or severe (requiring mechanical ventilation). RESULTS: Of 100 donors (58 males [58.0%]; median age, 47 [range 22-69] years) screened as of July 30, 2020, 77 (77.0%); 19 (19.0%); and 4 (4.0%) had mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively. Median time between onset and testing was 68.5 (range, 21-167) days. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the plasma samples. CONCLUSION: RNAemia was not found in recovered COVID-19 patients at least 21, 27, and 57 days after the onset of mild, moderate, and severe symptoms. Our study may contribute to determining a suitable time for collecting convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients and to future CPT use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011456

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia have imposed timely restrictions to minimize the infection spread, lower the risk for vulnerable groups, and reduce the pressure on healthcare services. The effectiveness of these measures has not been assessed comprehensively and, thereby, remains uncertain. Besides monitoring the number of COVID-19 cases diagnosed by molecular assays, the seroprevalence can serve as an indicator for the incidence rate among the general population. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence status of all healthy blood donors who attended one of the main largest hospital located in the western region of Saudi Arabia from 1 January to 31 May 2020. The study period covered two months prior to reporting the first COVID-19 case in the country on 2 March 2020. Importantly, it covered the period when "lock-down type" measures have been enforced. Samples were subjected to in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and microneutralization (MN). The sero statuses of all samples were confirmed negative, demonstrating the lack of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among blood donors during COVID-19 lockdown period. This study supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 restrictions have potential for limiting the extent of the infection.

13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1401-1408, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers are thought to be highly exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in health-care workers and the proportion of seroconverted health-care workers with previous symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, screening was offered to health-care workers in the Capital Region of Denmark, including medical, nursing, and other students who were associated with hospitals in the region. Screening included point-of-care tests for IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Test results and participant characteristics were recorded. Results were compared with findings in blood donors in the Capital Region in the study period. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and April 23, 2020, we screened 29 295 health-care workers, of whom 28 792 (98·28%) provided their test results. We identified 1163 (4·04% [95% CI 3·82-4·27]) seropositive health-care workers. Seroprevalence was higher in health-care workers than in blood donors (142 [3·04%] of 4672; risk ratio [RR] 1·33 [95% CI 1·12-1·58]; p<0·001). Seroprevalence was higher in male health-care workers (331 [5·45%] of 6077) than in female health-care workers (832 [3·66%] of 22 715; RR 1·49 [1·31-1·68]; p<0·001). Frontline health-care workers working in hospitals had a significantly higher seroprevalence (779 [4·55%] of 16 356) than health-care workers in other settings (384 [3·29%] of 11 657; RR 1·38 [1·22-1·56]; p<0·001). Health-care workers working on dedicated COVID-19 wards (95 [7·19%] of 1321) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than other frontline health-care workers working in hospitals (696 [4·35%] of 15 983; RR 1·65 [1·34-2·03]; p<0·001). 622 [53·5%] of 1163 seropositive participants reported symptoms attributable to SARS-CoV-2. Loss of taste or smell was the symptom that was most strongly associated with seropositivity (377 [32·39%] of 1164 participants with this symptom were seropositive vs 786 [2·84%] of 27 628 without this symptom; RR 11·38 [10·22-12·68]). The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of health-care workers with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was low but higher than in blood donors. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health-care workers was related to exposure to infected patients. More than half of seropositive health-care workers reported symptoms attributable to COVID-19. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/classification , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(3): 1697-1701, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late 2019, cases of severe pneumonia with unidentified etiology began to emerge in Wuhan, China, before progressively spreading first nationally and then globally.The current study sought to investigate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among blood donors in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Saudi Arabia to screen blood donors who were not known to be previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study to assess individuals who donated blood to the central blood bank in Al-Madinah between mid-May and mid-July 2020. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed and established to detect antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in serum samples. A total of 1,212 healthy blood donors participated in this study. The donors were males and met the requirements for blood donation during the COVID-19 pandemic period in Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among blood donors in Al-Madinah was 19.31% (n = 234/1212; 95% confidence interval: 17.12%-21.64%). No statistically significant difference was identified in seropositivity according to age. However, significant differences (p < 0.001) were identified according to ABO blood groups, with those with type A blood presenting the highest rate of seropositivity (29.18%) compared with the other blood groups (12.65% for type B, 16.36% for type AB, and 15.11% for type O). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was detected among blood donors in Al-Madinah, which indicated a high level of exposure to the virus within the population. This further suggested that as high as one-fifth of the population may have acquired innate immunity against the virus.

15.
Transfusion ; 61(2): 368-374, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNAemia in blood donors is uncertain. Thus, assays for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood, validated on commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems, are required to allow a good comparability of data. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The cobas SARS-CoV-2 dual-target reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay, licensed for respiratory swab SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing, was validated for detection of viral RNA in blood. For the validation panel, SARS-CoV-2-positive plasma samples were prepared by spiking SARS-CoV-2-positive respiratory specimens in negative human plasma. The 95% limit of detection (LOD95) was determined by probit analysis. For clinical validation, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) donors and patients with COVID-19 with a severe disease course treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) were included. RESULTS: The validation of the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay for blood demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity and intra- and inter-assay precision and efficiency. The LOD95 for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 5.0 genome copies/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-12 copies/mL) for target 1 and 4.3 genome copies/mL (95% CI, 2.9-10 copies/mL) for target 2. In a cohort of 39 CCP donors with 66 CCP donations no SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma was detected. Screening of 25 blood samples of 19 ICU patients with COVID-19 showed six positive results for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in at least one target of the assay. CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 RNA assay, only licensed for respiratory swabs, performed on a PCR system for high-throughput testing, showed a good assay performance for blood testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Donors , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(42)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886128

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe progression and geographical distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the United Kingdom (UK) and elsewhere is unknown because typically only symptomatic individuals are diagnosed. We performed a serological study of blood donors in Scotland in the spring of 2020 to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as a marker of past infection and epidemic progression.AimOur objective was to determine if sera from blood bank donors can be used to track the emergence and progression of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.MethodsA pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay was used to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The study comprised samples from 3,500 blood donors collected in Scotland between 17 March and 18 May 2020. Controls were collected from 100 donors in Scotland during 2019.ResultsAll samples collected on 17 March 2020 (n = 500) were negative in the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay. Neutralising antibodies were detected in six of 500 donors from 23 to 26 March. The number of samples containing neutralising antibodies did not significantly rise after 5-6 April until the end of the study on 18 May. We found that infections were concentrated in certain postcodes, indicating that outbreaks of infection were extremely localised. In contrast, other areas remained comparatively untouched by the epidemic.ConclusionAlthough blood donors are not representative of the overall population, we demonstrated that serosurveys of blood banks can serve as a useful tool for tracking the emergence and progression of an epidemic such as the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Donors , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adult , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Geography, Medical , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Male , Models, Immunological , Neutralization Tests , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Urban Population
17.
Clin Lab ; 66(10)2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While RT-PCR assays are used routinely to diagnose active COVID-19, serological testing offers a means of identifying individuals who previously experienced asymptomatic infections, as well as those who experienced symptomatic infections but no longer carry the virus. METHODS: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive antibodies in the sera of 673 blood donors residing in south-western Germany before and 3,880 donors after the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic was determined and confirmed using two highly sensitive serological tests. RESULTS: Approximately 0.40% of the donors assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic possessed SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive antibodies, decidedly fewer than the percentage of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals determined by real-time RT-PCR nationwide. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the efficacy serological testing in identifying asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Antiviral Res ; 181: 104880, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645374

ABSTRACT

We investigated the distribution of antibodies neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 according to age, sex or blood group in French blood donors. In 464 samples collected before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (2017 and 2018), our virus neutralization assay had a 100% specificity. It was used to test 998 samples collected from blood donors during the last week of March or the first week of April 2020. As expected at this stage of the outbreak, the prevalence was low (2.7%) and, importantly, criteria for blood donation imply that the vast majority of seropositives had asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Seroprevalence values did not differ significantly among age groups (but were slightly higher in donors <30yo and ≥60yo), and between males and females (2.82% vs 2.69%), unlike what has been observed regarding hospitalizations admission to ICU and death rates in France. By contrast, we observed that the proportion of seropositives was significantly lower in group O donors (1.32% vs 3.86% in other donors, p = 0.014). We conclude that virus infection seems to occur with a similar incidence in men and women among French blood donors, but that blood group O persons are less at risk of being infected and not only of suffering from severe clinical presentations, as previously suggested.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Blood Donors , Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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